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The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation

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The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation Nobody Expects the Spanish Inquisition! NOBODY expects the Spanish Inquisition! Our chief weapon is surprise...surprise ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation


1
The Northern Renaissance and the Reformation
2
Northern Europe after the Middle Ages
  • No sudden break with the past
  • But change was occurring
  • Religion
  • Christian Humanism vs. Civic Humanism
  • Artistic innovation
  • Literature
  • Use of the vernacular
  • Nation States vs. City States
  • Emergence of strong monarchies

3
Religion in the North
  • Christian Humanism
  • Scholarly study of Hebrew and Greek biblical
    texts to deepen understanding
  • Restore vitality to a decaying theology
  • No attempt (at first) to change the Church
  • Universities focused on theology as the
    foundation of knowledge

4
Mysticism
  • Many believed that an individual had the right to
    commune directly with God. They wanted a more
    personal connection.
  • No need for sacraments or leadership
  • Salvation is still important belief
  • Nicholas of Cusa
  • Meister Eckhart
  • Thomas a Kempis

5
Nicholas of Cusa
  • 1401-1464
  • German Cardinal
  • The human mind can know God
  • Platonic philosophy Christian theology
    (neo-Platonist)

6
Meister Eckhart
  • German
  • 1260-1348
  • Neo-Platonist
  • Vernacular
  • During Avignon Papacy
  • Preached detachment
  • Man should be empty of self and things he
    should see the simple good that God is.

7
Thomas a Kempis
  • German monk
  • 1380-1471
  • Like all mystics, preached you do not need to be
    learned to know God
  • "If, however, you seek Jesus in all things, you
    will surely find Him. "
  • "At the Day of Judgment we shall not be asked
    what we have read but what we have done."

8
Rebellion against the Church
  • Papal abuses
  • More emphasis moral education
  • Basic Education
  • Modern Devotion humility, tolerance,
    reverence, neighborly love, duty
  • Church must change, adapt to modern times
  • Strong monarchs resent the political power of the
    Church

9
German States Lead the Northern Renaissance
  • Strong trade networks
  • Wealthy families (Fuggers)
  • New Industries
  • Mining
  • Printing Guttenberg,1450
  • Art
  • Science and Philosophy
  • Early contributions

10
Art of the Northern Renaissance
  • Less concerned with mathematical precision
  • Color
  • Detail
  • Oil paintings
  • Province of Flanders (Burgundy) the Florence of
    the North
  • Guild System
  • Wealthy, powerful patrons

11
Jan van Eyck
  • 1385-1441
  • Dutch

12
The Arnolfini Marriage
13
Annunciation
  • Mary and the angel Gabriel
  • The study of theology as a noble pursuit
  • Mary is modeled after the Duchess of Burgundy
    (van Eycks patroness)

14
Albrecht Durer
  • 1471-1528
  • Nuremburg

15
Mourning on Christs Death
16
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
17
Hans Holbein
  • 1497-1543
  • Bavarian
  • Expert at painting the true person

18
Ambassadors
19
Henry VIII
20
Hieronymous Bosch
  • 1450-1516
  • Dutch
  • Master of Allegory
  • Sin, immorality
  • Surreal images

21
Garden of Earthly Delights
22
Temptation of St. Anthony
23
Pieter Brueghel
  • 1525-1569
  • Dutch
  • Expert at detail
  • Painted the sins of the common man

24
Netherlandish Proverbs
25
Peasants Wedding
26
Peasant Dance
27
Literature
  • Erasmus (1466-1536)
  • Feared rebellion by the common man
  • Education and morality
  • Reform of the clergy
  • Strong Biblical education
  • Handbook of a Christian Knight
  • Virtues Action, devotion, reason, tolerance,
    restraint, education love of peace

28
Michel de Montaigne
  • 1533-1592
  • French
  • Conservative Catholic
  • What do I know? collection of essays
  • Uses personal judgment to weigh political or
    religious conflict

29
Francois Rabelais
  • 1494-1533
  • low-brow topics
  • Vernacular (French)
  • Introduced new words into French
  • Gargantua and Pantagruel
  • Role of free will and pleasure in society

30
Miguel de Cervantes
  • 1547-1616
  • Don Quixote
  • Spanish (vernacular)
  • Mocks the Code of Chivalry, government
  • Quixotic

