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Introduction to Earth Science

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Title: Introduction to Earth Science Author: Frank Napolitano Last modified by: Toby Created Date: 9/5/2004 6:02:25 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Earth Science


1
Introduction to Earth Science
  • Prologue

2
  • INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
  • Earth science- -study of Earths systems
  • Includes
  • Meteorology
  • Astronomy
  • Geology
  • Oceanography

3
  • Presentation Outline
  • What is Earth Science
  • Observations vs. Inference
  • Metric Measurements
  • Scientific Notation
  • Percent Error
  • Density
  • Graphing
  • Rate of Change

4
  • OBSERVATION-
  • -Uses the 5 senses to gather information
  • -We use INSTRUMENTS to extend the senses

5
What are some instruments that you have used in
science?
6
  • OBSERVATION-
  • -Use senses for information
  • -We use INSTRUMENTS to extend the senses
  • INFERENCE-
  • -make a conclusion (guess)
  • -making sense of observations

7
  • What do you see and what do you think will happen?

8
  • What do you see and where do you think this photo
    was taken?

9
  • Come up with an observation and an inference
    based on this photo

10
  • Come up with an observation and an inference
    based on these photos

11
Metric MeasurementsWhat is approximately 3,000
mm?
  • The height of the classroom.
  • About 10 feet equals about 3 m or 3,000 mm

12
Using the ESRT
  • Page 1? Metric Ruler
  • Metric based on meters as unit
  • In your notes order the units from largest to
    smallest.
  • Meter
  • Kilometer
  • Millimeter
  • Centimeter

13
Conversions
  • 1 km 1000 m
  • 1 m ? cm
  • 1 cm ? mm
  • ? cm 1 mm

14
More Metric and Units
Kittens Kilometer 1000 m
Have Hectometer 100 m
Dirty Decamater 10 m
Mouths Meter 1 m
From
Drinking Decimeter 0.1 m
Chocolate Centimeter .01 m
Milk Millimeter .001 m
15
Units
  • Mass ? grams (g)
  • 1000 g 1 kg 1 kg ? g
  • Volume ? milliliters (ml) for liquids
  • Cubic centimeters (cm3) for solids
  • 1000 ml ?
  • Density? mass /volume ? units ?

16
Scientific Notation
  • Scientific Notation A number written as the
    product of a coefficient between 1 and 10 and a
    power of 10. 
  • U238 half life 4.5 x 109 years
  • Diameter of an atom 2.44 x 10-10 m
  •  

4,500,000,000 years
0.00000000024 m
17
  • Practice
  • 3.5 x 103 ______________
  • 8.6 x 105 _______________
  • 7.4 x 102 _______________

18
  • 80,000 8 x 104
  • 520,000,000
  • 42,000,000,000,000

19
Age of Earth
  • 4,600,000,000 years
  • Step 1 Write this number in scientific notation
  • 4.6 x109 years
  • Step 2 Write this in of years (text)
  • 4.6 Billion Years

20
Scientific Notation on the ESRT
PAGE 1
21
PERCENT ERROR- -how wrong you are
?
Accepted value correct answer Measured value
your guess
  • Temperature?

Accepted value -
measured value PCT ERROR --------------------
-------------------------- x 100
accepted value
22
How many Jelly Beans do you think there are in
the jar. Measure with your eyesThere are
__________ jellybeans.
Accepted value -
measured value PCT ERROR --------------------
-------------------------- x 100
accepted value
23
  • Practice
  • A student measures a table to be 1.9m long. In
    reality it is 2.0m long. What is the percent
    error of the student?
  • 2.0 1.9 X 100 5
  • 2.0

A student measures a room to be 6.9m. If
the actual length is 7.5m, the students percent
error is? 7.5 6.9 X 100 8 7.5
24
Density
  • Density a mass/volume ratio that does not depend
    on size or shape
  • length 10 cm
  • width 2 cm
  • height 4 cm
  • Volume ?
  • Density mass/volume
  • Density ?

