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Norton Media Library Chapter 1 America: A Narrative History 7th edition by George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi * * * * * * * * * * * * * B. Cort s and other ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: America:

Chapter 1
Norton Media Library
America A Narrative History 7th edition
by George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi
Possible origins of the first Americans
  • Siberian20,000 years ago Siberian hunters became
    first American inhabitants
  • -first immigration came between 50,000 and
    8,000BC from Eastern Siberia to the Southern tip
    of South America-they were physically kin to
    modern Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.
  • The brown-skinned, thin-lipped,
    high-cheeked, broad-faced, straight black-haired
    ancestors of Naïve American developed some
    remarkable civilizations.
  • B. Southwestern Europe-recent findings in
    Virginia suggest much earlier appearance of
    ancient humans

An ornate Mayan mask made of jade Image Source
Wikipedia Commons
  1. At the times of Columbus's arrival in the New
    World, how did the Indians of Central America and
    Mexico differ from those farther north?     (A)
    less numerous     (B) more nomadic     (C) more
    warlike     (D) more highly civilized     (E)
    some were dependent on roaming herds of buffalo

II. Indian culture before Columbus
  • A. Earliest cultures
  • 1. Hunters and gatherers
  • 2. Villagers
  • 3. Farmersa culture developed of farming,
    fishing, pottery by 5000BC
  • 4. Developed plant food such as maize, beans,
    pumpkins, and
  • avocados

Mayan Pyramid
  • B. Mayan, Aztec, and Incan cultures
  • -between 2000 and 1500 BC permanent farming town
    appeared in Mexico-there was evidence of
    warfare, religion, art and science
  • --gradually Mesoamerica developed great cities
    with pyramids, temples and palaces
  • -Mayans developed a sophisticated
    calendar-writing system and books
  • -however in 900AD the Mayan culture collapsed
    from over use of the land and overpopulation
  • -overtaken by the Toltecs who left around

  • Aztecs arrived about 1325 and expanded their
    control over central Mexico
  • The Spanish invaded the Aztec Empire in 1519
    which was ruled by Montezuma II- He ruled about 5
    to 20 million people.
  • -Aztecs were a powerful military force-subjugated
    nearby people-treated conquered areas as colonies
  • _Aztecs were a violent society as seen through
    their religious rites.
  • -Priests could please the gods through human
    sacrifice-this was carried out by capturing
    prisoners of war

Aztec pyramid of the Sun
  1. One of the factors that proved critical to the
    Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was     (A)   the
    overwhelming number of Spanish soldiers     (B)  
    the total lack of organization of the Aztec
    political and military system     (C)   the
    support of Portuguese soldiers     (D)   the
    pacifist nature of the Aztecs     (E)   a
    smallpox epidemic spread by contact with the
    Spanish soldier

  1. Smallpox devastated the native populations of the
    New World. The Aztec population, estimated at 30
    million when the Spanish arrived in Mexico, was
    down to 3 million by 1568 and 1.6 million in
    1620. Despite having an army of perhaps only 600
    Spaniards, Hernan Cortes was able to eventually
    defeat the Aztec forces and claim Mexico City for
    Spain in 1521.

Spaniard Cortes being greeted by Aztec emperor
  1. Incas achieved the height of their empire in what
    is now Peru about 1500 AD
  2. Monarch had absolute powerhad a complex system
    of taxation-one major weakness was no fixed
    procedure for succession

Machu Picchu, the Inca citadel
  1. Which of the following is not true of the Incan
    civilization? A)    Francisco Pizarro and 180
    men captured and killed Incan king Atahualpa who
    commanded an army of 80,000 soldiers B)    the
    main crop of the Incas was potatoes which were
    grown on terraces in the mountainous terrain of
    the Andes C)    the Incas used a knotted rope
    system, known as quipu, to record
    information D)    originating in the Andes
    Mountains, the Incan empire spread throughout
    South and Central America by the arrival of the
    Spanish in the 1520s E)    the Incas comprised
    the largest empire in pre-Columbian America

Cultural Regions of North America
  • Northwest Coast
  • Chinooks
  • Makahs
  • Southwest
  • Navajos
  • Great Plains
  • Mandans
  • Kiowas
  • Eastern Woodland
  • Iroquois
  • Cherokees

Cultural Regions
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  • C. Major Indian cultures in the area of the
    United States after about 1,000 B.C.
  • Indian life in North America was not as
    culturally advanced
  • 1. Adena-Hopewell peoples of the Ohio Valley (800
    B.C.A.D. 600)-were mound builders who used some
    tools and wove fabrics
  • 2. Mississippian cultures of the Mississippi
    River Valley (A.D. 6001500)-resembled Mayan and
    Aztec societies because of agriculture-they had
    an effective government and trading
    network-worshipped the sun-had human torture and
  • --peaked in the fourteenth and fifteenth
    centuries and finally succumbed to disease
    brought from Europe