31
England and Shakespeare
  • Helped glorify antiquity and the modern idea of
    strong monarchs
  • Fostered English patriotism
  • Helped Elizabeth I cement her authority with
    stories of English history
  • 100 Years War
  • War of the Roses

32
New Monarchs
  • Created modern nation states
  • Guaranteed law and order.
  • Hereditary Monarchy is most stable
  • Supported growth of middle class
  • Used well organized tax systems for better
    equipped and well paid armies
  • Revival of Roman Law, removal of common (feudal)
    law
  • What pleases the prince has the force of law

33
The Reformation
34
  • The pope is lower than God but higher than man.
  • He judges all, but is judged by no one.
  • -- Pope Innocent III
  • (1161-1216)

35
  • "A Christian man is the most free lord of all and
    subject to none.
  • (1520, Martin Luther)

36
Causes of the Reformation
37
Cause 1 Corruption of the Church
  • Sale of Church offices (simony paying for a
    church office)
  • Nepotism (favoring relatives over their
    relationship to you, instead of their abilities)
  • Decline of morality amongst the Popes
  • Sale of indulgences ( buying forgiveness)

38
Indulgences
  • Early Punishment recitation of prayer, physical
    discomfort
  • At the time of Crusades (1200s) the church began
    to allow payment for repentance
  • Largest source of church revenue by 1500s
  • So soon the coin in the coffer rings, so soon
    the soul to Heaven springs

39
What is an Indulgence?
  • A sinner failing to do penance in this life may
    be punished in another world (purgatory)
  • After the sacrament of Penance, sin is forgiven
    and the threat of eternal punishment no longer
    exists
  • However, temporal punishment still must occur.
  • Temporal punishment must occur in this life or in
    purgatory
  • An indulgence offers the sinner the chance to
    complete this debt owed to God while still on
    earth
  • An indulgence is a task or money paid that could
    erase the debt

40
What an Indulgence is NOT
  • Church Doctrine said that an indulgence is not
  • permission to commit sin
  • forgiveness of future sin
  • a way to release the soul of another from
    Purgatory

41
Cause 2 Impact of Humanism
  • Humanism glorifies mans duty to serve mankind
    above his duty to serve the Church.
  • But for the Church, salvation depends on an
    obligation to the Church and the desire to attain
    salvation through the Church.

42
Cause 3 Declining Prestige of the Papacy
  • Babylonian Captivity 14th Century
  • 14th Century
  • Popes move to Avignon, become captives of the
    French kings
  • Christendom sees Popes as puppets of the French
  • Great Schism -- 1378 (lasted 40 years)
  • Two Popes elected (Rome and Avignon)
  • Moral decline
  • Papal involvement in secular politics
  • Creates confusion and resentment

43
Cause 4 Religious reformers
  • Stressed personal communion with God
  • Less emphasis on the sacraments
  • Seven Sacraments
  • Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance,
    Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony
  • Weakened the influence of the clergy by casting
    doubt

Extreme Unction or annointing of the sick one
of the seven sacraments
44
Cause 5 Secular rulers resented the power of the
Popes and clergy
  • New Monarchs resisted papal control national
    churches
  • Resented papal interference in politics
  • Monarchs resented the vast amount of land held by
    the Church within national boundaries

45
Cause 6 Invention of the Printing Press
  • Dissenters can spread their ideas throughout
    Europe
  • The Bible becomes available to the common person

46
Other Causes
  • Wealth made the merchant class grow bold in their
    challenges to church law. Usury is an example.
  • Usury very high rates of interest on loans
  • The Bible forbids it
  • The merchant class relied on interest payments as
    a form of profit. They needed to banish the
    guilt associated with this practice.
  • German and English nobility disliked and had
    always been suspicious of Italian domination of
    the Church.

47
People and Events
48
John Wycliffe
  • English (1320-1384)
  • Remove corrupt church officials clergy are
    servants, not princes of the church.
  • Bible is the sole authority of truth
  • Translated the Bible into English
  • Preached to those ignored by the church the
    poor, the sick, the elderly
  • Natural death, but as a heretic his body was dug
    up and his bones were burned.