Mass 240 grams
10 cm x 2 cm x 4 cm 80 cm3
240 g / 80 cm3 3 g/cm3
25
What if?
  • If we cut the block into several smaller pieces,
    what would the density of each piece be compared
    to the original blocks density?
  • (1) Less
  • (2) Greater
  • (3) Equal
  • (3) EQUAL

26
Practice
  • A student determines the mass of a rock to be 196
    grams, but the actual mass of the rock is 200
    grams. The students approximate percent
    deviation (percentage of error) is
  • 1.0
  • 2.0
  • 1.5
  • 4.0

27
Density, Temperature, and Volume
  • What happens to the air inside the balloon as we
    heat it?
  • What happens to the volume? What happens to the
    density?
  • What if we cool the air?
  • Draw a graph that represents this relationship.

28
More Density Notes
240 grams
  • What happens to the density of this box if you
    increase the size/volume from 80 cm3 to 100 cm3?
  • If you increase the size of the box/the volume
    increases (and mass stays the same)? density
    decreases.
  • You are dividing the mass by a larger number,
    thus density will decrease.
  • Ex. 240 grams/100 cm3 2.4 g/cm3

29
Density versus Volume
  • Density
  • Volume
  • As volume increases (when mass is constant),
    density decreases.
  • Volume Density
  • INVERSE RELATIONSHIP

30
What if you decrease volume?
  • If I compress an object, what happens to its
    density?

31
Which is more dense?
32
Which is more dense?
33
Which is more dense?
34
Which is more dense?
35
  • Average densities
  • -water 1 g/cm3 at 4o C
  • below 4oC the density of water decreases.
    Above 4oC, the density of water increases
  • -Ice 0.5 g/cm3
  • -Earth 5.5 g/cm3
  • -Saturn 0.7 g/cm3
  • -human ?

36
Grasping Graphing
  • Graph Visual display of information or data
  • A way to organize and arrange data to be easily
    understood
  • 3 main graphs (used in science) are bar, line,
    pie

37
Parts of a Graph
  • Independent variable x axis
  • Ex. Time- causes change in the dependent variable
  • Dependent Variable y axis
  • Ex. Temperature- this experiences the result of
    (or depends on) the independent variable
  • Title compares the dependent variable to the
    independent (y versus x)

38
LINE GRAPHS
  • Data changes due to a relationship
  • Ex. temperature changes over time
  • Average Daily Temperature for January 1-7 in
    Degrees Fahrenheit
  • Date Temperature (F)
  • 1 10
  • 2 25
  • 3 30
  • 4 42
  • 5 23
  • 6 25
  • 7 40

39
BAR GRAPHS
  • Compare information collected by counting
  • Favorite Student After School Activity
  • Activity Number
  • Visit W/Friends 175
  • Talk on Phone 168
  • Play Sports 120
  • Earn Money 120
  • Use Computers 65

40
PIE CHART/CIRCLE GRAPH
  • Slices represent percentages of the total

41
Graph Relationships
  • Direct as x increases, y increases
  • Indirect as x increases, y decreases 
  • Constant as x increases, y stays the same
  • Cyclic it repeats in a predictable pattern
  • Example the tides due to moons gravity
  • Example temperature vs. time of day (see sheet)
  •  

42
  • Types of graphs
  • -line graphs
  • direct indirect or inverse cyclic
  • relationship relationship
    relationship

43
Rate of Change
  • Rate of Change the amount of change in a field
    that occurs over time
  • R.O.C change / time
  • Example 6 am temp 55 F
  • 2 pm temp 82 F
  • Change in temp 82-55 27 F
  • Change in time 8 hours
  • Rate of change 3.4 F/ hour

44
Rate of Change
  • What is the rate of change here?

45
  • example
  • From 300 pm to 600 pm the air temperature
    falls from 85oF to 79oF. What is the rate of
    change for temperature during this time?
  • Rate of change
  • In 60 years, the shoreline at Rye Beach has
    shrunk by 30 inches. What is the rate of change
    for the shoreline?
  • Rate of Change

46
  • Presentation Conclusion
  • What is Earth Science
  • Observations vs. Inference
  • Metric Measurements
  • Scientific Notation
  • Percent Error
  • Density
  • Graphing
  • Rate of Change
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