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Introduction to Earth Science

- Prologue

- INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
- Earth science- -study of Earths systems
- Includes
- Meteorology
- Astronomy
- Geology
- Oceanography

- Presentation Outline
- What is Earth Science
- Observations vs. Inference
- Metric Measurements
- Scientific Notation
- Percent Error
- Density
- Graphing
- Rate of Change

- OBSERVATION-
- -Uses the 5 senses to gather information
- -We use INSTRUMENTS to extend the senses

What are some instruments that you have used in

science?

- OBSERVATION-
- -Use senses for information
- -We use INSTRUMENTS to extend the senses
- INFERENCE-
- -make a conclusion (guess)
- -making sense of observations

- What do you see and what do you think will happen?

- What do you see and where do you think this photo

was taken?

- Come up with an observation and an inference

based on this photo

- Come up with an observation and an inference

based on these photos

Metric Measurements What is approximately 3,000

mm?

- The height of the classroom.
- About 10 feet equals about 3 m or 3,000 mm

Using the ESRT

- Page 1? Metric Ruler
- Metric based on meters as unit
- In your notes order the units from largest to

smallest. - Meter
- Kilometer
- Millimeter
- Centimeter

Conversions

- 1 km 1000 m
- 1 m ? cm
- 1 cm ? mm
- ? cm 1 mm

More Metric and Units

Kittens Kilometer 1000 m

Have Hectometer 100 m

Dirty Decamater 10 m

Mouths Meter 1 m

From

Drinking Decimeter 0.1 m

Chocolate Centimeter .01 m

Milk Millimeter .001 m

Units

- Mass ? grams (g)
- 1000 g 1 kg 1 kg ? g
- Volume ? milliliters (ml) for liquids
- Cubic centimeters (cm3) for solids
- 1000 ml ?
- Density? mass /volume ? units ?

Scientific Notation

- Scientific Notation A number written as the

product of a coefficient between 1 and 10 and a

power of 10. - U238 half life 4.5 x 109 years
- Diameter of an atom 2.44 x 10-10 m

4,500,000,000 years

0.00000000024 m

- Practice
- 3.5 x 103 ______________
- 8.6 x 105 _______________
- 7.4 x 102 _______________

- 80,000 8 x 104
- 520,000,000
- 42,000,000,000,000

Age of Earth

- 4,600,000,000 years
- Step 1 Write this number in scientific notation
- 4.6 x109 years
- Step 2 Write this in of years (text)
- 4.6 Billion Years

Scientific Notation on the ESRT

PAGE 1

PERCENT ERROR- -how wrong you are

?

Accepted value correct answer Measured value

your guess

- Temperature?

Accepted value -

measured value PCT ERROR --------------------

-------------------------- x 100

accepted value

How many Jelly Beans do you think there are in

the jar. Measure with your eyesThere are

__________ jellybeans.

Accepted value -

measured value PCT ERROR --------------------

-------------------------- x 100

accepted value

- Practice
- A student measures a table to be 1.9m long. In

reality it is 2.0m long. What is the percent

error of the student? - 2.0 1.9 X 100 5
- 2.0

A student measures a room to be 6.9m. If

the actual length is 7.5m, the students percent

error is? 7.5 6.9 X 100 8 7.5

Density

- Density a mass/volume ratio that does not depend

on size or shape - length 10 cm
- width 2 cm
- height 4 cm
- Volume ?
- Density mass/volume
- Density ?

Mass 240 grams

10 cm x 2 cm x 4 cm 80 cm3

240 g / 80 cm3 3 g/cm3

What if?

- If we cut the block into several smaller pieces,

what would the density of each piece be compared

to the original blocks density? - (1) Less
- (2) Greater
- (3) Equal
- (3) EQUAL

Practice

- A student determines the mass of a rock to be 196

grams, but the actual mass of the rock is 200

grams. The students approximate percent

deviation (percentage of error) is - 1.0
- 2.0
- 1.5
- 4.0

Density, Temperature, and Volume

- What happens to the air inside the balloon as we

heat it? - What happens to the volume? What happens to the

density? - What if we cool the air?
- Draw a graph that represents this relationship.

More Density Notes

240 grams

- What happens to the density of this box if you

increase the size/volume from 80 cm3 to 100 cm3?

- If you increase the size of the box/the volume

increases (and mass stays the same)? density

decreases. - You are dividing the mass by a larger number,

thus density will decrease. - Ex. 240 grams/100 cm3 2.4 g/cm3

Density versus Volume

- Density
- Volume
- As volume increases (when mass is constant),

density decreases. - Volume Density
- INVERSE RELATIONSHIP

What if you decrease volume?

- If I compress an object, what happens to its

density?

Which is more dense?

Which is more dense?

Which is more dense?

Which is more dense?

- Average densities
- -water 1 g/cm3 at 4o C
- below 4oC the density of water decreases.

Above 4oC, the density of water increases - -Ice 0.5 g/cm3
- -Earth 5.5 g/cm3
- -Saturn 0.7 g/cm3
- -human ?

Grasping Graphing

- Graph Visual display of information or data
- A way to organize and arrange data to be easily

understood - 3 main graphs (used in science) are bar, line,

pie

Parts of a Graph

- Independent variable x axis
- Ex. Time- causes change in the dependent variable
- Dependent Variable y axis
- Ex. Temperature- this experiences the result of

(or depends on) the independent variable - Title compares the dependent variable to the

independent (y versus x)

LINE GRAPHS

- Data changes due to a relationship
- Ex. temperature changes over time
- Average Daily Temperature for January 1-7 in

Degrees Fahrenheit - Date Temperature (F)
- 1 10
- 2 25
- 3 30
- 4 42
- 5 23
- 6 25
- 7 40

BAR GRAPHS

- Compare information collected by counting
- Favorite Student After School Activity
- Activity Number
- Visit W/Friends 175
- Talk on Phone 168
- Play Sports 120
- Earn Money 120
- Use Computers 65

PIE CHART/CIRCLE GRAPH

- Slices represent percentages of the total

Graph Relationships

- Direct as x increases, y increases
- Indirect as x increases, y decreases
- Constant as x increases, y stays the same
- Cyclic it repeats in a predictable pattern
- Example the tides due to moons gravity
- Example temperature vs. time of day (see sheet)

- Types of graphs
- -line graphs
- direct indirect or inverse cyclic
- relationship relationship

relationship

Rate of Change

- Rate of Change the amount of change in a field

that occurs over time - R.O.C change / time
- Example 6 am temp 55 F
- 2 pm temp 82 F
- Change in temp 82-55 27 F
- Change in time 8 hours
- Rate of change 3.4 F/ hour

Rate of Change

- What is the rate of change here?

- example
- From 300 pm to 600 pm the air temperature

falls from 85oF to 79oF. What is the rate of

change for temperature during this time? - Rate of change
- In 60 years, the shoreline at Rye Beach has

shrunk by 30 inches. What is the rate of change

for the shoreline? - Rate of Change

- Presentation Conclusion
- What is Earth Science
- Observations vs. Inference
- Metric Measurements
- Scientific Notation
- Percent Error
- Density
- Graphing
- Rate of Change