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An Introduction to Natural Phyllite - Architectural Stone

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* Installation There are many different methods ... that the tiles are laid on and left to set Ensure that the adhesive or mortar is firmly set before grouting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Natural Phyllite - Architectural Stone


1
An Introduction to Natural Phyllite -
Architectural Stone
2
Who are SSQ Riverstone?
  • SSQ Group was founded in 1983
  • Producers and exporters of natural slate from
    Spain, Argentina and Brazil
  • Specialists in finest quality imported slate
    phyllite
  • Market leader in UK exports to Europe and
    worldwide

3
Who are SSQ and Riverstone?
  • Riverstone Ltd (part of SSQ Group) was
    established in 2003
  • Recently expanded product portfolio to include
    full Riverstone Architectural range
  • Due to quarry ownership we can always fulfill our
    promises and ensure high quality control
    procedures are in place

4
Objectives
  • To explain the formation and extraction of
    phyllite
  • To demonstrate why phyllite can be an excellent
    alternative to slate
  • To highlight why its properties make it suitable
    for architectural applications
  • To help provide sufficient information to ensure
    problem free specifications using natural
    phyllite architectural and flooring products

5
Contents
  • Introduction to phyllite geology, extraction
    and source
  • Advantages of phyllite and problems occurred
    using inferior products
  • Natural phyllite testing standards
  • Natural stone comparison table
  • Stone protection

6
An Introduction to Natural phyllite
Definition Phyllite is from scientific Latin
and means leaf-stone
phyllite is a medium grey stone.
  • Phyllite is a metamorphic stone.
  • Phyllite can be split by hand.
  • Phyllite is formed from two other types of
    stone slate and
  • schist.
  • Phyllite has a visible sheen owing to its
    exposure to extreme heat and pressure
  • Phyllite tends to have a corrugated surface
    which can be
  • polished to achieve a smooth surface.


7
An introduction to natural phyllite
Source San Luis quarry located in Argentina
  • Total ownership by SSQ Group.
  • All quality control done by trusted methods at
    source.
  • Formed over 600 million years ago.
  • Shares many characteristics with Cornish slate
    due to the tectonic plate movements.


8
The formation of phyllite
There are 3 key classifications of natural stone,
each is formed in different ways and is comprised
of different minerals.
Metamorphic Rock
Phyllite
Rock that has been physically altered by heat
and/or pressure most commonly quartzite, slate,
marble and phyllite.
Sedimentary Rock
Limestone
Rock formed by the hardening of material
deposited in some process most commonly
sandstone, shale, and limestone.
Igneous Rock
Granite
Formed when molten (melted) materials harden
through crystallisation most commonly granite
and basalt.
9
The formation of phyllite
Phyllite is a fine-grained metamorphic rock,
formed from the compressive pressure from both
the sea and the earths core.
  • Varying degrees of heat and pressure contribute
    to the stones formation and strength
  • Due to the fine grain and high compression of
    phyllite, the result is a very dense stone

10
The extraction process
Phyllite is always quarried from above and below
the quartz vein.
Why quarry around the quartz vein? 1. Acts as a
compressive barrier 2. Ensures the highest
quality of stone
11
The extraction process cont.
The stone is extracted in steps using a diamond
cutting wire.
Why quarry in steps? 1. Minimises wastage 2. No
need to use explosives
12
Advantages of natural phyllite
  • High density
  • Very low porosity
  • Durable
  • Exceptional strength
  • Versatile
  • Minimum maintenance (once laid and sealed
    properly)

13
Advantages of natural phyllite
  • Non combustible
  • Not susceptible to acid attack thus pollution
    resistant
  • Natural product
  • Long life expectancy

14
Problems from using an inferior natural stone to
phyllite
  • Can be poorly calibrated
  • Can be poorly gauged
  • Easily absorb stains
  • Efflorescence (salt leaches from material)
  • Rust (leaching pyrite)

15
Problems from using an inferior natural stone to
phyllite cont.
  • Has negative reactions to the freeze-thaw cycle
  • Limitation on surface finish (due to low
    density)
  • May disintegrate (mineral properties react)
  • May distort under intense heat

