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Chapter 1:The First Civilizations


Chapter 1:The First Civilizations 1. THE RISE OF CIVILIZATIONS The rise of civilizations developed along with surplus food production. It enabled people to work in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1:The First Civilizations

Chapter 1The First Civilizations
  • The rise of civilizations developed along with
    surplus food production. It enabled people to
    work in political, religious, military positions,
    or in artistic various skilled occupations
    rulers to control laborers. The first
    civilization arose in Mesopotamia over 7,000
    years ago in
  • West Asia. There are other 6 centers of early
    civilizations including the Nile Valley.

  • Routes of Human Migration

Brick homes many stories high were common. They
also developed systems of writing and counting,
and dug canals to irrigate their farms.
  • Around 2500 bc, a civilization developed around
    the Indus River with perfect systems of drainage
    of brick-lined sewers.

was the first civilization to develop a
comprehensive writing system and to leave a
written record in China.
  • Shang dynasty (1570-1045 bc) in the Yellow River
    Valley of the North China Plain

  • The Aztec created an empire in the 1400s in
    Mexico now, which was destroyed by the Spaniards
    in 1521.

ruins of Maya cities have been discovered in this
area. The Maya civilization collapsed in about ad
  • The Maya civilization encompassed part of Mexico,
    Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras now. An
    indication of the skill and artistry of their
    architects, the

  • The Inca built one of the wealthiest and the
    largest empires in to-days South America from
    the early 1500s. Located along the western coast
    of the South Pacific Ocean, the empire extended
    more than 4000 km and included regions of
    Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and

  • Mesopotamia, located in a region with parts of
    eastern Syria, Iraq, southeastern Turkey today,
    lay between two rivers, the Tigris and the
    Euphrates. The name Mesopotamia is a Greek word
    meaning between the rivers. Its oldest known
    communities date from 7000 bc. Several
    civilizations flourished in the region. In the
    6th century B.C. it came to be part of the
    Persian Empire, the largest empire then.

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  • The Tigris River flows through Iraq that
    occupies the greater part of the ancient land of
    Mesopotamia, the plain between the Tigris and
    Euphrates rivers.

  • The Tigris that brings water to the desert has
    sustained agricultural communities for several
    thousand years.

  • A. Early Mesopotamian City-States Empires
  • The need for self-defense irrigation led the
    Sumerians to develop cities by the 4,000 bc,
    followed subsequently by the Akkadians, the
    Gutians, the Elamites, before Hammurabi of
    Babylon (1792-1750 bc) that later fell to the
    Hittites and then to the Kassites, Amorites in
    Ashu which fell to the Hurrians. Kassite
    Babylonia flourished on the cities villages.

  • Mesopotamia nourished some of the worlds
    earliest settlements. The Sumerians in about 3500
    bc built a canal system and the worlds first

  • Cuneiform
  • Ancient peoples of Mesopotamia kept important
    documents in a system of writing, cuneiform, into
    clay or stone tablets that probably originated in
    Sumeria more than 4,000 years ago. The
    collections of tablets in Mesopotamia are viewed
    as the earliest libraries known so far.

  • This Mesopotamian terra-cotta urn that dates
    back to 5000 and 3000 bc exhibits a design
    typical of ancient Persian art. As ancient
    nomadic tribes in the Middle East left no written
    records, the artwork buried with the dead
    provides information useful about them.

  • This bronze head from Nineveh, which dates
    from about 2300 bc is representative of an
    Akkadian king. The hair style and beard are
    typical of the Mesopotamian art.

  • B. The Code of Hammurabi
  • Babylonian king Hammurabi creates a law code.
    The basis of criminal law is that of equal
    retaliation. The law offers protection to all
    classes of Babylonian society it seeks to
    protect the weak and the poor, including women,
    children, slaves, against injustice of the rich
    and powerful. This code proves the law and
    justice of Hammurabis rule.

  • Hammurabi, king of Babylon, united the
    diverse tribes in the Mesopotamian area. Code of
    Hammurabi is a set of laws for the conduct of
    society and individuals it is one of the first
    bodies of written law in our human history.

impressive Babylonian army, conquered his rivals
and established a unified Mesopotamia. He proved
to be as great an administrator as he was a
  • The Code of Hammurabi is engraved on the black
    basalt of this stele made in the first half of
    the 18th century bc. The top portion, shown here,
    depicts the sun god Shamash presenting to
    Hammurabi a staff and ring, symbols of the power
    to administer the law. In his reign (1792-1750
    bc), Hammurabi, by means of his

  • Kingdom of Babylonia (1792--) formed around the
    region where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow
    in relatively parallel courses toward the Persian

  • C. Religion
  • The Sumerians believed that the universe was
    ruled by a pantheon. They had four creating gods
    representing heaven, earth, air, water, which
    they regarded as the four major parts of the
    universe three sky deities the god of the moon,
    the sun god, and the queen of heaven gods in
    charge of mountains, rivers, plains, of cities,
    fields, farms, and of tools for farming.

