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Overview of Biofuel Activities in SE Asia & China presented at the Dutch Brokerage Event on Biorefinery and Biofuels January 18 th -19 th , 2007 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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1
Overview of Biofuel Activities in SE Asia China
presented at the Dutch Brokerage Event
on Biorefinery and Biofuels January 18 th -19
th , 2007 Amsterdam, the Netherlands by
David Tee Liang Prof Tay Joo Hwa Institute of
Environmental Science and Engineering
(IESE) Singapore
2
Presentation Outline
1. Global and Asian Biomass Resources2.
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and China
3. RD Focus and Advances4. Issues Affecting
Biofuel Markets 5. Opportunities
3
Use of renewable sources of energy by regions, in
Mtoe primary energy
1. Traditional biomass energy consumption is, by
its nature, very hard to estimate. 2. New
renewable energy includes solar, wind,
geothermal, wave and ocean energy, and micro
hydro power.
4
Primary Energy Demand of Fuel in Asia, 2000-2020
Singapore Energy Demand in 2003 88 oil and 12
NG heavy reliance on fossil fuels.
Source Kokichi ITO, The Institute of Energy
Economics, Japan. Asia/World Energy Outlook, a
presentation in 385th Forum on Research Work, 10
March 2004, Tokyo, Japan
5
Projected Oil Demand by Region in Asia
(2000-2020)
Projected Gas Demand by Region in Asia
(2000-2020)
Projected Oil and Gas Demand in Singapore during
2000-2020 2.6 share in total oil incremental
increase and 0.9 in total of gas increase in the
region.
6
Singapore sits in a region teeming with Biomass
Energy Sources.
Energy Potential of Agro-processing Residues as
Percentage of Total Primary Energy Production,
7
SUGAR INDUSTRY
Process energy required 25-30 kWh/tonne of
sugarcane 0.4 tonne of steam
1 tonne of sugarcane
100-120 kg Sugar
Waste 290 kg Bagasse 100 kWh
8
WOOD INDUSTRY (PLYMILLS)
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9
WOOD INDUSTRY (SAWMILLS)
Energy Required Sawmill 35 - 45 kWh/m3
1 m3 of Debarked Wood Log
0.5 m3 Sawn Wood
Waste 0.5 m3 Wood Residues 80 kWh
10
RICE INDUSTRY
Process energy required Paddy milling and
drying 30-60 kWh/tonne paddy
650-700 kg White rice
1 tonne of Paddy
Waste 220 kg Husks 90-125 kWh
11
PALM OIL INDUSTRY
Process energy required 20-25 kWh/t 0.73 tonne
of steam
1 tonne of fresh fruit bunches
200 kg palm oil
Waste 600-700 kg POME 20 m3 biogas 210 kg
fibers shells 45 kWh 230 kg empty fruit
bunches 35 kWh
12
Energy from Biomass Waste Residues
  • Issues Preventing Widespread Exploitation of this
    Abundant Energy Source in SE Asia
  • Lack of awareness by stakeholders
  • Remote and diffused site/locations
  • Low energy density of the raw material
  • No grid connectivity
  • Plant operators unskilled/unwilling to cope with
    new, unfamiliar processes
  • Lack of funds for new capital projects
  • Lack of government support

13
Critical Needs for Biomass Wastes
  • Technologies for Conversion of Waste
  • Value add for Animal Feed/Fertilizer Production
  • Efficient direct combustion w/steam cycles
  • Pyrolysis/Gasification with diesel gen.
  • Pyrolysis/Gasification with GTL
  • Enhanced biogas production plus
    purification/compression
  • Cellulase based fermentation for ethanol
  • Other innovative conversion technologies

14
Critical Needs for Biomass Wastes
  • Market Drivers that will enhance its use
  • Government Policy and Support
  • Carbon credits and CDM projects
  • Escalating Fossil Fuel Costs
  • Availability of Grid and Buy-back Structure
  • New cost effective technology for biofuels
    conversion
  • Integrated planning by large plantation owners
  • Regional agreements and actions to abate haze
    episodes

