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Introduction to Environmental Science


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Title: Introduction to Environmental Science

Introduction to Environmental Science
  • First semester in 2008 and 2009

  • Unit 1 Environment and environmental problems
  • Unit 2 The theoretical basis of environmental
  • Unit 3 Techniques and methods of environmental
  • Unit 4 Environmental management and practice

Thinking and discussion of the questions
  • Public problems why did you choose environmental
    science and engineering? Whats your development
    blueprint of the professional? How to achieve
    this goal?
  • Discuss the questions in group
  • How do you know environment, environmental
    science ?
  • What's the major environmental problems at
    present in your opinion? What is your most
    concern? Knowledge degree ?
  • Brief introduce the environmental technical
    means your current understanding, whats the
    advantages and disadvantages of these
    technologies and methods ?
  • Which type of environmental filed do you want to
    engage in your future work? What kind of work?
    Brief introduce the reason and work target.
  • Whats institution you know at present both at
    home and abroad? What is the hot work of these
    institutions engaged in? How are things making
    out? Whats the meaning?
  • What do you want to obtain through the course of
    introduction to environmental science ?

Chapter 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Environment and environmental types
  • 1.2 The environmental science and its
  • 1.3 Ideas and methodology of environmental
  • 1.4 Learning target and requirements

1.1 Environment and environmental types
Environment ???
1.1 .1 The concept of environment
  • The concept of environment
  • The term "environment" firstly used by German
    scholar E. Haeckel in "ordinary biological
    morphology" published in 1866.
  • Environment in ecology is the space surrounding a
    particular organism or biological population,
    together with all the things directly or
    indirectly affecting the survival of the organism
    or biological population. "Environment" is the
    combination of physical environment and
    biological environment. 
  • The environment researched in Environmental
    Science is the external world where human beings
    are the mainstay, the complex of material
    condition supporting human survival and
    development, including the natural environment
    and artificial environment (Liu Peitong, 1984).

  • The relationship between man and environment

  • The "Environmental Protection Law in the Peoples
    Republic of China" promulgated in December 1989
    definitely states that, " the environment is all
    of the inartificial and artificial natural
    factors affecting human survival and development,
    including air, water , ocean, land, minerals,
    forests, grasslands, wildlife, natural and human
    remains, nature reserves, scenic spots, urban and
    rural areas. " 
  • Environment is the complex of nature, social,
    culture and economy other than human being.

1.1.2 Environmental types
Examples of natural environment
Bayinbuluke , 2007.8
Examples of artificial environment
From Newhaven to Boston
1.1.3 The characteristics of environment
  • (1) Diversity of enviroment

Examples of diversity of natural enviroment
Examples of diversity of natural enviroment
  • The immanent cause of diversity of natural

Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table Element periodic table
H Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey Tim Helvey He
Li Be Solids Solids Solids Solids Solids Man Made Elements Man Made Elements Man Made Elements Man Made Elements Man Made Elements B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Gases Gases Gases Gases Gases Liquids Liquids Liquids Liquids Liquids Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Unq Unp Unh Uns Uno Une Uun Uuu Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Assumption How many types of substance can be
  • (1) Diversity of enviroment
  • ? Diversity of natural enviroment
  • (1)Diversity of natural substance(element
    periodic table)
  • (2)Biodiversity(species diversity, genetic
    diversity and ecosystem diversity )
  • (3)Diversity of environmental formation
  • (4)Diversity of environmental process
  • (5)Diversity of environmental function

  • ? Diversity of human demand(diversity of
    artificial environment)
  • (1)Diversity of material needs
  • (2)Diversity of spiritual needs

Examples of diversity of artificial enviroment
Great Wall
(No Transcript)
  • ? Diversity of the interaction between human and
  • (1)Diversity of function interface
  • (2)Diversity of action mode

Examples of the relationship between human and
environmental effects
Streets in the city
seaboard city
(2) The integrity of environment
The integrity of environment
  • Interrelation and mutual restraint among the
    various factors of the environment
  • Mutual impact and dependence between local
    environment and overall environment
  • The cycle and transformation of matter and energy
  • Cross-border (provincial, regional, national)
    environment impact
  • Comprehensive and complexity of environmental

(3) The regional of environment
The regional environment is the temporal and
spatial distribution difference of environmental
factors, which shows as follows
  • The diversity of the global environment, focusing
    on space, such as zonality of water and land.
  • Variability of the local small environment,
    focusing on time, such as season 
  • The complexity of environmental factors between
    local and overall environment,such as the
    transmission of pollutants spread through special
    transmission route.

(4) Relative stability of environment
  • Meaning logistics, energy flow and information
    flow in environment are constantly changing, the
    environment itself has a certain
    anti-interference ability of self-regulation, in
    a certain range of disturbance intensity,
    structure and function of the environment remain
    basically unchanged. 
  • Human system is an open system, human activities
    will affect the environment.

