NS4016/NS4026 Final Year Project: Academic Writing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – NS4016/NS4026 Final Year Project: Academic Writing PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 4db5e4-YmQzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

NS4016/NS4026 Final Year Project: Academic Writing

Description:

NS4016/NS4026 Final Year Project: Academic Writing de O Sullivan, Lawrence Cleary Regional Writing Centre Workshop outline Motivation and time management Key ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:35
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 49
Provided by: Ide
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: NS4016/NS4026 Final Year Project: Academic Writing


1
NS4016/NS4026 Final Year ProjectAcademic
Writing
  • Íde OSullivan, Lawrence Cleary
  • Regional Writing Centre

2
Workshop outline
  • Motivation and time management
  • Key consideration
  • The writing process
  • The rhetorical situation
  • Structuring your FYP
  • Reporting the work of others
  • Academic writing style
  • Strategies to develop writing

3
Motivation and Time Management
4
It is not too late
  • Take stock of where you are now
  • Outline your research
  • Make plans based on the time that is left
  • Organise your time accordingly
  • Get writing
  • Keep writing
  • Allow time for revision and to put it all
    together
  • Let family and friends know
  • Be selfish with your time

5
Where am I?
  • What writing have you done for the research
    proposal, and what writing do you need to do in
    order to complete the proposal on time?
  • Keep writing non-stop for 5 minutes.
  • Write in sentences.
  • Do not edit or censor your writing.
  • Private writing -- no one will read it.
  • Discuss what you have written in pairs.

6
Outlining (Murray, 2006)
  • Title and draft introduction
  • Level 1 outlining
  • Main headings
  • Level 2 outlining
  • Sub-headings
  • Level 3 outlining
  • Decide on content

7
Writing goals
Outline Words/Timeframe
Title Chapter 1 (title) Section 1 (title) Section 2 (title) Section 3 (title) Chapter 2 (title) Section 1 (title) Section 2 (title) Section 3 (title) Chapter 3
8
Keep writing
  • Where and when do you write?
  • Why are you not writing?
  • I dont feel ready to write.
  • Writers block
  • Getting unstuck
  • Writing to prompts/freewriting (write anything)
  • Set writing goals
  • Write regularly
  • Integrate writing into your thinking
  • Break it down into a manageable process

9
Keep writing
  • Be patient
  • Be creative
  • Taking pleasure in writing
  • Be proud of your writing
  • Get stuck in

10
Key Considerations
11
Key stages in the process
  • Planning
  • Drafting
  • Revision
  • Editing and Proofreading

12
The rhetorical situation
  • Occasion
  • Topic
  • Audience
  • Purpose
  • Writer

13
Key tasks for academic writers
  • Participating in academic conversations
  • Developing and advancing balanced arguments
  • Exploring your personal writing process
  • Developing strategies that work for you

14
Structuring your FYP
15
Organising principles
  • Thesis
  • Research question
  • Hypothesis

16
Organising principles
  • Unity
  • Coherence
  • Cohesion

17
Flow
  • Logical method of development
  • Effective transition signals
  • Good signposting
  • Consistent point of view
  • Conciseness (careful word choice)
  • Clarity of expression
  • Paragraph structure
  • Unity
  • Coherence

18
Paragraph structure
  • Chapters or sections are divided into paragraphs
    in a meaningful way.
  • Like chapter and section headings, paragraphs
    also signal the logically organised progression
    of ideas.
  • Just as an essay is guided by a thesis statement,
    a paragraph is organised around its topic
    sentence.
  • A topic sentence informs the reader of the topic
    to be discussed. It contains controlling ideas
    which limit the scope of the discussion to ideas
    that are manageable in a paragraph.

19
Paragraph structure Supporting sentences
  • The sentences that follow expand upon the topic,
    using controlling ideas to limit the discussion.
    The main idea is supported by
  • Evidence in the form of facts, statistics,
    theoretical probabilities, reputable, educated
    opinions,
  • Illustrations in the form of examples and
    extended examples, and
  • Argumentation based on the evidence presented.
  • Qualifying statements indicate the limitations of
    the support or argument.

20
Paragraph structure Concluding sentences
  • Not every paragraph needs a concluding sentence.
  • Concluding sentences can either comment on the
    information in the text, or
  • They can paraphrase the topic sentence.