15
Presentation Outline
1. Global and Asian Biomass resources2.
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and
China3. RD Focus and Advances4. Issues
Affecting Biofuel Markets 5. Opportunities
16
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and China
  • Fossil energy demand growth in Asia outpacing
    production/new discoveries
  • Asia is the largest producer/consumer of edible
    oils including soy, rapeseed, vegetable, peanut,
    coconut and palm oil etc.
  • Ethanol fermentation has also been long practiced
    and well understood
  • SE Asia is teeming with biomass resources and
    has potential for large energy crop plantations
  • Biofuels production buoyed the market demand for
    renewable and low sulfur fuels
  • Many new projects are being developed and new
    investments are pouring in
  • CDM and EU/Japan/Regional demands a major driver

17
Potential Plant Sources for Ethanol
Switch Grass
Corn
Sugar Cane
Sunflower
Sugar Beet
Sugar Beet
Casava
18
Comparison of selected bioethanol feedstocks
Source Petroleum Club (with permission)
19
Potential Plant Sources for Biodiesel
Soybean
Jetropha
Sunflower
Canola
Oil Palm
20
Comparison of selected biodiesel feedstocks
Conversion to biodiesel, Yield liter/ha
Palm Oil 68 5,800
Coconut Oil 68 2,689
Jetropha 54 1,892
Rapeseed 44 1190
Sunflower 45 952
Source 2feelgood website
21
Biofuels Production Plants in SE Asia
22
Ethanol Production Plants in China
23
Biodiesel Production Plants in China
24
Biodiesel Production Plants in Taiwan
25
Biodiesel Plants in Singapore Malaysia
Investor Plant Size(t/yr) Location Remarks  
Wilmar International 250,000 Malaysia Jan07
Advanced Holdings Ltd 100,000 Malaysia End07 MA
E Engineering Ltd 60,000 Malaysia 38 equity in
Lereno Natural Fuel of Australia 600,000 Spore
1st phase Nov07 Peter Cremerof
Germany 200,000 Spore Mid07 Nexsol 100,000
Johore Mid07 Biofutures of UK 200,000 Sabah
End07 VDH-IESE 200,000 Spore Early
2008 VDH-IESE 200,000 Malaysia Mid 2008
26
Observations of the Biofuels Status SE Asia
China
China Government subsidy exists for ethanol, but
not yet for biodiesel (expected to be announced
shortly). Natural Jetropha located in
Southwestern region, Once planted as part of
re-forestation and soil conservation measure.
Recent activity focused on biodiesel has caused
escalating price in waste food oil (600 US/T).
Plan for massive Jetropha plantation (10 Million
acres) proposed and seed selective breeding
research has yielded impressive results (48
yield). Other RD include glycerin conversion,
marine algae, and yeast fermentation. Domestic
market for ethanol and biodiesel expected to be
huge. Indonesia Gradually replacing Malaysia
as the largest Palm oil producer in the region
with more large plantations under development.
Biodiesel a relatively new development due to
availability of indigenous fossil fuel resources.
Recently signed a major deal with China on
biodiesel production (see next page).
27
Observations of the Biofuels Status SE Asia
China
Quote from Economist  Jan13th-19th 2007,
p.7China National Offshore Oil Corporation
agreed to invest in a 5.5 billion Indonesian
biofuels project, thought to be one of the
world's largest. The state-owned company is
looking for energy sources that could one day
ease China's reliance on oil and coal. However,
the news was not welcomed by environmentalist
worried about the rainforest that will be cleared
to make way for crops needed to produce the
biofuels. .
28
Observations of the Biofuels Status SE Asia
China
Thailand Government mandate for biofuel blend in
gasoline and diesel products. Several large
ethanol plants are already in production with
more to come. Considered one of the most advanced
in the region in terms of policy supporting the
development of biofuels and renewable energy.
Cambodia With large areas available for energy
crops, the government has been courting investors
to develop Jetropha plantations/agronomy . Small
biodiesel demonstration plant underway. Philippin
es One the regions large sugar producers and
is poised to engage in ethanol/biodiesel
production. Recently passed legislation for 5
blend of ethanol and 1 blend of biodiesel in all
fuels sold.
29
Observations of the Biofuels Status SE Asia
China
Malaysia Once the worlds largest palm oil
producer, Malaysia has millions of acres of palm
plantation invested and has gained considerable
knowledge for palm oil processing. It aims to
remain as the major producer of palm oil and is
ready to supply to the biofuels market. This may
lead to a boom to the palm oil market and push up
the price of crude palm oil which had seen a drop
when compared with its peak of almost 850 US per
ton. Taiwan The estimated demand for
biodiesel is 32 million liters per year if the
target of 5.5 blend is to be achieved. With no
government subsidies announced yet, several major
plants are already being constructed including
one with 400,000 t/y. Government plans to use
dormant and contaminated farmland for the use of
energy crops which can provide approximately 25
million liters of biodiesel. Additional 7
million liters can come from waste food oil and
animal fats.
30
Observations of the Biofuels Status SE Asia
China
Singapore With no indigenous fossil resources
nor arable land, Singapore remains to be the
favorite in the region for investors to site
biodiesel plants, despite its higher costs. This
is due to its political stability, financial
clout, strong IP protection, oil tanker traffic
shipping hub status plus it has also established
as the worlds major oil refinery center (ranked
number 2 in capacity). Logistically it sits in
the middle of two largest oil palm producers
(Indonesia Malaysia). With easy access to the
feedstock by tankers, and ready infrastructure
for oil trading and oil product distribution to
all major markets. It is no surprise that
investors consider it a safe strategic location
for biodiesel production. Together with
industrial partners, IESE has become an equity
partner in a JV company with plan of setting up
two biodiesel plants at 200,000 t/y each. This
one in a series of developments in Singapore with
total capacity now approaching 1.2 million
t/y!!
31
Presentation Outline
1. Global and Asian Biomass resources2.
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and
China3. RD Focus and Advances4. Issues
Affecting Biofuel Markets 5. Opportunities
32
RD Focus and Advances
  • On Ethanol
  • Enzyme (cellulase) based production process
  • Membrane based ethanol/methanol dehydration
  • DME conversion
  • On Biodiesel
  • High yield Jetropha and other low cost feedstocks
  • Marin algae or yeast carbon sequestration
  • Enzyme based production process
  • Glycerin conversion to higher value products
  • On Biogas/biomass gasification
  • Membrane based biogas upgrading
  • Gas to liquid (GTL) processes