49
Burning Wycliffes Bones
50
John Huss
  • John Huss -- 1369-1414
  • A follower of Wycliffe
  • 1412 No pope or bishop had the right to take up
    the sword in the name of the Church
  • Forgiveness of sins by real repentance, not
    through money.
  • Huss was burned at the stake for his reform
    beliefs

51
Johann Tetzel 1465-1519
  • Pope Leo X authorized him to sell indulgences
  • By this time, Indulgences guarantee the remission
    of sins
  • The money raised from the sale of indulgences
    would be primarily used to rebuild St. Peters
    Church in Rome
  • Other funds would be given to local churches

52
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53
Indulgences paid for the opulence and grandeur of
St. Peters Basilica
54
Martin Luther 1483-1536
  • Roman Catholic priest
  • Augustinian Monk (strict interpretation of dogma)
  • Condemned sale of indulgences
  • Believed we are all damned, despite our good
    deeds

55
Luther and Salvation
  • Good works, including prayer and fasting, are not
    enough to attain salvation
  • Nails 95 Theses (complaints) to the church door.
  • This actual act was not very revolutionary. What
    he wrote was revolutionary.
  • Calls for Pope Leo X to reform the church

56
Pope Leo X
  • Member of the de Medici family
  • To his brother "Since God has given us the
    papacy, let us enjoy it."
  • Political
  • Agreement with French king to protect Rome
    against foreign invasion
  • Worked against the French king to elect Charles V
    as Holy Roman Emperor
  • Too busy to halt Protestant Reformation

57
Luthers Ideas
58
Idea 1 Salvation by faith alone
  • Good works cannot guarantee salvation
  • A loving God will grant salvation whether you do
    good deeds or not, as long as you are faithful

59
Idea 2 The Bible is the Ultimate Authority
  • No Pope or church council can define Christian
    doctrine
  • Every believer should read and interpret the
    Bible
  • The faithful will be divinely guided

60
Idea 3 The Grace of God brings forgiveness
  • Indulgences and confession can NOT bring
    forgiveness of sins
  • Each individual is freed of sin only by the Grace
    of God
  • No earthly task you complete will buy salvation
  • No pilgrimages, fasts, or worship and saints and
    relics

61
Idea 4 There are only two valid sacraments
  • Sacraments cannot be outward signs of faith and
    inner grace
  • There are only TWO valid sacraments
  • Baptism (because St. Augustine believed it
    essential to salvation)
  • Communion (Holy Eucharist)

62
Transubstantiation vs. Consubstantiation
  • Luther also had specific beliefs about Communion
    (Holy Eucharist)
  • He believed in Consubstantiation
  • Transubstantiation belief that the bread and
    wine of Mass are transformed in the Body and
    blood of Christ
  • Consubstantiation not a literal transformation.
    God is present WITH YOU -- but in a symbolic
    way.

63
Idea 5 The Clergy is NOT superior to the
Congregation
  • Marriage should be allowed for clergy
  • Luther was married and had six children
  • Christianity is a priesthood of all believers
  • Monasticism should be abolished and church land
    redistributed

64
Idea 6 The church should be subordinate to the
state
  • The state is supreme should be led by a strong
    monarch
  • The state should have the right to appoint church
    officials, tax church lands, and organize the
    church
  • Appealed to the many German princes who resented
    the distant papal authority
  • Many princes wanted to control the land held by
    the church within their national boundaries
  • Princes and Monarchs also wanted to control the
    wealth of churches.

65
Luthers Revolution
66
1517
  • Luther writes his 95 Theses
  • Labeled a heretic

67
1520
  • Luther burns a papal bull that demanded he recant
    take back his complaints against the church
  • Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
  • Charles V (Holy
    Roman Emperor) is under
    pressure to convict
    Luther of heresy.
  • Luther is called to
    appear at a tribunal
    to explain his
    radical
    views

68
1521
  • Diet of Worms in Germany a special tribunal
    hearing
  • Luther argues that only the Bible or sound
    reasoning will convince him to recant to take
    back his views on reform
  • The Diet finds him guilty of heresy. He is
    banned from the Empire.
  • He is offered protection by a German prince
  • Under protection, Luther translates the Bible
    into German

69
Luther Appearing at Worms
70
1520s
  • Lutheranism begins to spread throughout northern
    Europe
  • Charles the V Holy Roman Emperor is busy
    fighting the French and Ottoman Turks and cannot
    stop the protest against the Catholic Church

