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Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility

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Title: Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility


1
Chapter 3 Planning Network Protocols and
Compatibility
2
Learning Objectives
  • Explain basic network concepts, including network
    terms, types of networks, and network cards
  • Explain the NDIS and ODI network driver
    specifications
  • Explain the communications protocols used in
    Windows 2000 Server, including TCP/IP, NWLink,
    NetBEUI, DLC, and AppleTalk

3
Learning Objectives (continued)
  • Plan network binding order, change the binding
    order, and bind and unbind protocols
  • Plan how to implement protocols on different
    types of networks

4
Protocol
  • A protocol consists of guidelines for
  • How data is formatted into discrete units called
    packets and frames
  • How packets and frames are transmitted across one
    or more networks
  • How packets and frames are interpreted at the
    receiving end

5
Packets and Frames
  • Packets and frames are units of data transmitted
    from one networked computer or device to another.
  • Although packets and frames are often used to
    have the same meaning, there is a difference.
    Packets operate at a higher communication layer
    and contain routing information.

6
General Sections in Packets and Frames
  • Header
  • Data
  • Trailer or footer

7
Packet and Frame Format
Figure 3-1 Basic packet and frame format
8
Network Design
  • The basic design of a network is its topology
  • Topology The physical layout of the cable and
    the logical path followed by network packets and
    frames sent on the cable

9
Local Area Network
  • Local area network (LAN) Joins computers,
    printers, and other computer equipment within a
    limited service area and generally employs only
    one topology

10
Example of a LAN
Figure 3-2 A LAN in a building
11
Metropolitan Area Network
  • Metropolitan area network (MAN) A network that
    links multiple LANs within a large city or
    metropolitan area

12
Example of a MAN
University chemistry building
Research hospital
Pharmaceutical company
MAN connecting buildings in a city
13
Enterprise Network
  • Enterprise Network A network that often reaches
    throughout a large area, such as a college
    campus, a city, or across several states. A
    distinguishing factor of an enterprise network is
    that it brings together an array of network
    resources such as many kinds of servers,
    mainframes, printers, network devices, intranets,
    and the Internet

14
Typical Resources in an Enterprise Network
Figure 3-3 Resources in an enterprise network
15
Wide Area Network
  • Wide Area Network (WAN) A far-reaching system of
    networks that can extend across state lines and
    across continents

16
Example of a WAN
WAN across a continent
17
Network Interface Card Communication Medium
Options
  • Coaxial cable (thick and thinnet)
  • Twisted-pair (shielded and unshielded)
  • Fiber-optic
  • Wireless (infrared, radio wave, microwave,
    satellite)

18
Connecting a Medium to a NIC
Figure 3-4 Connecting cable to a NIC
19
Device Address
  • Each NIC has a physical or device address that is
    burned into a PROM on the card
  • Media access control (MAC) address is another way
    of describing the device address

20
Ethernet and Token Ring
  • Ethernet A network transport system that uses a
    carrier sensing and collision detection method to
    regulate data transmissions
  • Token ring A network transport method that uses
    a token, which is passed from node to node, to
    coordinate data transmissions

21
NDIS
  • Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) A
    set of standards developed by Microsoft and 3COM
    for network drivers that enables communication
    between a NIC and a protocol, and that enables
    the use of multiple protocols on the same network

22
NDIS Architecture
Figure 3-5 Binding a protocol to a NIC
23
ODI
  • Open Datalink Interface (ODI) driver A driver
    that is used by Novell NetWare networks to
    transport multiple protocols on the same network

24
Microsoft-Supported Communication Protocols
25
Microsoft-Supported Protocols (continued)
26
TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) portion
    performs extensive error checking to ensure that
    data is delivered successfully
  • Internet Protocol (IP) portion consists of rules
    for packaging data and ensuring that it reaches
    the correct destination address

27
Dotted Decimal Notation
  • Dotted Decimal Notation An addressing technique
    that uses four octets, such as 100000110.11011110.
    1100101.00000101, converted to decimal (e.g.,
    134.22.101.005), to differentiate individual
    servers, workstations, and other network devices.

28
Unicasting and Multicasting
  • In a unicast, a transmission is sent to each
    client that requests a file or application, such
    as a multimedia presentation
  • In a multicast, a transmission is sent to all
    requesting clients as a group (reducing the total
    network traffic)

29
Unicasting and Multicasting Compared
Figure 3-6 Unicasting compared to multicasting
30
Subnet Mask
  • Subnet mask A designated portion of an IP
    address that is used to indicate the class of
    addressing on a network and to divide a network
    into subnetworks as a way to control traffic and
    enforce security

31
Configuring the IP Address and Subnet Mask in
Windows 2000
Figure 3-7 IP address and subnet mask setup
32
Static and Dynamic Addressing
  • Dynamic addressing Involves automatically
    assigning an IP address to a network host
  • Static addressing Involves manually assigning an
    IP address to a network host

33
TCP/IP Advantages
  • Well-suited for medium and large networks
  • Designed for routing has high degree of
    reliability
  • Used worldwide for directly connecting to the
    Internet and by Web servers
  • Enables lower TCO on Microsoft networks

