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Global OSSEs at NCEP Michiko Masutani http://www.emc.noaa.gov/research/osse Goal of OSSE Quantitatively based decisions on the design & implementation of future ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: http://www.emc.noaa.gov/research/osse


1
Global OSSEs at NCEP
Michiko Masutani
http//www.emc.noaa.gov/research/osse
2
Michiko Masutani 1, John S. Woollen 1 , Russ
Treadon1, Stephen J. Lord1, G. David Emmitt3,
Zoltan Toth1, John Le Marshal4, Thomas J.
Kleespies2 , John C. Derber1, Haibing Sun2 ,
Sidney A. Wood 3 , Weiyu Yang 1, Steven Greco
3, Joseph Terry 5, Bert Katz1 , Yuchang Song
1, Paul VanDelst1 Many other people of EMC,
SWA, NESDIS, NASA/GSFC, JCSDA, and ECMWF
3
Goal of OSSE
  • Quantitativelybased decisions on the design
    implementation of future observing systems
  • Evaluate possible future instruments without
    cost of developing, maintaining using observing
    systems.
  • (The cost often exceeds 100 M / instrument)
  • Reducing the significant time lags between
    instrument deployment and eventual operational
    NWP use.

Conduct Simulated Observing Systems Experiments
(OSSE)
4
Basic Concepts
  • Preparation of the Nature Run
  • Truth for OSSEs
  • Simulation of observed data
  • Must contains same kinds of errors as real
    observations (e.g., representativeness)
  • Be produced by instrument models different from
    used those in DA system (e.g., radiative
    transfer model)
  • Calibration
  • Simulated observations should exhibit similar
    impact on system as real observations.
  • Any difference should be explainable and
    consistent
  • Impact test
  • Analysis impact and forecast impact test

5
Simulated analysis and forecast are also evaluate
against the Nature Run
Analysis and forecast are evaluate against
analysis of control
6
Characteristics of NCEP OSSE
  • Winter time Nature run (1 month, Feb5-Mar.7,1993)
  • NR by ECMWF model T213 (0.5 deg)
  • NCEP DA withT62 2.5 deg and
  • T170 1 deg
  • 1993 data distribution for calibration.
  • Simulate and assimilate level1B radiance
  • Different method than using interpolated
    temperature as retrieval
  • Use line-of- sight (LOS) wind for DWL
  • not u and v component
  • Calibration performed
  • Effects of observational error tested
  • NR clouds are evaluated and adjusted

7
NCEP
Two OSSEs
NASA/GLA
  • Summer time Nature run (4 month) including
    hurricanes.
  • NR by NASA FVCCM model with 0.5 deg
  • Use NASA DAO GEOS-3 data assimilation with 1-1.5
    deg
  • 1999 data distribution
  • Use interpolated temperature for radiance data
  • Use U and V wind for DWL data
  • Impact on hurricane forecast
  • Evaluate cyclone tracks and Jet streak locations
  • Winter time Nature run (1 month)
  • NR by ECMWF model T213 (0.5 deg)
  • NCEP data assimilation T62 2.5 deg
  • 1993 data distribution
  • Simulate and assimilate satellite 1B radiance
  • Use line-of- sight wind for DWL
  • Evaluation and adjustment of cloud
  • Calibration performed
  • Effects of observational error tested
  • Scale decomposition of anomaly correlation skill

8
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11
Evaluation of NR clouds and adjustment
NR clouds are evaluated and adjusted.
  • Frequency distribution (in ) for ocean areas
    containing low level cloud cover in 20 5- band
    categories.
  • Solid line NR cloud cover without adjustment.
  • Dashed line with adjustment.