33
Presentation Outline
1. Global and Asian Biomass resources2.
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and China
3. RD Focus and Advances4. Issues Affecting
Biofuel Markets 5. Opportunities
34
Issues Affecting Biofuels Market
  • Conventional energy costs (coal, oil and gas)
  • CDM and its extension
  • Food or Fuel debate
  • Land use arable land/rainforest depletion
  • Government policies/subsidies
  • Political stability of the host country
  • Supply/demand imbalance
  • Possible Cartel for crude palm oil? (palm oil
    supply dominated by a few processors/traders in
    the region)

35
Presentation Outline
1. Global and Asian Biomass resources2.
Biofuel Production Status in SE Asia and China
3. RD Focus and Advances4. Issues Affecting
Biofuel Markets 5. Opportunities
36
Opportunities in SE Asia on Biofuels
  • Providing Technologies for biofuel production
  • Join consortium for project development
  • Production of high yield seeds and seedlings
  • Development of large scale plantations
  • Marketing of biofuel products
  • Carbon credits and CDM projects

37
What are we looking for at this event??
  • Turnkey Suppliers for 2X 200,000 t/a biodiesel
    plants
  • Engineering Contractors for the same
  • RD partners for innovative biofuel/bioenergy
    technologies, can match EU funding
  • Markets/buyers for the biodiesel products.
  • Looking forward to meet you in the next 2 days!!

38
Bioenergy Outlook 2007, April 26-27 Issues,
Advances and Opportunities in BioEnergy
Singapore welcomes you in April
2007!! Abstract 31 Jan Acceptance 28
Feb Full Paper 15 Mar Conference 26/27
Apr Selected papers will be published in Energy
Fuels under American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publications. Send Abstracts NOW to
ryan_at_ntu.edu.sg For Exhibition, contact
kstan_at_ntu.edu.sg
39
Thank You !
40
Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering
The Business of Innovation for the Environment
41
Mission
to lead in ET innovation accelerate ET
commercialization to meet the regional needs for
the sustainable economic development
42
Vision
to become a Leading Technology Company built on
Innovations in Environmental Science
Engineering and serving as the Environmental
Technology (ET) Receptacle for Singapore.
43
Research
  • Leading in Technology Development for

44
IESE Manpower
Core Scientists 20
Contract/Project Staff 9
Corporate 7
Business Development 4
Research Assistants 20
Total 60
45
IESE Organization
R D Centres