Cahokia the walkways are modern, the manmade
hills are not
3. Pueblo-Hohokam-Anasazi cultures of the
  • Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were
    an ancient Native American culture centered on
    the present-day Four Corners area of the
    Southwest United States, noted for their
    distinctive pottery and dwelling construction
    styles. The cultural group is often referred to
    as the Anasazi
  • The Pueblo-Anasazis lived in baked-mud adobe
  • Engaged in warfare as a self defense
  • Toward the end of the thirteenth century, drought
    and new arrivals began to restrict their territory

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Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park
Navajo and Apache
  1. The Apache and the Navajo came from the Far North
    to settle the Plains and Southwest around A.D.
    850. The Navajo share the Athabscan language with
    the Apache.
  2. The Apache lived near Pueblo tribes, which they
    raided for food, and livestock. They dressed in
    animal skins, used dogs as pack animals, and
    pitched tentlike dwellings made of brush or hide,
    called wikiups.
  3. The Navajo copied corn- and bean-growing
    practices from the Anasazi and raised sheep while
    some kept the nomadic lifestyle of their
    ancestors and the Apache and pursued the buffalo
    and other animals.

The Great Plains
  1. This culture group of Indians is well-known for
    the importance of the buffalo, their religious
    ceremonies, and the use of the tepee. Four
    important tribes in this culture include the
    Dakota, Cheyenne, Sioux, and Comanche. The
    buffalo was the most important natural resource
    of the Plains Indians. The Plains Indians were
    hunters. They hunted many kinds of animals, but
    it was the buffalo which provided them with all
    of their basic needs food, clothing, and shelter.

  • The horse, first introduced by the Spaniards
  • appeared in the Plains about the beginning of
    the 16th cent. and revolutionized the life of the
    Plains Indians. Many Native Americans left their
    villages and joined the nomads. Mounted and armed
    with bow and arrow, they ranged the grasslands
    hunting buffalo.

Eastern Woodlands
  1. Their food, shelter, clothing, weapons, and tools
    came from the forests around them. They lived in
    villages near a lake or stream. The Woodland
    Indians lived in wigwams and longhouses. The
    Iroquois, Cherokee, and Mound Builders were
    important Woodland tribes.
  2. The Iroquois Indians were actually a "nation" of
    Indians made up of 5 tribes. These tribes were
    the Senecas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks.
    These tribes were hostile, or war-like, to each
    other until they joined together to become the
    "League of the Five Nations".

  1. Leaders of each Iroquois Nation also came
    together to discuss matters that were important
    to all of them, such as peace,  trade, or war. 
  2. These council leaders ( always men, but chosen by
    the women)  were called sachems.  The Iroquois
    had a total of 50 sachems.  All sachems had to
    agree on a solution before any decision was

III. European discovery of the New World
  • A. Early Norse contacts- technically they were
    the first European attempt to colonize between
    986 and 1013
  • B. Changes in modern Europe
  • Revival of learning
  • Effect of Crusades- Renaissance-late 1400s
  • 2. Progress in navigation- progress in the art of
    navigation-new instruments-Prince Henry
  • 3. Growth of trade and towns- people wanted the
    new goods-increased trade with Africa, India and
  • 4. New nation-states-first there were feudal
    holdings-merchants supported kings-gunpower
  • C. Voyages of Columbus

Voyages of Columbus
Columbus Legacy
  1. At his death he believed that he had found a
    western route to Asia
  2. Modern scholars recognize his daring and
    commitment to go where nobody had gone before
  3. Brought permanent interaction between Europeans
    and Native American
  4. Treaty of Tordesillas-1494

  • D. Biological exchange-at expense of the native
  • Animals-iguana-bison-armadillos
  • Native American were introduced to horses,
    cattle, pigs,
  • Sheep and goats
  • 2. Plants-revolutionized the diet of both
    hemispheres corn, beans and potatoes from South
    America-other New World foods included peanuts,
    peppers, tomatoes, pumpkins cacao and squash
  • The Old World introduced rice, wheat, barley,
    oats, coffee, olives, bananas, wine grapes

  • E

3. Device Europeans adopted canoes, snowshoes,
moccasins, hammocks, kayaks, ponchos,
dogsleds-lacrosse-tobacco 4. Diseases the most
significant aspect of the biological exchange was
the transmission of infectious diseasesmall pos.
yellow fever, malaria Results were
catastrophic-more Indians died from disease than
  • E. Early exploration by England and Portugal
  • John Cabot-first to sight North American
  • in 1497
  • 2. Ferdinand Magellan-1519

IV. Spanish conquest of the New World
  • A. Clash of cultures
  • 1. Indian weaknesses
  • a. susceptible to disease
  • b. disunity
  • c. poor transportation
  • 2. Spanish advantages
  • a. accepted risk
  • b. ships
  • c. better military tools-steel swords-gunpower
  • d. horses
  • B. Cortés and other conquistadores
  • 1. Cortéss conquest of Mexico-1519 defeated the
    Aztecs-burned all but one Spanish ship
  • 2. System of encomienda
  • 3. Roles of church and crown