71
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72
1524-1526
  • Luthers reform movement inspires several radical
    subgroups
  • What they have in common is a desire to create
    social reform based on ideas of early
    Christianity
  • Their demands led to the German Peasants War

73
Peasants War 1524-1525
  • Peoples revolt in the Holy Roman Empire
  • About 300,000 participated. 1/3 died.
  • Economic, Religious revolts by all social classes
  • Lower and middle classes exploited by upper
    classes, resented the laziness and decadence of
    the clergy
  • Princes opportunity to unite territory by
    abandoning the Catholic church
  • Because the movement had no unity, it failed.
  • But, did advance Lutheranism.

74
Luther Preaching against the Peasants War
75
Radical Groups Anabaptists
  • Executed for their beliefs about baptism and
    government
  • Infant baptism is not valid
  • Baptism must be by choice
  • Civil government belongs to the world.
  • Believers must not fill any public office or hold
    military rank
  • Government is to be passively obeyed
  • Sinners excommunicated, excluded from community
    until they repent
  • Mennonites, Amish

76
Melchiorites
  • Subgroup of Anabaptists
  • Held Münster for about a year (1534-35) --
    Theocracy
  • Dramatic changes
  • Burned all books (not Bible)
  • Banned money
  • Seized the property of non-believers
  • Killed Protestants and Catholics
  • Judgment is close
  • Polygamy
  • John of Leyden, had sixteen wives

77
Luthers Response to the Radicals
  • Luther was appalled by the extremists
  • Condemns revolutionaries (mostly peasants) and
    filthy swine
  • Encourages harsh punishment by rulers
  • Luther demanded that his followers obey authority
  • They can read the Bible, but must leave
    interpretation to ministers

78
Other Voices of the Reformation
79
Erasmus
  • 1466 1536
  • Remained a Roman Catholic throughout his
    lifetime, but harshly criticized the Church.
  • Faith -- not sacraments and rituals of the church
    -- is the only guarantee of eternal life.
  • Erasmus sympathized with Luthers criticisms, but
    did not want to change Church doctrine.
  • Preferred to reform the current church.

80
Erasmus Power of the human will
  • Man has the ability to choose salvation
  • Commands, choice, reward and punishment would be
    meaningless in the absence of free will.
  • Man must choose to be good

81
Erasmus more ideas. . .
  • The Education of a Christian Prince was published
    in 1516, before Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince.
  • Machiavelli believed in control by political
    force It is safer for a prince to be feared
    than loved.
  • But Erasmus thought the prince should be loved.
    The prince needed a well-rounded education to
    govern justly and benevolently and to avoid
    becoming a source of oppression.

82
Ulrich Zwingli
  • Swiss led reformation in Switzerland
  • Humanist, Catholic priest
  • Same conclusions as Luther
  • No mass
  • No confession
  • Only 2 sacraments
  • 1522 The Bible as the sole source of truth.

83
Switzerland and the Reformation
  • Cantons split
  • Catholic cantons want reform within Church
  • Catholic cantons form alliances with Austria
    (Charles V)
  • Threat of civil war -- Zwingli is leader of
    reformist cantons
  • Refuses any compromise with Catholic cantons
  • War 1531, Zwingli killed in battle

84
Charles V
  • 1500-1558
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • Powerful (Spain, Flanders, Burgundy, Italy)
  • Numerous family connections create political
    problems

85
The Reformation Part 2
86
Challenges to the Church
  • Heretics
  • Mystics
  • Nominalism stressed the reality of anything
    concrete and real, thus doubting faith.
  • Humanism Classical World as true source of
    virtue and wisdom.
  • The growth of commerce and trade led to wealth.
    The here and now is something good.
  • European kings, princes

87
Why did people follow Luther?
  • Merchants keep wealth yet still be given a
    chance for salvation.
  • Poor Luther offered individual dignity and
    respect. Faith not money leads to salvation.
  • Most Germans Lutheranism was a way to attack the
    Holy Roman Empire and Charles V (1500-1558).
  • An alternative to the Roman Church.
  • Catholicism appealed to men and women as members
    of a group (the Church)
  • Lutheranism meant that faith was now something
    individual

