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The Constitution

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1. Constitution 2. bill of rights 3. Execute 4. Articles of Confederation 5. Cede 6. Currency 7. Land Ordinance of 1785 8. Northwest Ordinance 9. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Constitution


1
The Constitution
2
Main Menu
Amendment Process
Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Bill of Rights
Article I Legislative Branch
Chapter 8 Vocabulary
The Articles of Confederation
Article II Executive Branch
Principles of Constitution
Article III Judicial Branch
Constitutional Convention
Goals of Constitution
Preamble
Articles IV-VII
Ideas used in Constitution
3
Chapter 7 Vocabulary
15. Judicial branch 16. New Jersey Plan 17.
Compromise 18. Great Compromise 19. Three-fifths
compromise 20. Republic 21. Separation of
powers. 22. Federalist 23. Antifederalists 24.
The Federalist Papers 25. Amend 26. Bill of Rights
  • 1. Constitution
  • 2. bill of rights
  • 3. Execute
  • 4. Articles of Confederation
  • 5. Cede
  • 6. Currency
  • 7. Land Ordinance of 1785
  • 8. Northwest Ordinance
  • 9. Depression
  • 10. Shays Rebellion
  • 11. Constitutional Convention
  • 12. Virginia Plan
  • 13. Legislative branch
  • 14. Executive branch

4
Constitution
  • A constitution is a document that sets out the
    laws, principles, organization, and processes of
    a government.

5
bill of rights
  • A bill of rights is a list of freedoms that a
    government promises to protect.

6
Execute
  • Execute means to carry out.

7
Articles of Confederation
  • The Articles of Confederation was the first
    American Constitution, which created a loose
    alliance of 13 independent states in 1777.

8
Cede
  • Cede means to give up.

9
Currency
  • Currency is another name for money.

10
Land Ordinance of 1785
  • The Land Ordinance of 1785 was a law for
    settling the Northwest Territory.

11
Northwest Ordinance
  • The Northwest Ordinance was a 1787 law that set
    up a government for the Northwest Territory.
  • It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and
    outlawed slavery in the northwest territory.

12
Depression
  • A Depression is a period when business activity
    slows, prices and wages fall and unemployment
    rises.
  • After the Revolution, the United States was in a
    depression.

13
Shay's Rebellion
  • Shays Rebellion was a 1786 rebellion led by a
    farmer named Daniel Shay who lost his farm in
    Massachusetts.

14
Constitutional Convention
  • The Constitutional Convention was a meeting of
    state representatives on May 25, 1787 to revise
    the Articles of Confederation.
  • The meeting took place at Philadelphia,
    Pennsylvania
  • Instead of revising the Articles of
    Confederation, the delegates wrote a new
    constitution.

Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
15
Virginia Plan
  • The Virginia Plan at the Constitutional
    Convention was a plan that called for a strong
    national government with three branches of
    government and a two chamber legislature.

16
Legislative Branch
  • The legislative branch is the branch of
    government that makes laws.
  • The legislative branch consists of two houses.
    When a legislative branch consists or two houses,
    it is called a bicameral legislature.
  • The two houses are the Senate and the House of
    Representatives.
  • Together they are called Congress.

The Capital Building where Congress meets.
17
Executive Branch
  • The executive branch is the branch of government
    that carries the laws out, or enforces the laws.
  • The Executive branch is the president, vice
    president and numerous departments of the
    executive branch.

The White House
18
Judicial Branch
  • The judicial branch is the branch of government
    that decides if laws are carried out fairly.
  • They judicial branch interprets (explains the
    laws).
  • The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court
    and lower courts.

The Supreme Court
19
New Jersey Plan
  • The New Jersey Plan was a plan at the
    Constitutional Convention that called for three
    branches of government with a one house
    legislative branch.
  • This plan favored small states.

20
Compromise
  • A compromise is a settlement in which each side
    gives up some of its demands in order to reach an
    agreement.

21
Great Compromise
  • The Great Compromise was a plan at the
    Constitutional Convention that settled the
    differences between large and small states.



Plan
Plan
Great Compromise
22
Three-Fifths Compromise
  • The Three-Fifths Compromise was an agreement at
    the Constitutional Convention that three fifths
    of slaves in any state be counted in its
    population towards a states representation in the
    House of Representatives.