  • B. Cortés and other conquistadores
  • Cortéss conquest of Mexico-1519 defeated the
    Aztecs-burned all but one Spanish ship-made
    Montezuma his puppet-stoned by his own
  • Francisco Pizarro-subdued Inca Empire in Peru
  • 2. System of encomienda- officers became
    landowners who controlled Indian village

Roles of church and crown
  1. Spanish campaign of genocide against the
    population of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and
    Dominican Republic) as illustrated by Fray
    Bartolome de las Casas

IV. Spanish conquest of the New World (contd)
  • C. Spanish exploration and early settlement in
    North America
  • Geographic area of control-
  • St. Augustine 1595
  • De Soto landed on Floridas west coast went
    as far as North
  • Carolina-then to Arkansas River then down the
    Mississippi then to Mexico
  • Permanent settlements in New Mexico, Texas,
  • 2. Interactions with Indian culture-blended
  • and coexisted
  • 3. Purposes of settlements
  • a. obtain wealth
  • b. convert Indians-Franciscans and
  • c. provide defense

  • D. Spanish patterns in the southwestern United
  • 1. Use of religion in colonial control-after ten
    years a mission would be secularized-land divided
    among converted Indians-pay taxes-soldiers house
    in presidios
  • 2. Role of the Franciscans
  • 3. Control by Juan de Oñate-1598 son of Spanish
    mining family

Juan de Onate
  1. Juan de Oñate , fl. 1595-1614, Spanish explorer
    in the American Southwest, possibly b. New Spain.
    In 1598 he led an expedition north from New
    Spain, took possession of New Mexico for the
    Spanish king, and established a settlement at San
    Juan. He was immediately faced by an Native
    American revolt at Acoma which he put down
    brutally. In 1601, Oñate, in search of Quivira,
    led an expedition across present Oklahoma to the
    plains around Wichita, Kans., then returned,
    unsuccessful, to New Mexico, where discontent was
    rife among the colonists. Anxious to find a route
    to the South Sea, he led (1605) an expedition
    westward, reached the Colorado River, and went
    down it to the Gulf of California before turning
    back to his colony. He was relieved (1609) as
    governor and tried on charges of misconduct in
    office. Convicted in 1614, he later sought a
    pardon, which was granted before 1624. One of his
    lieutenants, Gaspar de Villagrá, celebrated
    Oñate's deeds in Historia de la Nueva México, but
    his real achievements in founding and exploring a
    broad new realm did not receive the deserved

Statue of Popé in Capitol's Statuary Hall
  1. Popé gained fame in Spanish America for        
    (A) assisting Junipero Serra in establishing the
    California missions         (B) walking from
    Florida across the Gulf of Mexico coast before
    reaching Spanish settlements in Mexico        
    (C) organizing a revolt against the Spanish in
    1680 in New Mexico which resulted in 400
    deaths         (D) helping Coronado explore the
    Grand Canyon region         (E) publicizing the
    abuses of the Spanish encomienda system

  • 4. New Mexico as a royal province-1608 moved
    capitol to Santa Fe, in 1610-first permanent seat
    of government in present-day United States
  • 5. Rebellion  Popé, a Pueblo religious leader,
    organized the most successful Indian revolt
    against Spanish colonial rule in 1690. Striking
    at a number of Spanish outposts in New Mexico,
    Popé's followers killed 200 Spanish colonists and
    at least 21 Franciscan friars. He attempted to
    eliminate Spanish influence, ordering the
    destruction of churches and forbidding the use of
    the Spanish language or Spanish names. Spain
    regained control in 1692, but the power of the
    Franciscans was greatly diminished as the Spanish
    now viewed New Mexico as an important barrier
    against the French to the north. Pueblos were
    given more freedom to practice their religion and
    some were armed by the Spanish.

IV. Spanish conquest of the New World (contd)
  • E. Horses
  • 1. Indian acquisition-result of Pueblo
    revolt-hundreds of Spanish horse
  • 2. Ecological effects-source of mobility and
  • 3. Economic effects-became nomadic hunters-trade
  • 4. Negative consequences-killed to many
    bison-thievery-physical burden for women-as value
    of hides grew, male hunters began to indulge in

V. Impact of the Protestant Reformation on Europe
  • A. Martin Luthers initial leadership
  • B. John Calvins role
  • C. Impact of the Reformation in England
  • 1. Henry VIII
  • 2. Church of England

VI. French, Dutch, and English rivalry with the
Spanish in North America
  • A. Verrazzano and Cartier
  • B. Rebellion of the Netherlands in 1567 against
    Spanish rule and work of the Dutch Sea Beggars
    privateers that plundered Spanish ships
  • C. English efforts
  • 1. Elizabethan Sea Dogges
  • 2. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588
  • 3. Early attempts at English colonization
  • 4. Raleighs Lost Colony

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