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STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables

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STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables Fred B. Newton & Eunhee Kim Kansas State University International Assessment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables


1
STUDENT SUCCESS MODELAssessment Based
Interventions ImpactingPsycho-Social Variables
Fred B. Newton Eunhee Kim Kansas State
University
International Assessment and Retention
ConferenceScottsdale, ArizonaJune 13, 2008
2
PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING STUDENT
SUCCESS OUTCOMES
Study Behaviors
Health Behaviors
Decision Process
OUTCOME Student Success
Emotional /Personal Concerns
Personal History
THE SPECTRUM OF INFLUENCE VARIABLES
3
Three Step ModelAssessment - Intervention -
Outcome
(1) Identification Use of three inventories to
comprehensively assess student needs (2)
Implication Providing interpretation and
interactive consultation (3) Improvement
Implementing change strategies and measuring
outcomes

4
PRACTICE TO IMPACT POSITIVE CHANGE
  • What?
  • Assessment Accurate and meaningful measurement
    of individual attitudes, behaviors and
    personal/emotional impact
  • So What?
  • Integration Understanding and making
    personalized and meaningful connection to the
    individual within the system context
  • Now What?
  • Application Appropriate intervention to create
    new learning strategies, better habits,
    problem-solution, and self-confidence

5
MEASUREMENT TO OUTCOME


6
STEP 1 I D E N T I F I C A T I O N
Use of three inventories to comprehensively
assess student needs
7
The Assessment Instruments
  • CLEI (College Learning Effectiveness Inventory)
  • HBA (Health Behavior Assessment)
  • K-PIRS (K-State Personal Identification Scales)
  • KCAT is the non-profit intellectual properties
    corporation of Kansas State University

8
C L E I(College Learning Effectiveness Inventory)
  • The CLEI is an inventory of six scales with 50
    questions representing a continuum of individual
    behaviors, attitudes, and dispositions related to
    academic activity.
  • The CLEI was developed over the past 10 years
    starting from over 300 generated items following
    theoretical assumptions on factors that impact
    college student learning (Russell Petrie, 1992
    Handbook of Counseling Psychology, NY Wiley).

9
C L E I(College Learning Effectiveness Inventory)
  • The purpose of the CLEI is to organize the
    self-reported student responses into thematic
    domains or categories that have been shown to
    contribute to academic success
  • To provide immediate feedback to the student
    completing the inventory by showing a pattern of
    strengths and weakness on an individualized
    profile
  • To provide information for advising and
    counseling a student, making it a tool for
    discussion of goals, selection of interventions,
    referral to relevant student services, and a
    measurement of progress and involvement in the
    change process


10
CLEI Six Scales
(1) Academic Self-Efficacy (ASE
Scale) Expressing confidence in academic
ability, awareness of effort toward study, and
expectation for success in college attainment.
(2) Organization and Attention to Study (OAS
Scale) The organization of tasks and
structuring of time to set goals, plan, and carry
out necessary academic activity. (3) Stress and
Time Press (STP Scale) Dealing with pressures
of time, environmental concerns, and the academic
demands that impact academic study.
(4) Involvement with College Activity (ICA
Scale) Belonging to organizations and
participating in activities, including formal or
informal gatherings of friends and classmates,
within the campus environment. (5) Emotional
Satisfaction (ES Scale) Degree of interest and
emotional response to academic life including
people and the campus educational
environment. (6) Class Communication (CC
Scale) Both verbal and non-verbal effort to
engage in class activity.

11
C L E I Profile
  • T-Scores are based on the mean scores from
    a normative sample of college undergraduates
    (N879)

12
H B A(Health Behaviors Assessment)
  • The HBA is a self-reporting instrument that
    measures health behaviors in the areas of
    physical activity, eating behavior, and personal
    management skill.
  • The HBA also includes a readiness measure that
    indicates student awareness and readiness to make
    personal improvements.
  • Upon completion of the inventory, the student
    receives immediate feedback on the individual
    profile via the Internet.

13
Example of Assessment
14
Assessing Baseline Health Behaviors of College
Freshmen Using the HBA
  • 70 Meeting physical activity standard
  • 40 Meeting fruit vegetable standard
  • 32 BMI overweight or obese
  • 6 Females underweight
  • 19 High consumption alcohol
  • 41 Deficient sleep
  • 32 Feel stress impact

15
K - P I R S(K-State Problem Identification
Rating Scales)
  • K-PIRS is an instrument that identifies
    college-student client concerns at the beginning
    of treatment and, when used with K-PIRS Form-B,
    assesses behavior change over time.