Marine Resources Recovery
Water Membranes
Environ Biotechnology
Clean Air Energy
46
IESE Facilities
  • Hollow Fibre Membrane Spinning Machine
  • Crossflow MF/UF/NF/RO-filtration Rigs
  • DOTM for real time membrane fouling studies
  • Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
  • Ultrasonic Reflectometry (UDTR)
  • Optical MicroscopeContact Angle Measuring system
  • Rheometer
  • Zeta Potential Analyser
  • Streamline Potential Analyser (SPA)
  • Particle Size Analyser (PSA)
  • Total Organic Carbon Analyser (TOC)
  • High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC)
  • Scanning Electron Microscope with EDX
  • Ion Chromatograph (IC)
  • Transmission Electron Microscope
  • X-Ray Diffractometer
  • UV-VIS Spectrophotometer
  • Gel Permeation Chromatograph

S13.5 million of equipment
400 sq m of laboratory space
47
IESE Facilities
  • Pilot Equipment
  • High-Temp Fluidized Bed Reactors
  • Fixed Bed Reactors
  • Fermentors
  • Membrane Bioreactors
  • Hollow Fibre Membrane Casting Unit
  • Ceramic Membrane Casting Unit
  • Rotary and Box Furnaces
  • Ferrator
  • Advanced Oxidation Equipment
  • Shipboard BWT pilot plant

48
Patent Output per S Million
49
IESE Achievements
Patents Filed 22
New Disclosures 8
SCI Papers 281
Joint Venture Companies Spin-Off Companies 4
International Collaboration 28
International Conferences 18
50
IESE (Planned) Group of Companies
IESE PTE LTD
REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE OFFICES
IESE WATER ASIA PTE LTD
IESE SOLUTIONS PTE LTD
IESE NEW OIL PTE LTD
IESE AIR ENERGY PTE LTD
IESE MEMBRANE TECH PTE LTD
IESE CDM CONSULTANCY PTE LTD
IESE MARITIME ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY PTE LTD
INVESTORS
PAN ASIAN WATER SOLUTIONS LTD
ENVIPURE PTE LTD
INVESTOR
INVESTOR
PA WATERTECH PTE LTD JV
IESE - ENVIPURE JV
IESE INTEGRITY SENSOR JV
BALLAST WATER TREATMENT JV
FEDERAL ENV ENERGY PTE TD
INVESTOR
INVESTOR
IESE-FEDERAL SHANGHAI JV
IESE MD / MBR JV
BIODESULPHURIZATION OF BUNKER OIL JV
ENVIPURE PTE LTD
IESE-ENVIPURE JV
WATER
AIR ENERGY
PRODUCTS
USED OIL
CDM
MEMBRANE
MARINE
WATER WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROJECTS
SMALL SCALE / LOW COST WATER / WASTEWATER /
WASTE TO ENERGY PRODUCTS
USED OIL RECYCLING
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL / RENEWABLE ENERGY
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM
MARITIME ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
51
Membranes- Water Applications
Membrane Fabrication Development of PVDF and
PAN hollow fibre membranes for water and
wastewater CA membrane for oil/water separation
(1) solvent resistant membrane Membrane
Distillation / Crystallisation recovery of
valuable salts from industrial wastewater eg.
sodium sulphate Membrane Bioreactors
Sustainable MBR operation fouling control
MDBR-Membrane distillation with MBR for water
reclamation (1) Anaerobic MBR - treatment of
ship-board municipal wastewater plus high
strength industrial wastewater Membrane
integrity sensor development of sensor for
rapid detection of membrane failure (1) Portable
Membrane Filters For disaster relief
applications
?
?
?
?
?
52
Membranes - Gas Separation
PVDF Membranes for CO2 Separation
Sequestration CO2 Capture from Combustion Flue
Gas using membrane contactors(1 ), Polyimide
Membranes for CO2 Separation from Natural Gas,
Syngas Biogas(3)
?
?
Ceramic Membranes
Catalytic Functional Membranes Synthesis of
perovskite ceramic membranes used in the partial
oxidation of methane (POM) for Syngas production
and hydrogen purification (1) Ceramic Membrane
Modules for Used lubricant oil recycling
(1) Ceramic Membrane Filters for Silica fume and
HCl recovery from Fibre Optics production process.
?
?
?
53
Environmental Biotechnology
Bio-granulation Anaerobic and Aerobic
Bio-granulation for domestic and Industrial WWT
(2) Granular MBR (GMBR) (2), regarded as the
next major breakthrough in WWT Biocarbon Novel
bio-film combined with activated carbon sorbent
proven effective to treat low-concentration odor
compounds (1) Bio-desulfurization New sulfur
metabolizing microbes identified capable of
removing complex sulfur compounds from the bunker
oil matrix (1) Ballast Water Treatment
UV-hydrocyclone for BWT (1), Automatic
self-cleaning filtration test, Chemical treatment
evaluation, Dockside pilot plant, Shipboard
trials
?
?
?
?
54
Advanced Oxidation Technologies
TiO2 based Photo-catalytic Oxidation (PCO)
Processes for wastewater treatment, air pollution
control and synthesis of functional membranes
with surface modifications (1) Ferrate (Fe 6)
Oxidation for ballast water disinfections, WWT,
odor control, and other environmental
applications Hydrogen Cool Flame for the
cleaning of glass/ceramic substrates and
destruction of odor/VOC, as well as medical waste
disinfections (3) DBD (Dielectric Barrier
Discharge) Hydroxyl Generator for innovative
environmental oxidation applications (3) .
?
?
?
?
55
CDM Renewable Energy
?
Biogas Biohydrogen Biohydrogen Production(1),
Enhanced Biogas Production, Biogas purification
enrichment, Small household biogas
generators Biofuels Production Biodiesel
production and glycerin by-product utilization
Cellulose-ethanol/methanol production and
separation Biomass Combustion Gasification
Direct combustion for heat power production,
Biomass gasification systems for clean and cost
effective power production Carbon Credits
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) New
Methodology development, validation and
verification.
?
?
?
56
Strategic Alliance
  • Statutory Boards, Government Agencies
  • NGOs
  • Economic Development Board (Singapore)
  • Public Utilities Board (Singapore)
  • Surbana
  • Building Construction Authority (Singapore)
  • Maritime and Port Authority (Singapore)
  • National Environmental Agency (Singapore)
  • SGX
  • Lien Foundation
  • Jurong Town Corporation (Singapore)
  • International Enterprise (Singapore)
  • Institution of Engineers (Singapore)
  • Private Companies
  • Air Liquide
  • GE (Water)
  • Zenon
  • Katadyn
  • Salcon
  • Imprimatur Capital
  • Juniper Investment
  • Sembenviro
  • Keppel Seghers
  • Aqua Systems
  • Glowtec
  • Kureha
  • Kolon
  • Asahi
  • SembCorp Industries
  • Hyflux
  • Norit
  • Research Institutes / Universities and
  • Polytechnics
  • IMRE
  • ICES
  • SIMTECH
  • ITRI (Taiwan)
  • NUS
  • TMSI
  • Ngee Ann Polytechnic
  • Temasek Polytechnic
  • Singapore Polytechnic