12
Initial condition from reanalysis with OP93
Spin up period
March 7
Feb.13
Feb.5
13
Testing OSSE Calibration
  • Compare real data sensitivity to sensitivity with
    simulated data
  • Relative order of impacts should be same for the
    same instruments
  • Magnitudes need not be the same but should be
    proportional
  • Quality control (rejection statistics)
  • Error characteristics (fits of background to Obs)

14
OSSE Calibration
15
500 hPa Height Anomaly Correlation 72 hour
forecasts
Calibration of Simulated Data Impacts Vs Real
16
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17
Difference between analysis with real and
constant SST.
Time- Longitude section of 500hPa height.
Averaged between 20S and 80S.
Feb. 13
Simulated with TOVS
Real With TOVS
Mar. 7
Feb. 13
Simulated w/o TOVS
Real w/o TOVS
Mar. 7
18
SST and Impact of TOVS
Anomalous warm localized SST in SH Pacific in
REAL SST. In simulation experiment constant SST
is used. Four analyses are performed with real
SST, constant SST, with and w/o TOVS. With TOVS
data the difference is small in mid troposphere
but without TOVS data, large differences appear
and propagate. Four experiments are repeated for
simulated data. This atmospheric response to SST
is reproduced by simulated experiments.
Impact of TOVS is much stronger in real
atmosphere.
With variable SST TOVS radiance become much more
important.

19
Observational Error FormulationSurface Upper
Air
Observation simulated at the Nature Run Surface
Nature Run
NCEP Model
?
?
Observation simulated at the Real Surface
Real
20
Impact of Different Surface and observational
Errors
(obs-anl) error with real sfc Random error
with real sfc Perfect with real sfc Random
error with NR sfc Real data
21
Observational Error FormulationSurface Upper
Air
Simulated with Systematic representation error
Z
  • With random error
  • Data rejection rate too small (top)
  • Fit of obs too small (bottom)

time
22
Impact Assessment of a DWL using OSSEs
23
Results from OSSEs for Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL)
Number of DWL LOS Winds 2/12/93
  • All levels (Best-DWL) Ultimate DWL that provides
    full tropospheric LOS soundings, clouds
    permitting.
  • DWL-Upper An instrument that provides mid and
    upper tropospheric winds only down to the levels
    of significant cloud coverage.
  • DWL-PBL An instrument that provides only wind
    observations from clouds and the PBL.
  • Non-Scan DWL A non-scanning instrument that
    provides full tropospheric LOS soundings, clouds
    permitting, along a single line that parallels
    the ground track.

24
Non scan
Clustered-Sample
Clustered-Sample
Distribiuted Sample
Distribiuted Sample
Note In order to measure U and V from non scan
DWL, two satellite or DWL sample for two
directions are required
25
Anomaly correlation with the Nature run (). The
skill is computed from12 hourly forecasts from
Feb14 to Feb28, 1993.
26
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28
Impact of DWL in Synoptic event (Note)
  • Data impact on analysis at 00Z February 26, 1993
    and their 48 hour forecasts at 00Z February 28 in
    200 hPa meridional wind fields.
  • Two figures on top show total fields of NR.
    Analysis and forecasts are presented as
    difference from NR.
  • Green indicate smaller differences from NR.
  • Analysis with
  • Conventional data only,
  • (b) Conventional data TOVS 1B
  • (c) Conventional dataBest DWL
  • (d)Conventional data TOVS 1B Best DWL
  • (e) Conventional datanon-scan DWL
  • (f)Conventional data TOVS 1B non-scan DWL

29
Impact of DWL in Synoptic event
a
b
c
d
e
f
30
Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL) Impact
Time averaged anomaly correlations between
forecast and NR for meridional wind (V) fields at
200 hPa and 850 hPa. Anomaly correlation are
computed for zonal wave number from 10 to 20
components. Differences from anomaly correlation
for the control run (conventional data only) are
plotted.
Forecast hour
31
Effect of Observational Error on DWL Impact
Total
  • Percent improvement over Control Forecast
    (without DWL)
  • Open circles RAOBs simulated with systematic
    representation error
  • Closed circles RAOBs simulated with random
    error
  • Orange Best DWL
  • Purple Non- Scan DWL

Wave 10-20
Forecast length
32
Highlight of the Results from DWL OSSEs

33
Other finding through DWL OSSEs
  • Upper level data become more important after 3
    days even at lower levels
  • Impact of DWL is more significant at smaller
    scales
  • In tropics large analysis impacts diminish
    rapidly
  • Need more model improvement to achieve forecast
    impact
  • DWL will be useful in evaluating analysis
  • Systematic large scale error added to the
    simulated data increase the data impact at large
    scale
  • There are evidence that even non-scan lidar will
    produce an almost similar amount of impact as
    RAOB wind in NH average.
  • RAOB wind has more impact over land. Non-scan
    lidar has more impact over ocean and tropics.
  • In SH, a non-scan DWL can produce comparable
    impacts with 1993 TOVS
  • Scanning is more important in upper troposphere
    than in lower troposphere