  • 50-item Client Concern Inventory
  • Presenting Symptoms on 7-Clinical Scales
  • Level of Interference with Academic and Social
    Function
  • 12 items Life Perspective Scales (Personal and
    Social)
  • Readiness to Change
  • Follow-up Measure of Change

16
K- P I R S Profile


7-Clinical Scales MD Mood Difficulties LP Learn
ing Problems FC Food Concerns IC Interpersonal
Conflict S-HI Self-Harm Indicators S/AI Substanc
e/ Addiction Issues
AI Academic Interference SI Social Interference
17
K - P I R SResearch Development
  • Clinical norms developed on college
    student-clients using samples from counseling
    centers of nine institutions (N4,703)
  • Data includes student readiness for change and
    also level of interference to academic and social
    functioning.
  • Follow up research demonstrates level of change
    that occurs from intake to session 3 and session
    6.
  • Special forms of the K-PIRS are being adapted to
    serve as a general measure of student
    personal/emotional concerns.


18
L P I (Life Perspective Inventory)
Developed to gain information concerning
students life perspective and personal
resilience. Factor 1 Personal Effectiveness
includes outlook, problem solving, overall
health, emotional stability, and personal
meaning. Factor 2 Social Support includes
personal and family interactions, available
resources, and opportunities. Presently, used
as an experimental inventory until validity and
normative studies completed.
19
STEP 2 I M P L I C A T I O N
Providing interpretation and interactive
consultation
Designed for self, peer mentor, and professional
consultations
20
N O W W H A T? Interventions That Follow
Assessment
  • Follow-up Measurement of Student Health Behaviors
  • Advisor Assessment of Student Learning Behaviors

21
PAC-CATS Program
Example Intervention Program
  • The purpose of the PAC-CATS grant program is to
    provide an intervention for first-year K-State
    students that raises awareness and promotes
    healthy lifestyle behaviors in the areas of
    physical activity, eating behavior, and personal
    management skill.
  • Helping students to develop these lifestyle
    behaviors can help reduce future risk of
    overweight and obesity.

22
How Fit are KSU Freshmen Students?
  • Baseline Behaviors
  • Readiness for Change
  • Educational Intervention
  • Intensive Change Intervention
  • Outcomes

23
Objectives for Freshman
  • Gain Awareness of Health Behaviors
  • Have Knowledge of Health Guidelines
  • Become Motivated to Change
  • Set Personal Goals
  • Learn Processes to Self Regulate

24
Elements of PAC-CATS Program
  • 1. Health Behaviors Assessment
  • Individual assessment and personalized feedback
    on
  • Physical Activity
  • Eating Behavior
  • Personal Management Skill
  • Pre Post-Tests Participants take the
    assessment at the beginning and at the end of the
    program

25
Elements of PAC-CATS Program
  • Behavior Change Process
  • Establish goals for increasing healthy behaviors,
    based on health assessment feedback
  • I want to jog or use the aerobics machines at the
    Rec Center 3 times a week for 30 minutes a
    session.
  • Establish action steps to reach goals
  • Block off 1 hour for exercise on Mondays,
    Tuesdays, and Thursdays of each week in weekly
    planner.
  • Arrange to meet a friend at the Rec every Monday
    at a certain time.
  • Design system to monitor behaviors and progress
    toward goals - which includes designing ways to
    reinforce your progress.

26
Elements of PAC-CATS Program
  • 3. Peer Mentors
  • Participants have their own personal mentor who
    are students with knowledge in the areas of
    physical activity, nutrition, and personal
    management skill.
  • Mentors help students set goals, design action
    steps, and monitor progress, and provide
    motivation.
  • Mentors provide support (Students Helping
    Students)

27
MENTORING
Helping Students, Help Themselves
28
Elements of PAC-CATS Program
  • Program Resources
  • The PAC-CATS Website contains information,
    self-help tips and links to helpful resources in
    the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and
    personal management skill. It is a valuable tool
    for developing the knowledge and skills that help
    students be successful in their personal
    programs.
  • Healthy Behaviors Workbookprovides a systematic
    process for the student to move from assessment,
    organize a plan, and monitor and adapt based upon
    results.

29
Health Behavior Changes Year 2005 2006
HBA Profile Variables Positive Change from Pre to Post Positive Change from Pre to Post Group Difference
HBA Profile Variables Peer Mentored (N128) Education Only (N132) Group Difference
Physical Activities General Physical Activity
Physical Activities Stretching/Flexibility
Physical Activities Strength Training
Eating Behaviors Fruits Vegetables
Eating Behaviors Whole Grains
Eating Behaviors Low-fat or Fat-free Dairy
Eating Behaviors High-fat Foods
Eating Behaviors Caffeinated Beverages
Eating Behaviors Regular Pop/Soda
Eating Behaviors Sweetened Beverages
Eating Behaviors Alcoholic Beverages
Personal Management Skill Time Management
Personal Management Skill Relaxation Techniques
Personal Management Skill Positive Thinking
Personal Management Skill Creative Problem Solving
Personal Management Skill Stress Impact
Personal Management Skill Sleep
p lt .05, p lt .01
30
What did we learn about K-State students?
  • Weight and health issues were present with a
    significant number of students.
  • Awareness building using methods of assessment
    education were steps that increased
    readiness for change.
  • Involvement in programs of change support
    produced significantly positive changes in
    health behaviors 15 of 17 areas for two
    cohort freshmen (Fall 05, Fall 06)
  • Participant reports indicated that learning to
    self-regulate (set goals and carry through)
    increased confidence and transferred to
    other behaviors applied to many areas of
    their life.