34
TCP/IP Advantages
  • Compatible with standard tools for analyzing
    network performance
  • Parallel ability to use DHCP and WINS through a
    Windows 2000 server
  • Ability for diverse networks and operating
    systems to communicate
  • Compatible with Microsoft Windows Sockets

35
TCP/IP Disadvantages
  • More difficult to set up and maintain than other
    protocols
  • Somewhat slower than IPX/SPX and NetBEUI on
    networks with light to medium traffic

36
Routing via TCP/IP
Figure 3-8 Router forwarding packets to a
designated network
37
Planning Tip
  • For medium and large sized networks, plan to use
    TCP/IP because it enables you to manage and
    secure network traffic through creating subnets

38
Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
39
Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
(continued)
40
Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
(continued)
41
Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
(continued)
42
Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
(continued)
43
IPX/SPX
  • IPX A protocol developed by Novell for use with
    its NetWare server operating system (particularly
    for NetWare versions before version 5)
  • SPX A Novell connection-oriented protocol used
    for network transport when there is a particular
    need for data reliability

44
NWLink
  • A network protocol that simulates the IPX/SPX
    protocol for Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT, and
    2000 communications with Novell NetWare file
    servers and compatible devices

45
Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) Components
  • Client Service for NetWare
  • NWLink IPX/SPX
  • NWLink NetBIOS

46
CSNW Installed in Windows 2000
Figure 3-9 Windows 2000 with CSNW components
installed
47
Configuring NWLink
  • Configure three elements
  • Frame type
  • Network number
  • Internal network number

48
When to Configure the Internal Network Number
  • When the NetWare server that is accessed uses two
    or more frame types
  • When the Windows 2000 host has two or more NICs
    and NWLink is bound to more than one of the NICs
  • When an application uses NetWares Service
    Advertising Protocol (SAP)

49
When to Use NWLink
  • To enable a computer running Windows 2000 to
    access a NetWare server (pre-version 5)
  • To set up Windows 2000 as a gateway to a NetWare
    server
  • To enable NetWare clients to access a Windows
    2000 server

50
Planning Tip
  • If you upgrade NetWare servers to version 5.x or
    higher, convert from IPX/SPX to TCP/IP for better
    network communication options and better
    compatibility with Windows 2000 servers

51
NetBIOS
  • A combination software interface and network
    naming convention
  • Available in Windows 2000 through the files
    Netbt.sys, NetBIOS.sys, and NetBIOS.dll

52
NetBEUI
  • NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) A
    non-routable communications protocol native to
    early Microsoft network communications

53
NetBEUI and NetBIOS Communication
Figure 3-10 NetBIOS/NetBEUI communication
54
Planning Tip
  • When you upgrade from Windows NT Server to
    Windows 2000 Server, plan to retire NetBEUI
    implementations (if possible) and convert
    upgraded servers and clients to TCP/IP for more
    functionality

55
When to Use NetBEUI
  • For temporary backward compatibility when
    converting from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000
    Server
  • For small networks that do not have Internet
    access, that do not use the Active Directory,
    that do not use routing, and that require only a
    basic installation
  • For backward compatibility with particular
    applications

56
DLC
  • Data Link Control (DLC) protocol Enables
    communication with older IBM mainframes and
    minicomputers, and with some older HP print
    server cards

57
When to Use DLC
  • To connect to IBM and other computers that use
    Systems Network Architecture (SNA) communications
  • To connect to older peripheral devices, such as
    printers that use DLC

58
AppleTalk
  • AppleTalk A peer-to-peer protocol used in
    network communication between Macintosh computers
  • Windows 2000 Server Services for Macintosh
    include
  • File Server for Macintosh (MacFile)
  • Print Server for Macintosh (MacPrint)
  • AppleTalk protocol

59
When to Use AppleTalk
  • Use AppleTalk to enable Macintosh clients to
    connect to Windows 2000 Server

60
Binding Order
  • Windows NT and Windows 2000 enable you to set a
    binding order which establishes the protocol that
    will be tried first in a network communication
    (or a communication with a network printer)

61
Troubleshooting Tip
  • If network performance is slow and your network
    uses a combination of protocols, tune the binding
    order on Windows NT and Windows 2000 clients
    which can be an inexpensive way to immediately
    relieve network congestion

62
Network Planning Considerations
  • Size and purpose of the organization
  • Potential growth
  • Proportion of mission-critical applications
  • Role of the network to the mission of the
    organization
  • Security needs
  • Budget
  • Internet and intranet requirements
  • Interconnectivity requirements

63
Planning Tip
  • Begin network planning by understanding
  • User needs
  • Important business processes
  • Current resources
  • Potential growth

64
Considerations in Selecting the Right Protocol(s)
  • Routing needs
  • Size of the network in terms of connections
  • Presence of Windows 2000 servers
  • Presence of mainframes and other computers that
    use SNA
  • Presence of NetWare servers
  • Access to the Internet or intranets
  • Presence of mission-critical and multimedia
    applications

65
Chapter Summary
  • Protocols are the life blood of a network, thus
    plan their use carefully.
  • The Microsoft NDIS driver enables using one or
    more protocols such as TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI,
    DLC, and AppleTalk.
  • For modern networking TCP/IP implementations are
    preferred.

66
Chapter Summary
  • Plan to use only the protocols necessary.
  • Tune network binding order in Windows NT and
    Windows 2000 operating systems to enhance network
    performance.
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