88
More Reformation Events
  • 1529 German princes do not have the right to
    determine the religion of their subjects
  • 1531 German princes newly Protestant create
    the League of Schmalkalden to protect themselves
    against Charles V.
  • Pope no compromise with Lutherans
  • No chance for reunification
  • 1530s The reformation spreads beyond Germany

89
1531
  • Switzerland First religious Civil War
  • The peace agreement allows each Swiss canton to
    determine its own religion

90
1534
  • Act of Supremacy makes Henry VIII the head of the
    Anglican Church.
  • English Parliament abolishes Roman Catholic
    monasteries, confiscates land, redistributes land
    to those who support the new church

91
Calvinism
  You must submit to supreme suffering in order
to discover the completion of joy
92
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Second wave of the Protestant Reformation
  • Humanist scholar.
  • Hebrew, Greek, and Latin
  • Read works of Erasmus and Luther

93
Calvins Ideas
  • Man is helpless being before an all-powerful God
  • No free will
  • Man is predestined for either Heaven or Hell
  • Man can do nothing to alter his fate.

94
Calvin Predestination
  • God knows even before birth whether a person is
    saved or damned. There is nothing anyone can do
    the win or buy salvation
  • The Elect or Saints are a select few, saved
    only by Gods love from a corrupt humanity
  • The Elect know they are chosen through a
    mystical encounter (called conversion) or
    through material prosperity.
  • This emphasis on material wealth through hard
    work leads to Puritanism

95
More on Predestination
  • Your destiny is in the hands of an all-powerful
    God
  • Anxiety -- no one knew just what to do.
  • Calvin admitted that good works served a purpose.
  • Good works became a divine sign that the
    individual was making the best of their life here
    on earth.
  • no guarantees
  • The "calling"
  • Some men and women seemed ill-fitted for life on
    earth. They were avaricious, slothful, amoral.
  • Others worked happily, accomplishing much and in
    the right spirit. They had been "called" to do a
    certain thing here on earth.

96
Calvin Church Government
  • Each congregation elects its minister and governs
    itself
  • Disagreed with Luther the church is not
    subordinate to the state
  • The church should be a moral force within a
    secular government
  • Encourages theocracies

97
Geneva 1540s
  • Calvin imposed a social order of harsh discipline
    and order.
  • Calvin forced all citizens to succumb to his
    rigorous ideals of a religious life.
  • Wake up early, work hard, be forever concerned
    with good morals, be thrifty at all times,
    abstain from worldly pleasures, be sober, and
    above all, serious.
  • Worldly asceticism -- denial of all worldly
    pleasure while living in this world.

98
Nobody Expects the Spanish Inquisition!
99
  • NOBODY expects the Spanish Inquisition! Our chief
    weapon is surprise...surprise and fear...fear and
    surprise....
  • Our two weapons are fear and surprise...and
    ruthless efficiency....
  • Our three weapons are fear, surprise, and
    ruthless efficiency...and an almost fanatical
    devotion to the Pope....

100
Spanish Inquisition
  • Cathars in France (1200s)
  • Reconquista 722-1492
  • Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Strengthen power over recently unified Spain
  • Root out false converts
  • Marriscos, Marranos
  • Protestants NOT targeted
  • New World

101
Cathar Persecution (The Perfects)
102
The Element of Surprise (and fear)
  • Tomas de Torquemada, Chief Inquisitor
  • Auto de Fe Act of Faith (Public announcement)
  • Widely attended, popular
  • After Auto de Fe, punishment was inflicted in
    private -- torture, burnings
  • Secret accusations, surprise arrests
  • Confess, reveal others, serve prison term
  • Refuse to confess or reveal others torture and
    death

103
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104
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105
Goyas Inquisition
106
The Auto de Fe
107
Ruthless Efficiency
  • 1492 all Jews expelled from Spain (many went to
    Venice)
  • 13,000 eventually arrested
  • 2,000 killed under Torquemada

108
Fanatical Devotion to the Pope?
  • Pope authorized, but no control
  • Completely controlled by Spanish monarchs
  • Purify Spain, to honor the Church
  • Protect Spain from Protestant infiltration

109
The Black Legend
  • End of 16th century
  • Spain is symbol of repression, brutality,
    intolerance, and intellectual and artistic
    backwardness
  • Cruelty in New World cannot be helped, part of
    Spanish identity

110
Counter Reformation
  • Church response to the Protestant Reformation

111
Counter Reformation 1540s
  • Inquisition
  • The Church destroyed heretical literature
  • Protestant books burned
  • Works by reform-minded Catholic humanists
    destroyed
  • The Index of Prohibited Books
  • Education, preaching, church building,
    persecution, and censorship
  • Did succeed in bringing some people back to the
    Church.