34
Impact of DWL with Scanning T170 vs. T62
NOAA 11, 12 TOVS were not ready for T170
experiments
35
Data Impact in T62 vs. T170
T62 CTL with Scan DWL
T170 CTL with Scan DWL
? CTL ? Non-ScanDWL X Scan DWL
36
Data Impact of scan DWL vs. T170
T62 CTL with Scan DWL
T170 CTL with Scan DWL
37
Non-Scan Lidar vs. RAOB Wind T62
5
38
Non-Scan Lidar vs. RAOB WindT170 (Feb13- Feb20)
5
39
Non scan DWL vs. RAOB Wind
T62 No RAOB With non scan DWL
T170 No RAOB With non scan DWL
40
Attempt for OSSE with AIRS
Version of SSI with December 2003 (Same version
used by AIRS impact test by JCSDA) AIRS showed
minimum impact. Very little data were
assimilated. Plan OSSE with NOAA 11, 12
data (We found NOAA 11,12 data were assimilated
in 1999 version of SSI and gave reasonable
results.) OSSE with AIRS and AMSU with December
2003 or current version of SSI Modify QC to let
more AIRS in and repeat the impact test CrIS and
ATMS have been simulated NESDIS is working on
simulation of CMIS
41
The Role of JCSDA in OSSEs
  • As a result a key program element for the Center
    is the conduct of OSSEs for advanced satellite
    sensors to be used for weather and climate
    (environmental ) analysis and prediction.
  • Instruments being currently assessed for such
    experiments are the CrIS, ATMS, GOES-R/GIFTS and
    the HyMS P and G.
  • HyMS Hyperspectral Microwave Sounder
  • P- Polar, G Geostationary

42
Search for the New Nature Run
Preparation of the nature run consume significant
resources. One or two good nature runs for many
OSSEs
43
New Nature Run (Sample proposal)
  • Low resolution Nature Run (L-NR)
  • One year (13month) low resolution (50km) with
    more vertical levels in stratosphere.
  • Remove the drift. (Discard the first month)
  • Daily SST(Provided by NCEP)

44
Summary
  • OSSE is critical tool for
  • Designing future observing systems
  • Improving DA and ensemble systems
  • Current NCEP system showed OSSEs are capable to
    provide critical information for assessing
    observational data impact
  • Future developments at NCEP will be coordinated
    with JCSDA, THORPEX and other international
    scientific community.
  • Need new nature run which will be used by many
    OSSEs.

45
Challenges in OSSE Research
  • The concept of OSSE is simple. However, there are
    many details in achieving a reliable OSSE
  • Short cuts will degrade OSSE
  • It is not possible to reproduce the real system
    perfectly
  • Evaluate the consequences of a shortcut and
    present with results
  • OSSE is a very labor intensive project.
  • Collaboration is very important
  • Require many experts in many fields.
  • Involve all elements of NWP
  • Small amounts of time from many people needed
  • There are limitations from the nature run
    provided
  • The limitations need to be evaluated
  • Results keep changing as DA system develops
  • OSSEs need to be repeated over and over again
    with different systems in various NWP centers.

46
Lessons from OSSEs
valuation against truth (NR)
  • OSSE can evaluate data impact against truth (NR)
  • Many findings are different from (theoretical?)
    expectation.
  • Worth trying even if not so perfect.
  • Coordination is very important.
  • - Missing elements hold back whole project
  • Interpretation has to be done very carefully
  • Apparent impact depends on CTL
  • The different between NR and real atmosphere
  • Difference in Observational errors
  • Work involved
  • Check NR
  • Data simulation
  • Check the simulated data
  • Preparation of fix files
  • Assimilation
  • Evaluation
  • Diagnostics
  • Presentation

47
http//www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/research/osse
48
Non-Scan Lidar vs. RAOB WindFeb13-28
Improvement in Anomaly correlation in wave number
10-20
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