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Writing a Research Proposal

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Title: Writing a Research Proposal


1
Writing a Research Proposal
  • By
  • Dr. Pearl Wattanakul
  • Department of Teaching English to Speakers
  • of Other Languages
  • Payap University
  • Workshop on Research Writing in ESL/EFL at Room
    1203,
  • Yonok University

2
  • What is research?
  • Research is the systematic approach to
    obtaining and confirming new and reliable
    knowledge

3
The Process of Research
  • The process is initiated with question or problem
  • The next step is to formulate goals or objectives
    to deal with the problem
  • The third step in the process is research design
  • The fourth step that is generating research
    results
  • Add, the last step is interpret results and draw
    conclusions

4
Research Proposal Structure
  • Title
  • Type of Research
  • Research field
  • Researcher
  • Rationale/Significance or Statement of the
    problem
  • Research Question / Hypothesis
  • Purposes / Objectives of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope and Limitations
  • Definitions of Term

5
Research Proposal Structure (cont.)
  • Literature Review
  • Research Methodology
  • a) Research Design and Plan
  • b) Population and Samples
  • c) Instruments
  • d) Data collection/ Procedure
  • e) Data Analysis
  • Schedule /Time line
  • References

6
Classification of Research by Purpose
  • Basic research It is conducted for the purpose
    of theory development and refinement.
  • 2) Applied research It is conducted for the
    purpose of applying, or testing, theory and
    evaluating its usefulness in solving problems.

7
  • 3) Evaluation research It aims at facilitating
    decision making regarding the relative worth of
    two or more alternative actions.
  • Evaluation involves questions such as the
    following
  • Is this program worth what it cost?
  • Is the new experimental reading curriculum better
    than the former curriculum?

8
  • 4) Research and Development (RD) It aims at
    developing effective products to meet specific
    needs such as teacher training materials, or
    management system.
  • 5) Action research aims at solving problems
    through the application of scientific method.

9
Classification of Research by Method
  • Historical Research It is conducted to study,
    understanding, and explaining past events in
    order to arrive at conclusion concerning causes,
    effects or trend of past occurrences that may
    help to explain present events and anticipate
    future events.
  • Exp Participation of Women in Higher Education
    in 1900-2009

10
  • 2) Descriptive research It is conducted to test
    hypothesis or answer questions concerning the
    current status of the subject of the study.
  • Exp A survey of teachers to determine how and to
    what degree they believe anxiety affects
    achievement.

11
  • 3) Correlational research It attempts to
    determine whether, and to what degree, a
    relationship exists between two or more
    quantifiable variables. It aims at establishing a
    relationship (or lack of it) or to use
    relationships in making predictions.
  • Exp A study to determine the relationship
    between scores on an anxiety scale and scores on
    an achievement measure.

12
  • 4) Causal-Comparative research It is conducted
    to examine the difference, or effect which is
    determined to occur or not occur. The cause is
    not manipulated it has already occurred. The
    cause-effect relationships are at best tenuous
    and tentative.
  • Exp A study to compare the achievement of group
    of students classified as high-anxious and a
    group classified as low-anxious.

13
  • 5) Experimental research It truly establishes
    cause-effect relationships. The researcher
    manipulates at least one independent variable and
    observes the effect on one or more dependent
    variables.
  • Exp A study to compare the achievement of
  • two groups- one group taught in an anxiety
  • producing environment and one group taught
  • in an anxiety-reducing environment

14
Steps in Conducting Research
  • Research Problem
  • 1) Selection of a problem
  • What is to be researched?
  • Why does this research need to be
    conducted?
  • a) Identify a general problem area that is
    related to your area of expertise and of
    particular interest of you.
  • b) Read different research studies and
    focus your research very specifically.
  • b) Narrow down the general problem area to
    a specific, researchable problem.
  • c) Get the most meaningful problem derived
    from theory.

15
  • 2)Characteristics of a good research problem
  • a) It is researchable.
  • b) It has theoretical or practical
  • significance.
  • c) It is a well-written statement which
    indicates the variables of interest to the
    researcher and the specific relationship between
    those variables which is to be investigated.

16
  • 3) Include a title on your proposal
  • a) Have the most important words appear
  • toward the beginning of your title
  • b) Limit the use of ambiguous or
  • confusing words.
  • c) Breaking your title up into a title and
  • subtitle when you have too many
  • words.
  • d) Include key words that will help you in
    the
  • future find your work.