21
Example (Meei-Fang et al. 2007, p.471)
  • People with dementia are particularly vulnerable
    to malnutrition they have a decreased ability to
    understand directions and to express their needs
    verbally, are easily distracted from eating,
    prone to become agitated, and may use utensils
    incorrectly. Inability to feed oneself (eating
    dependency) is a major risk factor for
    malnutrition among older people living in
    long-term care settings (Abbasi Rudman 1994,
    Durnbaugh et al. 1996). When people with dementia
    can no longer take food voluntarily, assistance
    is required although, as the disease progresses,
    even taking food with assistance can become
    difficult and, in some instances, tube-feeding
    may be required to supply nutrition. This form of
    feeding can, however, cause distress and anxiety,
    not only for the person being fed, but also for
    caregivers (Akerlund Norberg 1985, Burgener
    Shimer 1993).

22
Paragraph structure Unity
  • Paragraphs should be unified.
  • Unity means that only one main idea is discussed
    in a paragraph. The main idea is stated in the
    topic sentence, and then each and every
    supporting sentence develops that idea (Oshima
    and Hogue 1999, p.18).

23
Paragraph structure Coherence
  • Coherence means that your paragraph is easy to
    read and understand because
  • your supporting sentences are in some kind of
    logical order
  • your ideas are connected by the use of
    appropriate transition signals
  • your pronoun references clearly point to the
    intended antecedent and is consistent
  • you have repeated or substituted key nouns.
    (Oshima and Hogue 2006, p.22)

24
Example (Meei-Fang et al. 2007, p.471)
  • People with dementia are particularly vulnerable
    to malnutrition they have a decreased ability to
    understand directions and to express their needs
    verbally, are easily distracted from eating,
    prone to become agitated, and may use utensils
    incorrectly. Inability to feed oneself (eating
    dependency) is a major risk factor for
    malnutrition among older people living in
    long-term care settings (Abbasi Rudman 1994,
    Durnbaugh et al. 1996). When people with dementia
    can no longer take food voluntarily, assistance
    is required although, as the disease progresses,
    even taking food with assistance can become
    difficult and, in some instances, tube-feeding
    may be required to supply nutrition. This form of
    feeding can, however, cause distress and anxiety,
    not only for the person being fed, but also for
    caregivers (Akerlund Norberg 1985, Burgener
    Shimer 1993).

25
Paragraph structure Transition signals
  • Transition signals do exactly what it says on the
    tin they signal. They can signal relationships
    between sentences, just as they can signal
    relationships between paragraphs.
  • Example Finally, there have been numerous women
    altogether outside the profession, who were
    reformers dedicated to creating alternatives
    (Gillet 2008).
  • The signal indicates the final point in a series
    of points.

26
Paragraph structure Transition signals
  • To introduce an additional idea
  • To introduce an opposite idea or contrast
  • To introduce a choice or alternative
  • To introduce an example
  • To introduce and explanation
  • To list
  • To introduce a conclusion/summary
  • To introduce a result

27
Paragraph structure
  • Dos and Donts
  • Do not use pronouns to refer to an antecedent in
    the previous paragraph.
  • Lengthy paragraphs indicate a lack of structure.
  • Short paragraphs indicate a lack of detail or
    evidence to support the argument.
  • Do not end a paragraph with a quotation.
  • Use a variety of sentence patterns and lengths to
    give your paragraph a lively rhythm.
  • Signpost your paragraph organisation.

28
Sentence structure
  • Vary your rhythm by using a variety of sentence
    types and patterns. Use a combination of
  • Simple sentences
  • Compound sentences
  • Complex sentences
  • Compound-Complex sentences
  • Do not limit yourself to simple sentences or
    linking sentences using and/but.

29
Reporting the work of others
30
Reporting the work of others
  • Making use of the ideas of other people is one
    of the most important aspects of academic writing
    because
  • it shows awareness of other peoples work
  • it shows that you can use their ideas and
    findings
  • it shows you have read and understood the
    material you are reading
  • it shows where your contribution fits in
  • it supports the points you are making.
  • (Gillet 2005)

31
Reporting the work of others
  • We report another authors ideas by using
    paraphrase, summary, quotation and synthesis, and
    we use introductory phrases and reporting verbs
    to communicate our relationship to the ideas that
    we are reporting.
  • Compare, for example
  • Brown (1983, p.231) claims that a far more
    effective approach is ...
  • Brown (1983, p.231) points out that a far more
    effective approach is ...
  • A far more effective approach is ... (Brown 1983,
    p.231)

32
Paraphrasing
  • Paraphrasing is writing the ideas of another
    person in your own words. You need to change the
    words and the structure but keep the meaning the
    same (Gillet 2008).