31
Example Applied to Student Advising
  • Advisor meets through individual appointment with
    student(or group seminar)
  • Assigns a set of Assessments to provide data on
    student individualized learning process (CLEI,
    HBA, K-PIRS)
  • Conducts a developmental interview (some
    structured process to review key points in
    student learning history
  • Synthesizes with the student strengths and
    weaknesses of approach to learning
  • Facilitates suggestions for improvement or change
    with student input

32
Observations Concordia College Academic
Counselors
  • My students really seem to like it. They seem
    to talk more when we have the CLEI in front of
    us.
  • This (the CLEI) is a great tool to use with
    non-verbal clients.
  • I feel like our interventions are more on target
    and the students take more ownership in their
    academic success plans.
  • The CLEI is easy to implement and the online
    scoring is great.
  • Use of the CLEI by counselors increased student
    engagements.
  •  

33
C L E I Example Profile A
  • Female, Sophomore, Majoring Business/Marketing
  • GPA 3.25 on a 4.0 Scale

34
Dx Hypotheses Brainstorming Possible
Explanations from a CLEI Profile
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

35
Possible InterventionsIdeas for Intervention
Strategies to be used based on the Dx
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

36
C L E I Example Profile B
  • Male, Sophomore, Major Undecided
  • GPA below 1.9 on a 4.0 Scale

37
Dx Hypotheses Brainstorming Possible
Explanations from a CLEI Profile
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

38
Possible InterventionsIdeas for Intervention
Strategies to be used based on the Dx
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

39
CLEI Online Follow-upExamples of possible
strategies will be included with the profile in
the future.
  • Keep track of your goals
  • Prepare an academic calendar
  • Join an activity club
  • Establish behavior change goals
  • Practice self reflection
  • Set up an appointment with your academic adviser
  • Set up an appointment with your institutions
    counseling Services office

40
STEP 3 I M P R O V E M E N T
Implementing changes strategies and measuring
outcomes
41
OUTCOME EVALUATION
  • Psycho-social Variables
  • Student Success Outcome Variables
  • Relationship of Psycho-social Variables to
    Success Outcomes

42
  • Relationship of Study Behavior with GPA

a b c
a b c
a a b
a b c
a b c
a a b
Higher GPA significantly associated with higher
scores in the six-CLEI scales (N592).
43
Relationship of Emotional/Personal Concerns with
Academic Social Functioning
N872 , Correlation Coefficients are
significant with plt.01
44
Relationship of Health Behavior with Student
Success Outcome
Alcohol Consumption
G P A
- .216
- .184
Unhealthy Eating
.147
.115
Personal Management Skill
.497
Life Satisfaction
.167
Healthy Eating
.090
- .175
Vigorous Exercise
.104
- .136
BMI
Moderate Physical Activity
Regression coefficients of health behavior
variables for each predictors (GPA, Life
Satisfaction, BMI) Significant at alpha.05
N347.
45
Demographical Factors Impacting Psycho-social
Variables
  • Gender
  • Year in College
  • Ethnicity
  • Fraternity/ Sorority Affiliation
  • Housing Type
  • Other Factors

46
Demographical Factor in Health Behaviors- Gender
-
  • Female students are doing better with eating
    behaviors, specifically in the areas of foods to
    use in moderation or sparingly (caffeinated,
    sweetened, alcoholic beverages, and regular
    pop/soda).
  • Male students do more physical activities,
    specifically in
  • strength training.
  • Male students have less stress impacts, and use
    relaxation techniques more frequently.

47
Demographical Factor in Health Behaviors-
Fraternity/Sorority members -
  • Lower BMI
  • Greater fruits vegetables consumption
  • Greater physical activity (stretching/flexibility,
    strength training)
  • Greater alcoholic beverages consumption

48
  • Demographical Factor in Study Behaviors
  • - Lower Class vs. Upper Class -




Lower class students had significantly lower
scores in Academic Self-Efficacy, Involvement
with College Activity, and Class Communication of
the six-CLEI Scales
49
  • Demographical Factor in Emotional/Personal
    Concerns
  • - Majority vs. Minority -







Minority clients Higher levels in Mood
Difficulties, Learning Problems, Interpersonal
Conflicts, Career Uncertainties, Self-harm
Indicators, Academic interference
50
D I S C U S S I O N
  • Future Research
  • Utilizing a complete battery of the three K-CAT
    inventories to measure a broad picture of college
    students health behavior, mental health,
    learning attitudes and behaviors providing a
    comprehensive view of psycho-social variables
    that may impact their overall functioning in
    college.
  • Additional Tools
  • Life Perspective Inventory
  • Career Deciding
  • Stress Resilience Inventory
  • Problem Identification Students in General

51
MEASUREMENT TO OUTCOME


Improvement(Outcome)
52
Future Directions? Questions or Comments?
End of Slide Show
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