17
  • Example The purpose of the study is to
    investigate the effect of positive reinforcement
    on the quality of English composition.
  • The variables 1) positive reinforcement
  • 2) good quality of
    English
  • composition
  • The purpose is to see if positive
    reinforcement (the cause) influence the quality
    of composition (the effect)

18
  • Introduction
  • a) Statement of the problem should be
    accompanied by a presentation of background of
    the problem (information required for an
    understanding of the problem) including a
    justification for the study ( in term of its
    contribution to theory or practice).

19
  • Exp The introduction might begin with a problem
    statement.
  • The purpose of the study is to compare the
    effectiveness of teacher assistants and parent
    volunteers with respect to the reading
    achievement of Prthom 1 students followed by a
    discussion concerning (1) the role of teacher
    assistants, (2) increased utilization of teacher
    assistants by schools, (3) the expenses involved,
    and (4) the search for alternatives, such as
    parent volunteers. The significance of the
    problem would be that if parent volunteers are
    equally effective, their use can be substituted
    for teacher assistants.

20
  • Objectives of the research study
  • 1. Link to the primary and secondary
  • research problem
  • 2. Clearly identify, briefly define and
    delimit
  • the specific area, central ideas and
    concepts
  • of the study.

21
  • Review of the Literature
  • What has been researched on this topic before?
  • It involves the systematic identification,
    location, and analysis of documents containing
    information related to the research problem.
  • a) Theoretical paradigm
  • b) Research constructs
  • c) Relationship between the variables
  • In proposal , the literature review is brief and
    to the point.

22
  • Research questions/Hypotheses
  • A research question poses a relationship
    between two or more variables but phrases the
    relationship as a question a hypothesis
    represents a declarative statement of the
    relations between two or more variables.
    (Kerlinger,1979 Krathwohl, 1988)

23
  • Exp
  • Research question
  • Is there a relationship between students
    self-efficacy and their success in learning L2?
  • Hypothesis
  • There is no relationship between students
    self-efficacy and their success in learning L2.

24
  • Research design
  • Research Design is a plan for collecting
    utilizing data so that desired information can be
    obtained with sufficient precision or so that an
    hypothesis be tested properly

25
Population
  • A population refer to all members of any
    well-defined class of people, event, or object
    who, for research purposes, are designated as
    being the focus of an investigation.
  • Specify who or what is your population.
  • If there are different components of population,
    clearly indicate it.

26
Sample
  • Those individuals or event that are selected
    from the population to serve as the subject are
    known as the sample for a study.

27
Sampling Design
  • Process of selecting a number of units for a
    study in such a way that the units represent the
    larger group from which they are selected.
  • Identify what type of sampling you use, which
    sampling technique you employ in the study,
  • why you apply it to your study, and how the
    sample is selected.
  • Indicate the size of the sample .

28
Sampling and representativeness
Sampling Population
Sample
Target Population
Target Population ? Sampling Population ? Sample
29
Types of Sampling
  • 1) Probability Sampling
  • The sample is a proportion (a certain percent) of
    the population and such sample is selected from
    the population by means of some systematic way in
    which every element of the population has a
    chance of being included in the sample?
  • 2) Non- Probability Sampling
  • The sample is not a proportion (a certain
    percent) of the population and there is no
    systematic in selecting the sample. The selection
    depends upon the situation.

30
Types of Probability Sampling
  1. Simple random sampling
  2. Systematic sampling
  3. Stratified sampling
  4. Cluster sampling

31
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
  • 1) Accidental sampling/ Convenience sampling
  • 2) Purposive sampling
  • a) Quota sampling
  • b) Judgment sampling

32
Instruments
  • Treatment
  • Data collection instrument
  • Identify the instruments you propose to use.
  • If instruments have previously been used,
    indicate the previous studies to show reliability
    and validity of the instruments.
  • Identify how to make the instruments valid and
    reliable for collecting data.

33
Data Collection
  • Outline the general plan for collecting data.
  • Clearly state whether you are going to use
    primary or secondary data.

34
Data Analysis
  • Specify the procedures you will use and label
    them accurately.
  • a) Preanalysis procedure scoring procedures,
    tabulation and coding procedures, nominal scales,
    ordinal scales, interval scales, ratio scales.
  • b) Descriptive statistics graphing data,
    mode, median, mean, standard deviation, etc.
  • c) Inferential statistics standard error, the
    null hypothesis, test of significance (t-test,
    ANOVA),etc.
  • d) content analysis, triangulation

35
Time line
J F M A M J J A S O N D
1.Research from different sources x
2. Select a problem x
3. Research Design x
4. Research proposal x
5. Construct instruments x x
6. Improve instrument x
7. Collect data x
8. Analyze data x
9. Write research report x x
36
References
  • APA Style
  • MLA style

37
  • Thank you
  • for
  • your attention.
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