23
Republic
  • A republic is a system of government in which
    citizens choose representatives to govern them.

24
Separation of Powers
  • Separation of powers is a principle by which
    powers of government are divided among separate
    branches.

25
Federalists
  • The Federalists were people who supported the new
    constitution created at the Constitutional
    Convention.
  • They favored a strong central government.

26
Antifederalists
  • Antifederalists were people against the new
    constitution created at the Constitutional
    Convention.
  • They liked stronger state governments and a weak
    central government.

27
The Federalists Papers
  • The Federalist papers were a series of essays by
    Federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton,
    and John Jay in support of ratifying the
    Constitution.

James Madison
28
Amend
  • Amend means to change.
  • To amend the Constitution, an amendment must be
    added.

29
Bill of Rights
  • The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to
    the United States Constitution.
  • They protect our basic liberties.

30
Chapter 8 Vocabulary
13. Supreme Court 14. Appeal 15. unconstitutional
16. Veto 17. Override 18. Impeach 19. First
amendment 20. Second amendment 21. Citizen 22.
Immigrant 23. Patriotism
  1. Preamble
  2. Domestic tranquility
  3. General welfare
  4. Liberty
  5. Popular sovereignty
  6. Limited government
  7. Checks and balances
  8. Federalism
  9. House of Representatives
  10. Senate
  11. Bill
  12. Electoral college

31
Preamble
  • A Preamble is an introduction to a declaration,
    constitution, or other official document.
  • It starts with We the People because power
    starts with the people.

32
Domestic Tranquillity
  • Domestic Tranquility means peace and order at
    home.
  • It is one of the six goals stated in the Preamble
    of the Constitution.

33
General Welfare
  • General welfare is the well being of all the
    citizens of a nation.
  • It is one of the six goals mentioned in the
    Preamble of the Constitution.

34
Liberty
  • Liberty is another word for freedom.

35
Popular Sovereignty
  • Popular Sovereignty is a principle of the United
    States Constitution that states that the people
    have the right to create, alter or abolish their
    government.
  • In other words, the people have the power in
    government.

36
Limited Government
  • Limited government is a principle of the United
    States Constitution that states that government
    has only the powers the Constitution gives it.

37
Checks and Balances
  • Checks and balances is a principal of the United
    States Constitution that safeguards against abuse
    of power by giving each branch of government the
    power to check the other branches.


38
Federalism
  • Federalism is the principle in the United States
    Constitution that establishes the division of
    power between the federal government and the
    states.

39
House of Representatives
  • The House of Representatives is the larger of the
    two bodies that make up the legislative branch of
    the United States government.
  • Representation is based on population.

40
Senate
  • The Senate is the smaller of the two bodies that
    make up the legislative branch of the United
    States government.
  • Each state has only two senators.

41
Bill
  • A bill is a proposed law.
  • All bills start in Congress, because they are the
    branch of government that makes laws.

42
Electoral College
  • Group of electors from every state who meet
    every four years to vote for the President of the
    United States.

43
Supreme Court
  • Highest court in the United States established by
    the Supreme Court.

44
Appeal
  • To ask that a decision be reviewed by a higher
    court.

45
Unconstitutional
  • Not allowed under the Constitution

46
Veto
  • To reject, as when the President rejects a law
    passed by Congress.

Vetoed
47
Override
  • To overrule, as when congress overrules a
    presidential veto.

To override a presidential veto, Congress needs
to thirds of the members in both the House of
Representatives and Senate to vote yes to
overriding veto.
48
Impeach
  • To bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a
    public official.

49
First Amendment
  • Amendment to the United States Constitution that
    safeguards basic individual liberties including
    freedom of religion, speech, and the press.

50
Second Amendment
  • Amendment to the United States Constitution
    related to the right to bear arms.

51
Citizen
  • Person who owes loyalty to a particular nation
    and is entitled to all its rights and protection.

52
Immigrant
  • A person who enters another country in order to
    settle.

53
Patriotism
  • Feeling of love and devotion toward ones country.

54
Articles of Confederation
55
Articles of Confederation
  • The Articles of Confederation was the first
    American Constitution, which created a loose
    alliance of 13 independent states in 1777.