  • At the site of the ancient Mesopotamian city
    of Ur stands this mud brick religious temple
    tower, built for the moon god Nanna in the 2100s

temples were situated a Ur Harran. This relief
from about 2300 bc shows Ur-Nammu, the first king
of the third dynasty of Ur, making a sacrifice
before Sin.
  • Often depicted as a wise old man with a long
    beard, the moon god Sin was one of the most
    famous and important Babylonian gods. His main

  • Mesopotamian Relief
  • Palaces of ancient Mesopotamia were covered with
    reliefs that usually depicted scenes from the
    lives of the kings. This is a relief, which was
    one part of the palace at Dur Sharrukin, that
    shows Sargon II (721-705 BC) and one of his

  • A. Introduction
  • Ancient Egypt, (around 3300--30 bc), was the
    longest-lived civilization of the ancient world,
    the origin of the first recorded worshiper of
    one god, with one of the first religions to have
    a concept of the afterlife. Hieroglyphs (????),
    great pyramids, statues combining human and
    animal forms, and temple complexes(????), are
    only a few of its many remnants.

  • Architectural sites in ancient Egypt were
    concentrated on the Nile River between the
    Mediterranean Sea in the north and the First
    Cataract, the first major section of rapids on
    the Nile River, at Aswan in the south. The
    capital of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis, the
    south of the delta of the Nile .

  • The pyramids at Giza on the west bank of the
    Nile on the outskirts of Cairo, is the best-known

  • Egyptian Pottery
  • Pottery was among earliest art forms undertaken
    by the ancient Egyptians. This piece from the
    Pre-dynastic period (5000 -3000 BC) is decorated
    with some ostriches, boats, and geometrical

  • Palette of King Narmer
  • The Palette of King Narmer, a slate slab, depicts
    the ancient Egyptian king (center) smiting an
    enemy the piece symbolized the unification of
    Upper and Lower Egypt and marked an example of a
    trend in Egyptian art to glorify the king.

  • More than 4000 years old, the Great Sphinx at
    Giza is the most famous emblem of ancient Egypt.

  • B. Old Middle Kingdoms
  • Egyptian history is divided into three periods
    of stability each followed by political chaos.
    The Old Kingdom, (3rd-6th dynasties 2686-2125
    bc) Memphis set as the capital, featured
    prosperity and splendid constructions created by
    absolute monarchy. The Middle Kingdom,
    (2055-11650 bc) with Thebes as the capital,
    featured pharos concern for the people.

  • Step Pyramid at Saqqarah
  • This large Step Pyramid of King Djoser was built
    during the third Dynasty, as the first royal tomb
    monumental and is considered as one of the oldest
    stone structures

  • The temple of Hatshepsut is a rock-cut tomb built
    in the 15th century BC near Thebes, designed for
    the female pharaoh Hatshepsut.

  • King Thutmose III King Thutmose III of Egypt
    came into power at the end of the reign of the
    female pharaoh Hatshepsut in 1458 BC. He embarked
    on a campaign of building the empire that
    expanded Egyptian influence into Syria,
    Palestine, and Phoenicia.

  • C. Chaos, and a New Order (1550-1085 bc)
  • The Middle Kingdom ended in a new instable
    time featured the rule of Hyksos, who brought in
    new farming and military skills. The 18th dynasty
    reunited Egypt into a New Kingdom that ever
    experienced some religious changes. The 19th
    dynasty extended Egyptian power to capacity, over
    Palestine and Syria. The New Kingdom ended as the
    20th dynasty collapsed.

  • Amenhotep III
  • of the 18th dynasty ruled Egypt in the mid-1300s
    BC, during a period of peace and prosperity. He
    built his own palace near the capital of Egypt
    then, Thebes.

  • Aton
  • Amenhotep IV, also renamed Akhenaton, established
    the deity Aton as the supreme divine ruler. In
    this sunken relief carved into the stone, he is
    depicted as making an offering to Aton who is
    described as a solar disk.

  • This is a statuette
  • of Akhenaton his wife, Nefertiti. He
    directed people to worship only Aton, the sun god
    and he moved the capital from Thebes to
    Akhetaten. Nefertiti was also a devout follower
    of Aton.

  • Ramses II of the 19th dynasty had several
    large statues of himself set in the temple at
    Luxor that occupies part of the ancient capital
    of Egypt, Thebes. The pharaoh was viewed as a
    living god, and his reign a high point in the
    ancient history of Egypt.

  • D. People and Society
  • 1. Population
  • As ancient Egypt was an agricultural society,
    its densest population was on the floodplains.
    Only a small fraction of the population lived in
    cities towns. A major city generally had a
    densely populated center, such as Memphis, and
    Thebes. Population density decreased as distance
    from the center increased.