The changing process of environmental situation
in the pressure
(5) Hysteresis of environmental change
  • Meaning the changes of the environment will be
    later than the outside interference after the
    effect of the environment by external. For
    example the formation of ozone hole.

Satellite photos show the ozone hole over
Antarctica abnormally increase in August
  • Objectively
  • There are gradual and abrupt changes in the
    change of environment.
  • The performance of gradual change
  • (1) potential, delayed reaction (2) It is
    difficult to predict the scope and extent of
    environmental change (3) the scientific
    definition of the threshold (4) Scientific
    quantitative determination of environmental
    recovery capability (5) the indicators of
    environment that can be monitored are not
  • Mutation is the accumulation result of
    gradual changes
  • ?Subjectively
  • Limited level of development of environmental
    monitoring technology
  • Limited ability to predict environmental change

(6) The vulnerability of environment
  • Meaning Environment will be destroyed when the
    interference intensity exceeds its threshold.

Baotou Iron Ore Processing Plant,2007
  • Environmental Bearing Capacity is the support
    capacity to development by environmental system.
  • Means "during a certain period, under certain
    environmental circumstances, the threshold of
    support capacity to human society economic
    activity by a regional environment.
  • Substantial the threshold of human activities
    which the human - environment system can
    withstand under the premise of the maintenance of
    harmony between human and the environment

The vulnerability of environment
  • Incentive the human "population explosion"
    pressure, the rapid growth of demand
  • Performance Environmental problem
  • The limited of Earth's resources, resources
  • The limited of Earth's environmental bearing
    capacity, environment crisis
  • Tasks The human development model of the Earth
    damage to the environment, ungently need to be

1.2 The environmental science and its
development1.2.1 Development history
  • Although in the ancient simple environmental
    scientific thought has been produced,As an
    independent discipline
  • Environmental science was born in the 1960s. The
    symbol is the Silent Springwritten by Rachel
    Carson in 1962 and the Scientific Committee of
    environmental problems established by the
    International Union of Science in 1968. 
  • Environmental science has been developing rapidly
    during 1970s to 1980s.The symbol is the United
    Nations Conference on Human Environment in 1972
    and the concept of "sustainable development"
    propounded by Our Common Futurein 1987. 
  • The discipline system became mature in 1990s. The
    symbol is  Rio Declaration on Environment and
    Developmentpropounded by the United Nations
    Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
    in 1992 and Agenda 21. 
  • Environmental science discipline has been more
    comprehensive in the breadth and depth of the
    expansion in 21 century.

  • The development of Chinese Environmental Science
    (seeWe Need Revolutionby Qu Geping , Jilin
    People's Publishing Press, 1997) 
  • During 1960s to1970s - the age of fearlessness
    led by ignorance .
  • 1980s - the age of opening. Department of
    environmental science or research institute began
    to be set up in universities and research
  • 1990's the age of development. The first-class
    discipline of Environmental Science and
    Engineering established by the State and Ministry
    of Education in 1998. Sustainable development had
    been one of the basic national policy. 
  • 21 century the age of rapid development, wide
    range of applications and close relation of
    environmental science and the modern and future
    life of human being.

1.2.2 The study object of environmental science
  • What Environmental Science research is the Earth
    environment human being live,
  • other living and non-biological material on the
    Earth is considered as environmental
  • factors, which closely been related with human
    being. (Qian Yi, Tang Xiaoyan, 2000) 

study scope of environmental science
  • Environmental science is the science of
    coordinating the relationship between
  • human being and the environment correctly,
    searching the approach and mathods
  • of sustainable development of human society,
    during studying and guiding human
  • being understanding, using and transforming
    nature.(Sheng Lianxi, etc., 2002)
  • Environmental science is the science to solve
    environmental problems faced by
  • human, to create more suitable and better
    environment. (Zuo Yuhui, 2002)
  • Environmental Science is the systematic study of
    the natural and man-
  • made world. It is now a major discipline,
    reflecting our growing concern
  • about the impact of human activity on the natural
    world.(ARW Jackson
  • JM Jackson,2000)

Environmental science------
  • Object of study the paradox of "human -
    environment" as the research object, to study the
    unity of opposites of human and environmental.
  • Objective of study Discuss the impact on the
    environment by the sustainable development of
    human society, and the changing regularity of
    environmental quality, thereby to adjust the
    behavior of human beings to protect and improve
    the environment for social, economic and
    environmental scientific basis for sustainable
  • In short coordinating the relationship
    between humans and the environment 

1.2.3 The task of environmental science
  • (1)Explore the evolution of global environmental
  • (2)Reveal the relationship between the human
    activities (production,
  • living) and the natural environment. 
  • (3)Explore the climate change impact on human
    survival and human
  • activities impact on the natural environment . 
  • What current environmental science urgently
    research is focus on the areas of belows
  • Discuss the impact on the environment by the
    sustainable development of human society, and the
    changing regularity of environmental quality. 
  • Reveal the relationship between the human
    activities and the natural environment. Explore
    the climate change impact on human survival and
    the global environmental safety.
  • Help people to establish a correct concept of
    social development, research and explore the
    environmental pollution control technologies and
    management tools to solve environmental problems
    in different spatial scales.