56
Structure of government
  • There was only one branch of government under the
    Articles of Confederation, the legislative
    branch.
  • This branch of government could make the laws,
    but nine of 13 states had to approve the law.
  • There was no executive branch or judicial branch.

57
Achievements
58
Achievements
  • There were two major accomplishments by Congress
    under the Articles of Confederation.
  • Two pieces of legislation were made by Congress
    dealing with the Northwest Territory.
  • These laws were called the Land Ordinance of 1785
    and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

59
Land Ordinance of 1785
  • The Land Ordinance of 1785 was a law for
    settling the Northwest Territory.

60
Northwest Ordinance
  • The Northwest Ordinance was a 1787 law that set
    up a government for the Northwest Territory.
  • It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and
    outlawed slavery in the northwest territory.

61
Weaknesses
  • The Articles of Confederation had numerous
    problems.
  • They were
  • Weak central government
  • Congress could not force states to pay taxes.
  • No Supreme Court to solve problems between the
    states.
  • Congress could not regulate trade between states

62
Shay's Rebellion
  • Shays Rebellion was a 1786 rebellion led by a
    farmer named Daniel Shay who lost his farm in
    Massachusetts.
  • He along with other farmers who lost their farm
    because of high taxes rebelled.
  • They burned government building throughout
    Massachusetts.
  • Eventually the state militia was called out to
    put the Rebellion.

63
Shay's Rebellion
  • Shays Rebellion showed that the federal
    government was not powerful enough to deal with
    major uprising.
  • In 1787, leaders from every state met in
    Philadelphia to revise the Articles of
    Confederation.
  • They decided to create a new constitution
    instead.
  • This meeting became known as the Constitutional
    Convention and they created the United States
    Constitution.
  • The constitution that is the basis of our current
    government.

64
The Constitutional Convention
Compromises At Convention
Delegates
Definition
Location
Federalist And Antifederalists
Federalist Papers
65
Constitutional Convention
  • The Constitutional Convention was a meeting of
    state representatives on May 25, 1787 to revise
    the Articles of Confederation.
  • The meeting took place at Philadelphia,
    Pennsylvania .
  • Instead of revising the Articles of
    Confederation, the delegates wrote a new
    constitution.

66
Location
  • The Constitutional Convention took place at
    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Independence Hall.

67
Compromises at Convention
  • To create a new constitution, the delegates at
    the convention had to solve many problems by
    coming up with compromises.
  • To the right are several compromises from the
    convention.

68
The Great Compromise
  • Two plans were created that set the structure of
    the new government.
  • These two plans were called the New Jersey Plan
    and the Virginia Plan.
  • To understand the Great Compromise we have to
    understand these two plans.



The Great Compromise
69
The Virginia Plan
  • This plan was created by James Madison and was
    favored by large states.
  • The plan called for three branches of government
    executive, legislative and judicial branch.
  • In the legislative branch, there would be two
    houses.
  • Representation for each state would be based on
    population.
  • That means that larger states would have more
    representatives in both houses.
  • Small states did not like that.

70
The New Jersey Plan
  • William Patterson came up with the New Jersey.
  • This plan was favored by small states.
  • Like the Virginia Plan, it created a government
    with three branches of government. However, in
    the legislative branch, would have just one house
    and representation would be the same for every
    state-only one representative per state.

71
Virginia
New Jersey
The Great Compromise
  • The Great Compromise solved the debate over
    representation in the new legislative branch.
  • Roger Sherman of Connecticut came up with the
    plan.
  • He merged the two plans (New Jersey plan and
    Virginia Plan) together.
  • Their would be three branches of government and
    in the legislative branch there would be two
    houses.

72
The Great Compromise
  • The two houses created were called the Senate and
    the House of Representatives.
  • In the Senate there would be only two
    representatives called Senators. Every state
    regardless of population would only have two
    senators. This kept the small states happy.
  • In the House of Representatives, representation
    would be determined by population. The larger the
    population a state has, the more representatives
    the state would have. This kept the large states
    happy.

New Jersey

Virginia
73
The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • After the representation issue in the House of
    Representatives with the Great Compromise, a new
    problem arose.
  • The problem was slavery and southern states
    wanted to count slaves towards there states
    population. That would mean southern states would
    have more representatives in the House of
    Representatives.