112
Council of Trent 1545-1563
  • Compromise Salvation is by both good works AND
    faith
  • The seven sacraments are valid
  • Transubstantiation is reaffirmed
  • The sources of religious authority are
  • The bible
  • Traditions of the church
  • Writings of church fathers
  • Individuals can NOT interpret the bible without
    the guidance of the church
  • One valid version of the bible (5th century
    Latin)

113
Council of Trent
  • Reaffirms monasticism and celibacy
  • Reaffirms the existence of purgatory
  • Corrected abuses related to indulgences, but kept
    the practice
  • Gave final authority to the Pope on biblical and
    church matters

114
Jesuits
  • Ignatius Loyola -- 1537
  • Militant arm of the Catholic and Counter
    Reformations
  • Blind obedience and absolute faith
  • Jesuits swore to suppress Protestantism
  • Advised Catholic kings
  • Suppressed heresy through the Inquisition
  • Established schools to indoctrinate the young
  • Sent missionaries to the new worlds to convert

115
Jesuits and Protestantism
  • Jesuits highlighted one central flaw in
    Protestant theology predestination.
  • The Jesuits offered hope in the power of the
    priest to offer forgiveness.
  • Jesuits made Christianity more emotional
  • Small sins are permitted in the service of a
    just cause.
  • What implications does this have for rulers?

116
Legacy of the Jesuits
  • Greatest teachers in Europe, especially in
    France.
  • Built schools and universities, designed churches
  • Baroque Art and Architecture emotional,
    intended to move the heart.

117
Baroque Architecture
118
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119
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120
The End of the Reformation
121
Peace of Augsburg -- 1555
  • German princes can choose the religion of their
    subjects.
  • cuius regio, eius religio ("whose territory, his
    religion", or "in the Prince's land, the Prince's
    religion"),
  • Treaty Charles V and the forces of the
    Schmalkaldic League
  • Grace period families had the right to move to
    different region to practice desired religion.

122
Consequences of Augsburg
  • Relieved tension in the empire and increased
    tolerance
  • But left important things undone
  • Many Protestant groups living under the rule of a
    Lutheran prince still found themselves in danger
    of the charge of heresy
  • Anabaptists and Calvinists were not protected
    under the peace
  • Intolerance towards Calvinists led to the Thirty
    Years' War (1618-48)
  • Tolerance finally granted in 1648

123
Consequences of the Reformation
  • Europe split
  • Secularism
  • Fewer clergy
  • Creation of the modern state (stronger monarchs)
  • New understanding of Law
  • Since all men are governed by the laws of God,
    punishment should be given to those who break
    these laws -- kings included. So, in 1649, the
    English executed Charles I.
  • Individualism
  • Personal interpretation of Bible
  • Rise in literacy

124
South remains Catholic North is strongly
reformist Lutherans, Calvinists, and
Anglicans There are still several areas in which
Catholics and Protestants co-exist. This will
lead to several religious wars.
125
English Reformation
  • Henry VIII wants a son, so England gets
    reformed
  • 1528 Henry asked the pope to annul, or
  • cancel, his marriage. The pope refused.
  • Henry took the Church from the popes control and
  • created the Church of England.
  • Henrys children
  • Protestant King Edward VI brought Protestant
    reforms to England.
  • Queen Mary wanted to restore Catholicism to
    England. English Protestants burned at the stake.
  • Queen Elizabeth compromise between Protestants
    and Catholics.

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The Reformation and Witchcraft
  • 1560-1700
  • Upheaval, many feared the presence of evil
  • Disloyalty to the Church causes many to be
    labeled witch
  • Over 100,0000 prosecuted 75 killed, mostly in
    Germany (center of Reformation)
  • Nearly all of accused were women
  • England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, France,
    Holland, Colonial America
  • Maleficium confirms the presence of witches, how
    to identify and punish
  • 30 Years War creates religious tolerance
    witchcraft accusations drop off
  • Last outbreak Salem 1692 (18 hanged)
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