1.2.4 Subdiscipline of environmental science
According to the basic disciplines, study the
basic theory of environmental problems
blending with environmental science and social
combining theory with practice
1.3 Ideas and methods of environmental science
  • 1. Integrity
  • Environmental science is characterized by
    emphasis on the integrity of the object, human
    and environmental systems to be seen as the
    organic integrity with specific structure and
    function .
  • The nature and function of integrated environment
    is much more abundant and complex than the
    factors of environment. Collective effect
    generated by interrelation and interactions of
    environmental factors consititue the integrated
  • Various changes in the environment are not
    isolated, but comprehensive reflection of various
    factors.  There are close relation of
    interrelation and interrestriction of
    environmental factors .

  • 2. Systematicness
  • Environment is a complex dynamic systems and open
    systems with the changes of time,space,quantity
    and order.
  • In environmental systems, there is interaction
    between various subsystems and various
    components, and constitute a certain network
    structure. There is material, energy and
    information changes and exchange inside and
    outside of the environmental systems. Achieve
    self-organization during the exchange
    circulation, to maintain a certain function.

The structural drawing of environmental science
optimization system
  • 3. Comprehensive
  • Because of the diversity and relevance of the
    studying object, environmental science become
    more comprehensive. 
  • Environmental factors involved in natural factors
    and social factors, to solve environmental
    problems need to do more research on
    comprehensive subjects
  • 4. Complexity 
  • Human environment system is a multi-level
    large-scale systems. The interreactions among
    subsystems are very complex.The subsystem effect
    on the integrated environment is also very
  • The interreactions between human being and
    environment are very complex.

1.4 Learning target and requirements
  • 1.4.1 Learning target
  • Through the "Environmental Sciences" learning to
    learn and master the process of environmental
    science development and environmental thinking
    evolution the main content and subdiscipline of
    environmental science research the
    characteristics and tasks of modern environmental
    science the development trend, discipline
    frontier and environmental hot spots problems of
    modern environmental science the basic theory
    and methods of modern environmental science. 
  • Cultivate students environment-friendly values
    ??and ethics through the learning environmental
    science research and thinking skills establish
    the concept of local and global environment
    establish environmental standard of behavior of
    doing from me and from now in daily life.
  • Provide the necessary reference information and
    technical support for choosing the professional
    curriculum and determining elective professional
    emphasis next step.

  • Cultivate the scientific thinking mode

Basic mode of scientific research
Cultivate the scientific research capacity
  • Observing ability
  • Analysis ability
  • Ability to found the problem
  • Problem solving ability
  • Innovation ability
  • Organizational coordination ability
  • Cooperation ability
  • Leadership

1.4.2 Learning requirements
  • Curriculum notice (16 x 3 hours, type lecturing,
    discussion, debate
  • Case analysis and SEMINAR
  • Learning requirements thinking actively, study
    hard, attend actively (including learning
    preparation (notes, bibliography, related
    resources), learning group
  • I hear, and I forget
  • I see, and I remember
  • I do, and I understand.
  • Evaluation usually, 20 (homework, special
    subject speech, discussion, etc.) Exam, 80
    (midterm, 30, final, 50)

  • Cai Xiaoming. Ecosystem ecology. Beijing science
    press, 2000
  • Main edite by Qian yi and Tang Xiaoyan.
    Environmental protection and sustainable
    development. Beijing higher education press,
  • Cheng Lianxi etc. Science introduction of modern
    environment. Beijing chemical industry press,
  • Editor Chen Yingxu. environmentology. China
    environmental science press, 2000
  • EditorLiu Jingling. Environmental education
    series. (1-5 sub-volume.) chemical industry
    press, 2000
  • Enger E D,Smith B F. Environmental ScienceA
    Study of Interrelationships. USAMcGraw-Hill

  • The concept and types of environment
  • The characteristics of environment diversity,
    integrity, regional, relative stability, change
    hysteresis , vulnerability
  • Research object the unity of opposites relations
    between human and environment
  • Research aim coordinate the relationship between
    human and environment
  • Methodologist overall, system, comprehensive,

Thank you