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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

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Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Remember from Chapter Two, Vygotsky emphasizes social interactions as mechanisms for cognitive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood


1

Chapter 7
  • Physical and Cognitive Development in Early
    Childhood

2
In this chapter
3
Physical ChangesGrowth and Motor Development
  • In early childhood
  • Changes in height and weight happen more slowly
    during early childhood than infancy
  • Impressive gains in major locomotor skills
  • Manipulative skills improve but less so than
    major motor skills

4
Physical ChangesChildrens Drawing
  • Early training can accelerate rate children
    learn school-related fine-motor skills
  • Older children benefit more from training more
    than younger
  • Learning to write letters aids in letter
    understanding

5
Figure 7.1 Stages in Childrens Drawing
6
The Brain and Nervous SystemLateralization
  • Lateralization left and right halves of the
    brain's cerebral cortex execute different
    functional specializations
  • Contributes to important neurological milestones
    in early childhood

7
The Brain and the Nervous System
  • Basic outline of lateralization is genetically
    determined
  • Genes dictate functions to be lateralized
  • Experience shapes pace of lateralization

Figure 7.2 Lateralization of Brain Function
8
The Brain and Nervous SystemMyelinization
  • Myelinization protective, fatty material wraps
    around nerve cells in the peripheral and central
    nervous system
  • Reticular formation
  • Hippocampus

9
The Brain and Nervous SystemHandedness
  • Right or LeftNot right or wrong!
  • 83 right-handed
  • 14 left-handed
  • 3 ambidextrous
  • Appears very early in life
  • Research suggests genetic link

10
Health and WellnessEating patterns
  • Preschoolers
  • Often eat less than when babies
  • May not consume the majority of daily calories at
    mealtime
  • Challenges
  • Food aversions may surface
  • Eating behaviors bring on family conflicts

11
Health and WellnessIllnesses and Accidents
  • Illness
  • Each year, 4 6 bouts of brief sickness
  • High levels of family stress more likely to
    produce sick children

12
Health and WellnessIllnesses and Accidents
  • Accidents
  • 25 of U.S. children under 5 have one accident
    in any one year requiring medical attention
  • Most occur in home
  • Major cause of death in preschoolers
  • More common among boys

13
Abuse and NeglectChild abuse
  • What is child abuse?
  • Child Abuse Physical or psychological injury
    resulting from adults intentional exposure of
    child to potentially harmful stimuli, sexual
    acts, or neglect

14
Abuse and NeglectChild Abuse Prevalence
  • Prevalence
  • Responsible for about 10 of emergency room
    visits
  • Between 1 and 5 of children suffer physical
    abuse
  • 2000 infants and children die each year as result
    of child abuse

15
Abuse and NeglectRisk factors
  • Overview Sociocultural factors
  • Personal or cultural values that regard physical
    abuse as morally acceptable
  • Cultural traditions that view children as
    property
  • Communities that support these beliefs

16
True or False?
  • Episodes of abuse are typically precipitated by
    everyday interactions between parent and child.

17
Abuse and NeglectRisk factors Child
Characteristics
  • Characteristics of child
  • Physical or mental disabilities
  • Difficult temperaments
  • Age

18
Abuse and NeglectRisk factors Abuser
Characteristics
  • Characteristics of abuser
  • Depressed
  • Lacking in parenting skills and knowledge
  • History of abuse themselves
  • Substance abusers
  • Live-in male partners

19
Abuse and NeglectRisk factors Family Stress
  • Family stress
  • Poverty
  • Unemployment
  • Inter-parental conflicts
  • The presence of several factors in combination
    increases likelihood of abuse

20
Abuse and NeglectConsequences of Abuse
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Delays in all developmental domains
  • Children removed from the abusive situation
    typically appear to catch up within 1 year.

21
Abuse and NeglectPrevention
  • Preventing abuse begins with education!
  • Inform parents about consequences
  • Parenting classes
  • Identify families at risk
  • Protect children from further injury

22
Cognitive ChangesPiagets Preoperational Stage
Overview
  • Preoperational Stage

23
Cognitive ChangesPiagets Preoperational Stage
Centration
  • Centration tendency to think of world one
    variable at a time
  • Use of animism or belief that inanimate objects
    are alive

24
Cognitive ChangesPiagets Preoperational Stage
Egocentrism
  • Egocentrism childs tendency to view things from
    own perspective
  • Guided by object appearance
  • May create frustration in communication
  • Piaget Three-mountain task (See Figure 7.3)

25
Figure 7.3 Piagets Three Mountain Task
26
Cognitive ChangesPiagets Preoperational Stage
Conservation
  • Conservation understanding that change in
    appearance can occur without change in quantity

27
Figure 7.4 Piagets Conservation Tasks
28
Cognitive ChangesChildrens Play and Cognitive
Development
29
Challenges to Piagets ViewsDo you agree or
disagree?
  • Children as young as 2 and 3 have at least some
    ability to understand that another person sees
    things or experiences things differently than
    they do.

