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System Development

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Title: System Development


1
System Development
  • Dr. John Sum
  • Institute of Technology Management
  • National Chung Hsing University

2
Reference
  • K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information
    Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006.

3
OUTLINES
  • Websites, business processes and IS
  • Review of IT and IS
  • Changes in business and information management
  • Overview of system development
  • Remarks in system development
  • Exemplar website development

4
Business Processes, IS/Websites and IT
5
Example 1 Travelocity.COM
6
Example 1 Travelocity.COM
  • Services support
  • Car rental information
  • Room rate enquiries, on-line hotel room booking
  • Flight ticket enquires, on-line flight ticket
    booking
  • Tour schedule enquires, on-line tour booking
  • Users
  • General public (which customer segment)
  • Administration (which departments, which roles)
  • Technical support (Webmaster, etc)
  • Suppliers?

7
Example 2 Global-Trade.COM
8
Example 3 iSteelAsia.COM
9
Example 4 Forbes.COM
10
Website and Information System
  • A website is simply a part of the companys
    information system
  • K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information
    Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006
  • Definition An information system is a set of
    interrelated components that collect (or
    retrieve), process, store, and distribute
    information to support decision making and
    control in an organization.

11
Processes, IS and IT
  • Information technologies provide the
    infrastructure and support to build an
    information system.

12
????(Business Processes)
Business Management
Adminstration
CRM
SCM
Mgt Info. System
Information Management
DB
Internet
SW Tech
HW Tech
OS
Information Technologies
13
Review of IT and IS
14
Information Technologies
  • Software technologies
  • Including operating systems and DBMS
  • MS Words improves the quality of management
    reports
  • Window XP controls operation of a computer
  • JDK provides platform for developing web
    application
  • Hardware technologies
  • Mobile phone support mobile data transfer
  • 802.11 provides the standard for wireless local
    area networks
  • USB flash memory provides an alternative way to
    store information

15
Information Technologies
  • System development
  • Object-oriented development
  • Component-based development
  • Unified modeling language
  • Other technologies
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Parallel processing architecture
  • Optimization algorithm

16
Information Technologies
  • Bar code scanner (IO)
  • Overhead project (IO)
  • Camera (IO)
  • Telephone (IO, Com.)
  • FAX machine (IO, Com.)
  • Computer (Terminal)
  • Calculator (Calculation)
  • Palm/PDA (IO, DB)
  • Mobile phone (Com.)
  • Optic fibers (Com.)
  • Virtual private network (Com.)
  • Internet (Com)
  • Web technology (System)
  • Mobile agent (System)
  • Rational Rose UML (Development)

17
Information Technologies
  • Prog. Lang.
  • Assembly
  • C/C
  • Java
  • JavaScript
  • Java Servlet/Applet
  • Java Network Programming
  • Visual Basic/VBScript
  • Perl
  • HTML/DHTML/XML
  • Operating Systems
  • MS Window
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Database System
  • IBM DB2
  • MS Access
  • Oracle
  • Sybase
  • MySQL

18
Information Technologies
  • The world is moving. So, many new technologies
    are coming.
  • Mobile computing
  • Grid computing
  • P2P networks (BT, Gnutella, SKYPE)
  • Chinese computing
  • Biometric
  • Autonomic computing
  • Search IBM.COM for more

19
Information Technologies
  • Mobile Computing
  • A type of computing model in which the computers
    can be networked together even the computers are
    moving anywhere.
  • How to connect? How to share resource?
  • Autonomic computing
  • A type of computing model in which the system is
    self-healing, self-configured, self-protected and
    self-managed.

20
Information Technologies
  • Each technology has its own limitation
  • Security problems
  • Programming difficulties
  • Training programmer or user
  • Version problem Window 95/98/2000/XP
  • User account support
  • Transparency Window versus Linux
  • Maintenance and Support

21
Information Technologies
  • Development team should have enough knowledge to
    select the appropriate technologies for the
    system.
  • Does a development team should learn all these
    technologies, such as Java, Ajax, RSS Feed, etc.?

22
Types of Information Systems
  • By management level (Conventional Approach)
  • Transaction processing system (operational)
  • Management information system
  • Decision support system
  • Executive information system (Strategic)
  • Education levels and computer usage skills?

23
Types of Information Systems
24
Types of IS Conventional
25
Types of IS Contemporary
26
Types of IS Contemporary
  • Where should the website (or websites) be
    located?
  • What business process (or processes) should it
    support?
  • Business operations Business logic Business
    processes. All three terms will be used
    interchangeably.