  • D. People and Society
  • 2. Social Structure
  • Ancient Egyptian urban society were made up of
    three levels the king surrounded by upper- class
    nobles and priests merchants artisans the
    largest number of serfs or common people, who
    cultivated the land, paid taxes to the king,
    nobles, priests, provided military service
    and forced labor for public building projects.

  • D. People and Society
  • 3. Family Life
  • The father worked outside, his wife inside. In
    wealthy families, the wifes power extended over
    the servants. Children were expected to care
    properly for and support their parents of old age
    and the afterlife. The living-and-dead contact
    took place by ancestor cults at home. Divorce
    rather than adultery was acceptable.

  • This bed carriage, resembling a cow, is one of
    the earliest and most elaborate examples of
    furniture preserved in ancient Egyptian tombs.

  • D. People and Society
  • 4. Writing
  • Around 3300 to 3200 bc, hieroglyphs (????)
    came into being, first to denote objects
    concepts, and eventually to represent sounds
    primarily. In the form of images drawn from the
    Egyptian environment, the scripts shaped the
    longest-lived system of writing, used until the
    end of the 4th century ad.

  • In ancient Egypt, hieroglyphs were used to
    record important documents, and were also painted
    on tomb walls and coffins.

  • D. People and Society
  • 5. Religion and the Afterlife
  • Egyptian gods took human, animal or mixed
    forms to represent natural forces, statues of
    which represented the abstract powers of the gods
    in concrete form. Sun gods land gods were
    well-known creation gods. Religion was
    deep-rooted in ancient Egyptians, such as the
    concern for afterlife the preparations for it.

  • The temple at Luxor was built to honor the gods,
    with colossal statues and obelisks as a standard

  • Creation Myth In this painting Sun god Ra son
    Shu stands on another son, Geb, later the Earth.
    Shu, god of the air, raises up Ras daughter Nut,
    later the sky.

  • Goddess Isis
  • Isis is the goddess of motherhood fertility in
    Egyptian mythology. Isis worship lasted until the
    6th century ad when the last temples were closed
    as a result of the adoption of Christianity which
    was widespread already in the Near East.

  • Egyptian Mummy
  • The ancient Egyptians are believed to be the
    first people to create a mummy, in which a dead
    body is artificially preserved to delay the
    decaying process. They believed that it was
    necessary to preserve a body in order to allow
    the soul to survive.

  • Osiris is the ruler of the dead in the underworld
    shown here, center, with Anubis, another god of
    the dead.

  • The Egyptian Book of the Dead was used by the
    dead to guide and protect the soul on the
    dangerous journey through the afterlife. This
    scene shows the final judgment of the dead before
    Osiris, god of the dead through the ritual of
    weighing the deads heart to determine whether he
    can be awarded eternal life.

  • Seti I Anubis
  • (1306 -1290 bc)
  • Seti I managed to defend Egypt against
    invaders from abroad and conquer Palestine.
  • In this painting, Seti I was with jackal-headed
    Anubis, guardian of tombs, god of the dead.

  • Egyptian Relief
  • Ancient Egyptians decorated tombs with paintings
    and reliefs to ensure the dead to spend an
    eternal life in a comfortable and familiar place.
    The relief here shows the dead seated at a table
    stacked with offerings of food.

  • D. People and Society
  • 6. Arts
  • The ancient Egyptians produced a large body of
    creative works in areas such as architecture,
    literature, music, painting, sculpture drama.
    Often the purpose of their artistic output was
    not recreation or cultural enrichment, but the
    communication of some sort of religious idea or
    theme concerning life and afterlife.

  • Ramses III, reigned from 1194 to 1163 BC, who
    defended Egypt against many foreign invasions.
    Paintings depicting his military feats decorate
    the walls of his temple, near the ancient city of
    Thebes, though the painting shown here depicts
    his queen.

  • The Banquet is part of a wall painting from
    Thebes in the New Kingdom. The top section shows
    nobles of the court and their wives receiving
    attention from slaves, waiting for the food piled
    high on the right figures in the row below might
    be ladies of the court.

  • Death Mask of Tutankhamun
  • The death mask of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun is
    made of gold inlaid with colored glass and
    semiprecious stone. This mask comes from the
    innermost mummy case in the tomb of the pharaoh.

  • Rosetta Stone
  • The Rosetta Stone, inscribed in 196 BC, provided
    the key to the translation of ancient Egyptian
    hieroglyphs. It contains a decree, praising the
    Egyptian King Ptolemy V, that is carved in
    Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian demotic, and

  • The Mesopotamians and Egyptians, founders of
    Western civilization, developed cities and fought
    with the problems of organized states developed
    writing created literature new political,
    military, social, religious structures
    constructed monumental architecture. They left
    records for us to view how they explored the
    nature of human relationships, the nature of the
    universe, and the role of divine forces.

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