30
Challenges to Piagets ViewsEmotions
31
Challenges to Piagets ViewsFlavell
  • Flavells perspective-taking ability levels
  • Level One child knows that other people
    experience things differently begins at 2 3
    years
  • Level Two child develops a series of complex
    rules to figure out precisely what the other
    person sees or experiences begins at 4 5 years

32
Theories of Mind
  • Theory of Mind understanding thoughts, desires,
    and beliefs of others

33
Theories of Mind
34
Theories of Mind
35
Theories of Mind
  • Influences on Development of a Theory of Mind
  • Correlated with
  • Performance on Piagets tasks
  • Pretend play
  • Shared pretense with other children
  • Discussion of emotion-provoking events with
    parents
  • Language skills and working memory
  • Cross-cultural influences

36
Alternative Theories of Early Childhood Thinking
  • Neo-Piagetian Theories Robbie Case
  • Short-term storage space (STSS)
  • Operational efficiency
  • Matrix Classification Task
  • Lets take a closer look at this task.

37
Figure 7.5 Neo-Piagetian Matrix Task
38
Alternative Theories of Early Childhood
ThinkingInformation Processing Theories
  • Metamemory Knowledge about and control of memory
    processes
  • Metacognition Knowledge about and control of
    thought processes
  • Scripts Cognitive structures underlie behavior
    and emerge during middle childhood

39
Alternative Theories of Early Childhood
ThinkingVygotskys Socio-Cultural Theory
  • Overview
  • Emphasis on role of social factors in cognitive
    development
  • Problem solutions socially generated and learned
  • Key principles Zone of Proximal Development
    (ZPD) and scaffolding

40
Alternative Theories of Early Childhood
ThinkingVygotskys Socio-Cultural Theory
  • Stages of Cognitive Development

41
Alternative Theories of Early Childhood
ThinkingVygotskys Socio-Cultural Theory
  • How are Vygotskys stages related to the
    eventual development of adult thinking?
  • Each stage represents a step toward childs
    internalization of ways of thinking used by
    adults around him or her.

42
Changes in Language
  • Fast-mapping Ability to categorically link new
    words to real word referents
  • Occurs at about age 3
  • Rapid formation of hypothesis about new words
    meaning
  • Remember Word learning drives process of
    language development

43
Changes in Language Grammar Explosion
  • Grammar Explosion Period when grammatical
    features of child speech becomes more adultlike
  • Inflections
  • Questions and Negatives
  • Overregularizations
  • Complex sentences

44
Changes in LanguagePhonological Awareness
  • Phonological awareness Childs sensitivity to
    sound patterns that are specific to a language
  • Awareness of sounds represented by letters
  • Learned in school through formal instruction
  • Primarily developed through word play
  • Related to invented spelling

45
Figure 7.6 Invented Spelling
46
Differences in IntelligenceMeasuring Intelligence
  • Alfred Binet
  • Lewis Terman Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children

47
Differences in IntelligenceSomething to Consider
  • An important assumption in studying differences
    in intelligence is that these differences can be
    measured.

48
The Normal Curve
  • IQ scores form a normal distribution the famous
    bell curve with which you may be familiar.

Can you explain what this bell curvetells us
about IQ?
49
Differences in Intelligence
  • Stability and Predictive Value of IQ Scores
  • Correlation between IQ score and future grades is
    about .50 .60.
  • Consistent relationship are found within social
    classes and racial groups.
  • IQ scores are quite stable BUT do not measure
    underlying competence.

50
Stop and think!
  • A high level of predictability masks an
    interesting fact about children being tested.
  • Do you know what this is?

51
Origins of Individual Differences in
IntelligenceEvidence of Heredity and Family
Influences
  • Heredity
  • Twin and adoption studies findings
  • Family Influences
  • Adoption studies findings
  • Family demographics and learning environments

52
Origins of Individual Differences in
IntelligenceEvidence for Preschool Influences
  • Short- and long term outcomes from formal
    education programs
  • Head Start outcomes
  • Lets look at the relationship between some
    early education programs and IQ scores.

53
Figure 7.8 Early Education and IQ Scores
54
?
?
Questions To Ponder
  • Piaget sees the child as the little scientist who
    works on her own to discover knowledge. Vygotsky
    suggests children learn from skilled social
    partners in a social setting. Which theory or
    combination describes children the best? Why?
  • What makes Head Start a successful program?

55
Group Differences in Intelligence Test ScoresCan
you hypothesize why these findings occur?
  • Higher scores than white children
  • Chinese and Japanese children
  • Lower scores than white children
  • African American children
  • Higher scores in all groups over two centuries
  • Flynn Effect
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