27
Conventional VS Contemporary
  • Conventional
  • Designed in a way to fit in the operations of a
    business unit.
  • Different department will have a different
    system.
  • Scope of the system is smaller.
  • Analysis and design are simpler.
  • Easy to maintain.
  • Contemporary
  • Designed in a way to fit in the operations of the
    whole enterprise.
  • Processes or services oriented.
  • Scope of the system is huge.
  • Analysis and design are complicated ?
  • Difficult to maintain ?

28
Changes in business information management
29
Changes in Information Management
  • Factors leading to the changes
  • Business environment
  • Management Practice
  • Technologies
  • Disaster
  • Misc

These factors are always interrelated.
30
Changes in Information Management
  • Business environment
  • Moving towards Asia, then SE Asia, Eastern
    Europe, Latin America
  • Global outsourcing, implying the need of SCM
  • Management
  • Total quality management
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Cost-effective
  • Service level

31
Changes in Information Management
  • Business environment
  • Where does the business move?
  • Where are the markets?
  • Where are the manufacturers?
  • Management
  • What are the next management focus?

32
Changes in Information Management
  • Technologies
  • Wired to wireless
  • Powerful PC, notebook, mobile phone, PDA
  • iPhone, iPad
  • Disaster
  • 911 Attack
  • Earthquake
  • Tsunami
  • Misc
  • Energy, Water, Air, Food shortage
  • Global warming
  • Social responsibility

33
Changes in Information Management
  • Implications
  • Change in the information requirement
  • Hourly data versus daily data
  • Multiple languages
  • Change in culture and habit of using computer
  • Hardcopy document versus web document
  • Fixed line telephone versus Internet phone
    (Skype)
  • Change in the volume/speed of information flow
  • Change in the cost structure of a company

34
Changes in Information Management
  • Implications
  • Business processes (e.g. supply chain) are
    defined in a manner of cross-boundary, and agile
  • Customer-oriented thinking (customer controls
    everything)
  • Customers and suppliers are users of the
    information
  • Process definitions are getting complex
  • System scope is increasingly complicated
  • Reusable module is preferred
  • Need of disaster recovery plan
  • Data backup
  • Server backup

35
Changes in Information Management
  • Implications
  • Corporate social responsibility
  • Green-design
  • System optimization
  • Technologies are getting cheaper
  • Profit margin is decreasing (Dont expect too
    much on earning)
  • Install new system or using new technology is not
    for making money, just for sustainability
    (survival).

36
Business Environment
37
Business Environment (70s 90s)
38
Business Environment (00s Present)
39
Business Environment (Beyond)
What would it be?
40
Business Environment (Beyond)
41
Technology Change
  • How much you know about the following buzzwords
  • EMU
  • E-Commerce
  • E-Business, M-Business
  • M-Taiwan, U-Taiwan
  • Distributed Computing
  • Mobile Computing
  • Peer-2-Peer Computing
  • Grid Computing
  • Cloud Computing
  • Autonomous Computing

42
What Have Not Changes?
  • System is still in a supporting role (not a
    decision role) of a company.
  • System itself does not accounted for making
    money, but the products or services that the
    company provide.
  • System itself does not accounted for profitable,
    but the business processes that the system
    support.

43
Overview of Systems Development
44
Key Concepts in Systems Development
  • Initiating a systems development
  • Participants involved in a SD project
  • Reasons for having a new system
  • File the request for budgeting and development
  • The request document should include
  • Reasons for having the new system, modification
    of the existing system
  • Management team for the system development
  • Department in charge of the system
  • The fit of the system to the company IS strategy
  • Expected budget

45
Key Concepts in Systems Development
  • Information systems planning
  • Senior management based on the company need to
    evaluate and prioritize the requests from
    different departments
  • For each request, the proposal should include
  • High level system requirement
  • Feasibility analysis (Financially and
    technologically)
  • Selection of system development model
  • Objectives and schedule for SD
  • If the request is approved, then schedule when to
    release the budget and start the development
  • If the request is pending to approve (under
    review), the proposal will be filed for next
    meeting.

46
Key Concepts in Systems Development
  • Build the system (System Development)
  • (After budget has been approved)
  • Detail analysis Precise system requirements
    (user accepted), a list of user acceptance tests
  • System design modules, interfacing amongst
    modules, hardware requirements, programming
    language, OS
  • Coding
  • In-house testing unit test, system test, stress
    test
  • User acceptance test

47
Participants in Systems Development
48
Participants in Systems Development
  • Stakeholders
  • Individuals who either themselves or through the
    organization are beneficiaries of the systems
    development effort.
  • Users
  • Individuals who interact with the system
    regularly
  • System Analyst
  • Professional who specializes in analyzing and
    designing business systems.
  • Programmers
  • Individual responsible for modifying or
    developing programs to satisfy user requirements.