74
The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • A compromise was reached in which some slaves
    would be counted.
  • It was called the Three-fifths compromise because
    three-fifths of the slaves in a state would be
    counted towards a states representation in the
    House of Representatives.

75
The Election Compromise
  • The Election compromise was a compromise the
    president of the United States would be elected.
  • They created the electoral college system to
    elect the president.

76
Electoral College
  • Group of electors from every state who meet
    every four years to vote for the President of the
    United States.

77
The Election Compromise
  • The Election compromise was a compromise the
    president of the United States would be elected.
  • They created the electoral college system to
    elect the president.

78
Federalists
  • The Federalists were people who supported the new
    constitution created at the Constitutional
    Convention.
  • They favored a strong central government.

79
Antifederalists
  • Antifederalists were people against the new
    constitution created at the Constitutional
    Convention.
  • They liked stronger state governments and a weak
    central government.
  • They did not want the Articles of Confederation
    replaced.

80
The Federalists Papers
  • The Federalist papers were a series of essays by
    Federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton,
    and John Jay in support of ratifying the
    Constitution.
  • These essays were published in newspapers around
    the country to explain the advantages of the new
    constitution.

James Madison
81
Preamble and Goals of Constitution
  • The Preamble is the introduction to the
    Constitution.
  • We the people of the United States, in order to
    form a more perfect union, establish justice,
    insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the
    common defense, promote the general welfare, and
    secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and
    our posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution of the United States of America.
  • In this opening statement, the goals of the
    Constitution are listed. Click the underlined
    goal to learn more about each.

82
In order to form a more perfect Union
To unite the states into one united country.
83
Establish Justice
  • To create a government and justice system that
    treats everyone fairly and equally

84
Ensure Domestic Tranquillity
  • To have the power to keep the peace at home and
    to have to handle emergency situations .

85
Provide for a Common Defense
  • To protect our interests over seas and at home
    by having a well kept military force.

86
Promote the General Welfare
  • To look out for the well being of all citizens.

87
Article I The Legislative Branch
  • Article one of the Constitution creates the
    legislative branch as a bicameral legislature.
  • The Main job of the Legislative Branch is to make
    laws.
  • Bicameral means two houses.
  • The two houses that make the legislative branch
    are the Senate and the House of Representatives

88
Senate
  • The Senate consists of 100 members, 2 from every
    state.
  • Senators are elected for 6 year terms.
  • The minimum age to be a senator is 30.

89
House of Representatives
  • There are 435 members of the House of
    Representatives.
  • Membership is determined by population.
  • Each Congressman is elected for 2 years.
  • The minimum age to be a congressman is 25.

90
Article II Executive Branch
  • Article II of the Constitution establishes the
    executive branch with the President and Vice
    President.
  • The main job of the executive branch is to
    enforce the laws passed by Congress.
  • The president is can only serve for 2, 4 year
    terms.
  • The minimum age to be president is 35. You must
    also be a natural born citizen to become
    president.

91
Cabinet
  • The presidents cabinet are his advisor.
  • There are 15 cabinet positions.
  • These advisors are called secretaries.
  • These secretaries head departments.

92
Cabinet
  • Below is a list of some of the Departments
  • Department of Justice
  • Department of Home Land Security
  • Department of Defense
  • Department the Interior
  • Department of Transportation
  • Department of Education

93
Article III The Judicial Branch
  • Article III of the Constitution establishes the
    judicial branch which includes the Supreme Court
    and lower courts.
  • The Supreme Court is the highest court in the
    land.
  • It is the final court of appeals.
  • The Supreme Court does not hear criminal cases.
  • The Supreme Court hears cases involving the
    constitution, settling disputes between states or
    individual between states.

94
Supreme Court Justices
  • There are nine Supreme Court Justices
  • They are elected for life terms.

95
Articles IV-VII
  • Article IV
  • Article V
  • Article VI
  • Article VII

96
Article IV
  • Article four declares equality among the states,
    extradition, admissions of new states, Congresss
    authority over territories, republican forms of
    government in each state.

97
Article V
  • Establishes procedure for amending the
    Constitution.
  • There are two ways to propose and ratify an
    amendment to the Constitution.

