Hydrologic Modeling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Hydrologic Modeling PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 50485b-ZDRmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Hydrologic Modeling

Description:

Hydrologic Modeling Environmental Hydrology As scientists we are intrigued by the possibility of assembling our knowledge into a neat package to show that we do ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:78
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 23
Provided by: BreckB7
Learn more at: http://www.uvm.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Hydrologic Modeling


1
Hydrologic Modeling
  • Environmental Hydrology

2
  • As scientists we are intrigued by the possibility
    of assembling our knowledge into a neat package
    to show that we do, after all, understand our
    science and its complex interrelated phenomena.
  • W. M. Kohler, 1969

3
Why model?
  • To estimate conditions where measurements are not
    available or possible.
  • To test system understanding.
  • To facilitate design.

4
The Modeling Process
The Perceptual Model - deciding on the processes
Revise perceptions
The Conceptual Model - deciding on the equations
Revise equations
The Procedural Model - getting the code to run
on a computer
Debug Code
Revise parameter values
Model Calibration - getting values of parameters
Model Validation - good idea but difficult in
practice
Declare success?
no
yes
from Beven, 2001. Rainfall-runoff modelling, The
Primer.
5
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Mulvaney (1851) Rational Method
  • Qp c i A

6
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Mulvaney (1851) Rational Method
  • Ross (1921) Time-Area method

7
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Mulvaney (1851) Rational Method
  • Ross (1921) Time-Area method
  • Sherman (1932) Unit Hydrograph

8
Principle of superposition of unit hydrographs
Source http//hydram.epfl.ch/VICAIRE/mod_1b/chapt
_4/text.htm
9
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Mulvaney (1851) Rational Method
  • Ross (1921) Time-Area method
  • Sherman (1932) Unit Hydrograph
  • Mockus (1949) SCS Curve Number
  • and McCuen (1982)

10
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Crawford Linsley (1966) Stanford Watershed
    Model
  • . Later evolved into Hydrologic Simulation
    Program (HSP-F)

The first in a series of explicit soil moisture
accounting models (ESMA)
11
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Freeze and Harlan (1969) Blueprint for a
    physically-based, digitally simulated hydrologic
    response model. Journal of Hydrology 9
    237-258.

Freeze and Harlan, 1969
12
Development of Hydrologic Models
  • Metcalf and Eddy, 1971 Storm Water Management
    Model (SWMM)
  • Beven and Kirkby, 1979 - Topmodel
  • Leavesley et al., 1983 Precipitation Runoff
    Modeling System (PRMS)
  • Abbott et al., 1986 Systeme Hydrologique
    Europeen (SHE)
  • For much more complete lists, see
  • Singh and Woolhiser, 2002. Mathematical Modeling
    of Watershed Hydrology. Journal of Hydrologic
    Engineering, 7(4) 270-291, doi 10.1061/ASCE
    1084-0699.
  • Kampf and Burgess, 2007. A framework for
    classifying and comparing distributed hillslope
    and catchment hydrologic models. Water Resources
    Research, 43, W05423, doi 10.1029/2006WR005370.

13
The structure of rainfall-runoff models
Mprecip
MET
Mveg
Mstr
?Mstor
Msoil
Mseep
see lectures 15 and 16
14
The structure of rainfall-runoff models
Mprecip
MET
Mveg
Mstr
?Mstor
Msoil
Mseep
15
The structure of rainfall-runoff models
Mprecip
MET
Model variables change with time
Mveg
Mstr
Ks, n, zo, LAI
?Mstor
Model parameters describe system characteristics
Msoil
Mseep
16
A topology of models
  • Empirical model structure is based on
    observations
  • Conceptual model structure is based on physics
    of system

see Clark, 1973. A review of some mathematical
models used in hydrology, with observations on
their calibration and use. Journal of Hydrology,
19 1-20.
17
A topology of models
  • Stochastic model variables display random
    variation
  • Deterministic model variables regarded as free
    from random variation

see Clark, 1973. Journal of Hydrology, 19 1-20.
18
A topology of models
  • Lumped no accounting for spatial variation in
    input parameters or variables
  • Distributed incorporate spatial variability in
    input parameters or variables

see Clark, 1973. Journal of Hydrology, 19 1-20.
19
Representing the model domain
in distributed hydrologic models
from Kampf and Burgess, 2007
20
Representing physical conditions
Mprecip
MET
Mstr
Mseep
in conceptual (physically-based) hydrologic
models
21
Integrating geospatial technologies
source The Modular Modeling System (MMS) G.
Leavesley, U.S.G.S.
22
Additional Resources
  • V. P. Singh, 1995. Computer Models of Watershed
    Hydrology. Water Resources Publications,
    Highlands Ranch, CO.
  • K. Beven, 2001. Rainfall-Runoff Modelling, The
    Primer. John Wiley Sons, New York.
About PowerShow.com