49
Management Team
Application of IT
Business Process
Staff, Clients
Suppliers
Business Process
50
Reasons to Initiate a Development Project
51
Planning
What kind of person is capable to do this
translation?
Information Systems Planning The translation of
strategic and organizational goals into systems
development initiatives.
Creative Analysis The investigation of new
approaches to existing problems.
52
Planning
Critical Analysis The unbiased and careful
questioning of whether system elements are
related in the most effective or efficient ways.
53
Planning
  • Design objectives
  • Performance objectives
  • Quality or usefulness of the output
  • The speed at which the output is generated
  • Cost objectives
  • Development costs
  • Costs related to the uniqueness of the system
    application
  • Fixed investments in hardware and related
    equipment
  • On-going operating costs of the system

54
Planning
  • Challenges
  • We would like to have a website for IEC.
  • We would like to have a website for IEC, which is
    similar to the following
  • www.ucla.edu
  • www.anderson.ucla.edu
  • www.cism.kingston.ac.uk
  • www.igec.umbc.edu
  • We would like to have a website for IEC, with
    design, outlook and functions similar to the
    above.

55
System Development Model
  • Waterfall model
  • Spiral Model
  • Component-based Development
  • Prototyping
  • Rapid Application Development
  • Others

56
Waterfall Model
Systems Investigation Problems and opportunities
are identified
Systems Analysis Existing systems and work
processes are studied
Systems Design Defines how the information system
will do what it must do to solve the problem.
57
Waterfall Model
Systems Implementation System components are
assembled and the new or modified system is
placed into operation.
Systems Maintenance and Review Ensures the system
operates and is modified to keep up with business
changes.
58
Spiral Model
59
Spiral Model
60
Component-based Model
61
Prototyping
Operational Prototype Accesses real data files,
edits input data, makes necessary computations
and comparisons, and produces real output.
Nonoperational Prototype A mockup or model that
includes output and input specifications and
formats.
62
Rapid Application Development
63
Factors Affecting System Development
  • Resource Constraint Analysis
  • Project Schedule and Tracking
  • Systems Configuration Management
  • Selected Project Management Software Packages
  • Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)
    Tools
  • Systems Investigation
  • Requirements Analysis
  • Systems Analysis

64
Project Schedule and Tracking
  • Use of project management tools
  • Schedule
  • Milestone
  • Deadline
  • Critical path
  • Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
  • Gantt chart

65
Gantt Chart
66
Systems Investigation
  • Identify potential problems and opportunities and
    consider them in light of the goals of the
    company.
  • It is the second round analysis. The first round
    analysis has been conducted during system
    planning.

67
Systems Investigation
  • Feasibility Analysis

68
Systems Investigation
  • Systems Investigation Report
  • A report that summarizes the results of the
    systems investigation and the process of
    feasibility analysis and recommends a course of
    action.
  • The investigation is usually conducted by a
    system investigation team and a steering
    committee.
  • Steering committee is an advisory group
    consisting of senior management and users from
    the IS department and other functional areas.

69
Systems Investigation
Table of Contents for a Systems Investigation
Report
70
Requirement Analysis
  • Requirements Analysis
  • It is the third round analysis.
  • An assessment used to determine the need of the
    users, the stakeholders, and the organization.
  • Converting organizational goals into systems
    requirements

71
Systems Analysis
  • External and Internal Sources of Data
  • It is the forth and the last round analysis.
  • The analysis must be very precise.
  • The results will be used in system design.

72
Systems Analysis
  • Data Collection
  • To understand what exactly the users needs
  • What data/information should be processed in the
    system, and what sort of interface design the
    users expect.

Steps in Data Collection
73
Systems Analysis
  • Techniques
  • Structured Interview
  • Unstructured Interview
  • Direct Observation
  • Questionnaires
  • Statistical Sampling

Steps in Data Collection
74
Systems Analysis
  • Data Analysis
  • Manipulating the collected data so that it is
    usable for the development team members who are
    participating in systems analysis.