16
Testing Standards
6 main types of tests for natural stone
Type Density Kg/m3 Description Measured
against water 1,000, higher the density the
better. EU Test BS EN 1936
Type Water Absorption, Description Checks
for water absorption in stone, lower is
better. EU Test BS EN 13755
Type Modulus of Rupture, MPa Description Measur
es the maximum load the stone can withstand,
higher is better. EU Test BS EN 12372
17
Testing Standards cont.
6 main types of tests for natural stone
Type Abrasion Resistance Description Represents
the stones surface to wear, higher is
better. EU Test BS EN 14157
Type Freeze Thaw Cycle, Mpa Description Measure
s the effect of extreme changes in weather,
higher is better. EU Test BS EN 12371
Type Slip Resistance Description Tested in wet
and dry conditions, higher is better. EU
Test BS EN 14231
18
Testing Standards cont.
Riverstone Test Results
EU Equivalent Test Type Result (mean)
BS EN 1936 Density, Kg/m3 2760
BS EN 13755 Water Absorption, 0.49
BS EN 12372 Modulus of Rupture, Mpa 40.53
BS EN 14157 Abrasion Resistance 23.5
BS EN 12371 Freeze Thaw Cycle, Mpa 37.49
BS EN 14231 Slip Resistance Honed (dry/wet) 63/32
BS EN 14231 Slip Resistance Brushed Antic (dry/wet) 69/50
Tests have been conducted by Sandberg Consulting
Engineers
19
Stone comparison table
BSEN Test Riverstone Kirkstone Sea Green Khatmia Tropicale
Material Phyllite Slate Marble Granite
Source Argentina UK Egypt S. Africa
Density, Kg/m3 2760 NR 2690 2640
Water Absorption, 0.49 2.25 0.35 0.11
Modulus of Rupture, Mpa 40.53 11.32 12.48 18.8
Abrasion Resistance, mm 23.5 12.2 17 13.2
Freeze Thaw Cycle, Mpa 37.49 NR NR NR
Slip Reisitance Polished (dry/wet) 63/32 27 (wet) NR NR
Slip Resistance Riven (dry/wet) 69/50 68 (wet) NR NR
Information has been taken from the corporate
websites
20
Installation - flooring
  • The main methods of fixing phyllite flooring are
  • Mortar (thick bed) method
  • Fix the floor tiles in place with a concrete
    slurry mix
  • Adhesive (thin bed) method
  • Fix the floor tiles in place with a proprietary
    adhesive
  • Grouting
  • Tiles must be firmly set in the mortar or
    adhesive before commencing grouting. Specialist
    resin based and cement based grouts are available
    from a variety of suppliers
  • Under floor heating
  • Phyllite retains heat well and is suitable for
    use with under floor heating.

21
Installation - cladding
  • There are various fixing methods depending on
    where the cladding is being applied and the
    density of the pieces of phyllite
  • For very dense phyllite cladding the main
    considerations are DEAD LOADS actual weight of
    the stonework. APPLIED LOADS wind pressure
    suction, window cleaning equipment any thermal
    or structural movements that may occur
  • For phyllite used as thin cladding, there are
    various fixing methods. It is best to check BS
    8298 1994 (Code of practice for design and
    installation of natural stone cladding or lining)
    before a final selection is made.
  • Fixing systems advice and suppliers
  • Amare Stone - http//amarestone.com
  • Halfen Limited - http//www.halfen.co.uk/
  • Ancon Building Products - http//www.ancon.co.uk/

22
Protection (Stone Sealing)
Helps to prolong the life of the stone
  • Helps prevent marks and scratches
  • Protects against damaging chemicals

An example of a sealed floor is below
Some stone sealers will alter the colour of the
stone e.g, make it darker. It is always
recommended that you test the sealer on a sample
first or seek advice from the seller. There are
many sealants ranging from water to oil based
giving matt and gloss finishes. An example of a
gloss finish sealant is LITHOFIN.
23
Installation British Standard References
  • Wall and floor tiling
  • BS 5385 - Wall and Floor Tiling. Code of
    practice for design and installation
  • BS 8000 Part 11 Workmanship on building
    sites. Code of practice for wall and floor tiling
  • Cladding
  • BS 8298 1994 Code of practice for design and
    installation of natural stone cladding and lining
  • BS 6213 2000 Guide to selection of
    construction sealants
  • Cladding
  • BS 8298 1994 Code of practice for design and
    installation of natural stone cladding and lining
  • BS 6213 2000 Guide to selection of
    construction sealants

24
Different types of applications
Interior Flooring
Exterior Flooring
25
Different types of applications cont.
Window sills
Slabs
26
Different types of applications cont.
External Wall Cladding
Internal Wall Cladding
27
Different types of applications cont.
Roofing
28
Thank You
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