98
Article V Amending the Constitution
99
Article VI
  • Declares the Constitution the Supreme law of the
    land.

100
Article VII
  • Establishes procedure for the 13 states to ratify
    the new Constitution.

101
Bill of Rights
  • The Bill of Rights were added in 1791 to
    guarantee the protection of citizens basic
    rights.
  • The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to
    the Constitution.

102
  • Bill of Rights
  • First Amendment
  • Second Amendment
  • Third Amendment
  • Fourth Amendment
  • Fifth Amendment
  • 6. Sixth Amendment
  • 7. Seventh Amendment
  • Eighth Amendment
  • Ninth Amendment
  • Tenth Amendment

Bill of Rights
103
1st Amendment
  • Freedom of speech, press, assembly, free exercise
    of religion.

104
2nd Amendment
  • Right to bear arms

105
3rd Amendment
  • Forbids government from quartering of troops in
    peacetime.

106
4th Amendment
  • Protects against unwarranted search.

107
5th Amendment
  • Protects rights of accused to due process.

108
6th Amendment
  • Protects rights to fair trial and counsel.

109
7th Amendment
  • Right of jury trial in civil cases

110
8th Amendment
  • Protects against cruel punishment and excessive
    bail.

111
9th Amendment
  • Rights not specifically mentioned still exist.

112
10th Amendment
  • Powers not specified in Constitution are left to
    states and the people.
  • This amendment is an additional protection of
    individual and state rights.

113
Principles of the Constitution
  • When they created the Constitution, the founders
    incorporated 6 principle, or rules, that would
    strengthen the government, but also limit its
    power.
  • The six principles are
  • 1. Limited Government
  • 2. Federalism
  • 3. Representative Government
  • 4. Separation of Power
  • 5. Checks and Balances
  • 6. Provision for Change

114
Limited Government
  • The Constitution of the United States
    specifically lists what the national government
    can do and cannot do.

115
Federalism
  • This principle divides power between the central
    government and the state governments.

116
Representative Government
  • This principle in the Constitution allows the
    people to elect the people who make decisions.

117
Separation of Power
  • Divides power between three branches of
    government.
  • Each branch can only do certain things, thus
    limiting the amount of power each branch has.

118
Checks and Balances
  • This principle allows each branch to have
    specific powers to limit the power of the other
    two branches.

119
Provision for Change
  • The Constitution of the United States allows it
    to be changed through the amendment process.

120
Ideas used in Constitution
  • The delegates at the Constitutional Convention,
    used ideas from civilizations of the past as well
    as ideas from several enlightenment thinkers.
    Below are a few of the individuals and societies,
    that founders used as models when creating the
    Constitution.
  • John Lockes unalienable rights and limited
    government
  • Baron de Montesquies Separation of Power and
    checks and balances
  • Roman Republic

121
Baron de Montesquiea
  • Several ideas of Montesquiea were used
  • They were separation of power and checks and
    balances.

122
Roman Republic
  • From the Romans, the delegates got the idea of a
    republican form of government.
  • A republican form of government is a government
    in which representatives make decisions for the
    citizens.

123
John Locke
  • John Lockes idea of natural rights and limited
    government were used not only in the declaration
    of Independence, but the Constitution.
  • John Locke believed everyone had certain
    unalienable rights and they were life, liberty
    and property.
  • He also believed that government should have
    limits on their power that power originates from
    the people governed.

124
Delegates
  • There were 55 delegates from each of the 13
    states at the convention except for Rhode Island.
    These delegates were some of the most respective
    and bright minds in the country.
  • Below are three of the most distinguished
    delegates present at the convention.

125
George Washington
  • George Washington was elected president of the
    Constitutional Convention.

126
Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin Franklin was the oldest of the Delegates
    at the age of 81.
  • He came up with many ideas used in the
    Constitution and used his sense of humor to
    diffuse some heated debates.

127
James Madison
  • James Madison came up with the Virginia Plan and
    took notes of the proceedings at the Convention.
  • It is because of his notes that we know what took
    place at the closed door convention.
  • He is known as the Father of the Constitution
    because of his input into its creation.

128
Secure the Blessing of Liberty
To give all people freedom
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