57
Global Experiences
IESE Staff has executed Water and Environmental
Projects for the World Bank, WHO, IEA, IMO, APO,
EU-Cogen UNEP in many regional countries
including China, HK Macao, India, Iran,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Malaysia,
Philippines, Thailand, Oman, Brunei, In
donesia, Taiwan, Korea
58
Technology
Used Lubrication Oil Recycling using Membrane
Technology Patented Technology
Laboratory Test
Pilot Plant
59
Technology
Environmental Resource Recycling ERS
Feed Meal
Fertilizers
Food Processing Center - Markets, Slaughter
House, Industries, Kitchen Waste
60
Technology
Awards Winning Technology Biogranulation for
Wastewater Treatment
  • Home-grown technology Robust microbial granules
    for aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organics
    from industrial and process wastewaters
  • Advantages rapid start-up, high biomass
    retention, high tolerance to chemical toxicity,
    high versatility, high loads, small footprint
  • Global WWT market is US300 billion, with growing
    needs in Asia, especially China

61
Technology
Awards Winning Technology Biogranulation for
Wastewater Treatment
  • Pilot-scale studies of aerobic granules with
    toxic industrial wastewaters
  • Full-scale application of anaerobic granulation
    technology on chemical wastewaters in Jurong
    Island

62
Technology
Bio Activated Carbon Patented Technology
GRT can be shortened as low as 2s to achieve a
99.9 removal efficiency
63
Technology

Technology Demonstration Shipboard Ballast
Water Treatment
  • Primary treatment automated self-cleaning
    filtration
  • Secondary treatment ferrate (VI)
  • Linkages with MPA, TMSI, NOL, NA etc.

64
Thank You !
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