33
Paraphrasing
  • Example
  • Original Text
  • Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving
    information.
  • Paraphrase
  • Memory is the facility for keeping and recovering
    data.
  • (Gillet 2008)

34
Summary
  • A summary is a shortened version of a text. It
    contains the main points in the text and is
    written in your own words. It is a mixture of
    reducing a long text to a short text and
    selecting relevant information. A good summary
    shows that you have understood the text (Gillet
    2008).

35
Summary
  • Example
  • Original text
  • People whose professional activity lies in the
    field of politics are not, on the whole,
    conspicuous for their respect for factual
    accuracy.
  • Summary
  • Politicians often lie.
  • (Gillet 2008)

36
Synthesis
  • A synthesis is a combination, usually a shortened
    version, of several texts made into one. It
    contains the important points in the text and is
    written in your own words.
  • To make a synthesis you need to find suitable
    sources, and then to select the relevant parts in
    those sources. You will then use your paraphrase
    and summary skills to write the information in
    your own words. The information from all the
    sources has to fit together into one continuous
    text.
  • (Gillet 2008)

37
Direct quotation
  • The text quoted is sacrosanct.
  • Do not change spelling (i.e. American to British)
    or punctuation.
  • Do not correct spelling and punctuation.
  • Sic enclosed in square brackets, sic, is
    inserted into the quote, after the error, to
    indicate to the reader that the error was not
    yours.

38
Reporting the work of others
  • Reporting the work of others
  • Integral
  • Non-integral
  • Language for reporting
  • http//www.uefap.com/writing/writfram.htm
  • Short quotations (quotations in text)
  • Long quotations (block quotations)
  • Omitting words
  • Using the abbreviation et al.
  • Secondary sources

39
Academic Writing Style
40
Stylistic differences that markacademic writing
  • Complexity
  • Formality
  • Objectivity
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Explicitness
  • Hedging
  • Responsibility
  • (Gillet, 2008)

41
Academic writing style
  • Hedge. Distinguish between absolutes and
    probabilities. Absolutes are 100 certain.
    Probabilities are less than 100 certain.
  • Be responsible. Provide traceable evidence and
    justifications for any claims you make or any
    opinions you have formed as a result of your
    research.

42
Persuasion and truth in academic writing
  • Because they are argumentative, academic writing
    tends to be persuasive.
  • An argument should be persuasive, but dont
    sacrifice truth in favour of persuasion.
  • Academic inquiry is a truth-seeking pursuit.
  • facts are distinguished from opinions.
  • relative truths are distinguished from absolute
    truths.
  • The integrity of the conclusions reached in an
    academic essay or report is based on its honest
    pursuit of truth.

43
Strategies to Develop Writing
44
Cracking the codes
  • Analysing the genre/text and modelling
  • Generate a list of
  • The most important features of academic writing
  • Criteria to make your writing-strategies more
    effective
  • The important conventions in your discipline
  • What is/is not acceptable in your discipline
  • Student handbooks and guides for written
    submissions

44
45
Getting started
  • Create time and space for writing
  • Freewriting
  • Writing to prompts
  • What writing have you done for this assignment,
    what writing would you like to do
  • The aim of this assignment
  • Experiment with different types of writing

46
Writing time
  • Dealing with issues of time
  • Setting goals
  • Binge and snack writing (Murray, 2005)
  • Do I need a big block of time to write
    productively?
  • Short bursts of productive writing (Murray and
    Moore, 200617)
  • Outlining (Murray, 2005)

47
Dialogue as a social strategy
  • Peer-review
  • Generative writing
  • The writing sandwich (Murray, 200585)
    writing, talking, writing
  • Writing buddies (Murray and Moore, 2006102)
  • Engaging in critiques of one anothers work
    allows you to become effective critics of your
    own work.

Regional Writing Centre
47
48
Resources
  • Shannon Consortium Regional Writing Centre, UL
    http//www.ul.ie/rwc/
  • Using English for Academic Purposes
    http//www.uefap.com/index.htm
  • The Writers Garden http//www.
    cyberlyber.com/writermain.htm
  • The OWL at Purdue http//owl.english.purdue.edu/
  • The Writing Center at the University of North
    Carolina at Chapel Hill http//www.unc.edu/depts
    /wcweb/handouts/index.html
About PowerShow.com