Data Modeling A commonly accepted approach to
modeling organizational objects and associations
that employ both text and graphics.
Activity (Process) Modeling A method to describe
related objects, associations, and activities.
Data Flow Diagram A diagram that models objects,
associations, and activities by describing how
data can flow between and around them.
75
Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)
Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
Semantic Description of a Business Process
76
Application Flowchart
Application Flowcharts Charts that show
relationships among applications or systems.
77
Grid Charts
Grid Charts A table that shows relationships
among the various aspects of a systems
development effort.
78
User Interface
79
User Interface
80
User Interface
81
Systems Analysis Report
  • Strength and weaknesses of existing system from
    stakeholders perspective.
  • User/stakeholder requirements for the new system.
  • Organizational requirements.
  • Description of what new information systems
    should do to solve the problem

82
Systems Analysis Report
83
Remarks on System Development
84
Major Problems in SD
  • Communication gaps between the user (non-IT) and
    the developer (IT)
  • No common language
  • Lack of IT knowledge (non-IT)
  • Lack of business sense (IT)
  • Lack of mutual trust
  • Lazy

85
Solutions
  • User and developer should have a common ground
    knowledge
  • General and essential IT knowledge
  • General and essential business knowledge
  • Patient
  • Quality assurance process

86
Technically How?
  • Spend more time on requirement analysis
  • Documentation
  • Project plan
  • Quality plan
  • Analysis model
  • Design model
  • Testing plan
  • Project schedule
  • User manual
  • Maintenance manual

87
Who?
  • Requirement/System analysis
  • Director, department manager, operational staff,
    IT manager programmer
  • System design
  • Department manager, IT manager programmer
  • System Implementation
  • Department manager, operational staff, IT manager
    programmer
  • System Maintenance Review
  • Operational staff programmer

88
Road map (1)
  • Service model
  • Define the products or services to be provided by
    the company.
  • Identify target customers
  • Identify suppliers

89
Road map (2)
  • Revenue model
  • Evaluate the size of the customer bases for each
    product or service.
  • Expected earning of each product or service
  • Might need to analysis the cumulative figures and
    presented in quarterly or yearly basis.

90
Road map (3)
  • Business process model
  • Interaction amongst customers, your company and
    the suppliers
  • Identify the roles (persons) who will take part
    in each operation, such as data entry staff,
    customer service staff, clerk, department
    manager, and so on.
  • Optimize the business processes
  • Refine IS requirement model if necessary

91
Road map (4)
  • IS requirement model
  • Identify which tasks within these operations can
    be replaced by using IT
  • Refine business model if necessary
  • Identify the users of the system

92
Road map (4)
  • Cost model
  • Investment on the entire project
  • Staff salary, rental fee, electricity water
    bills, insurance/pension
  • IT equipments, leased line subscription fee,
    maintenance cost
  • Might need to analysis the cumulative figures and
    presented in quarterly or yearly basis.

93
Road map (6)
  • Profit Lost analysis
  • In quarterly or yearly basis
  • Identify when is the break-even point

94
Road map, why?
  • Traceable analysis model
  • If there is any change on the service model, IS
    requirement model, the effects can easily be
    identified.

95
Effort Estimates
Planning Analysis Design
Implementation Industry Standard For
Web 15 20 35
30 Applications Time Required 4
5.33 9.33 8 in
Person Months
96
Exemplar Website Development
97
An eBay-like website for on-line auction
98
eBay-like website for on-line auction
99
eBay-like website for on-line auction
100
eBay-like website for on-line auction
101
eBay-like website for on-line auction
102
Do you really understand!
103
Review Questions
  • Select one website from Travelocity.COM,
    Global-Trade.COM, iSteelAsia.COM and Forbes.COM
    and describe the underlying information
    technologies being used to build that website.
  • What is the definition of an information systems?
  • What are the differences between a website and an
    information systems?
  • What are the roles of network technologies
    playing in business information system?

104
Review Questions
  • Describe in your own words
  • (1) why development team should have enough
    knowledge to select the appropriate technologies
    for the system, and
  • (2) should a development team learn all the
    latest technologies?
  • With an aid of diagrams, explain the differences
    between an information system that is followed by
    conventional and contemporary design approaches.
  • Describe what Asia business environment has been
    changing since 1980s, and its affect on the
    requirement of an information system.

105
Review Questions
  • Describe in details the roles and
    responsibilities of each participant in a system
    development project?
  • Describe the purposes, the similarities and
    differences amongst creative analysis, critical
    analysis, feasibility analysis, requirement
    analysis, system analysis.
  • Describe what is waterfall model and the
    limitation of such development approach.

106
Review Questions
  • With an aid of diagrams, describe in detail any 3
    development approaches, and state their
    differences.
  • State any five reasons to initiate a development
    project.
  • With an aid of diagrams, describe the
    relationships amongst business processes,
    information systems and information technologies.

107
Review Questions
  • In system analysis, data are collected for
    further analyzed. Describe in detail the
    techniques for which the data are collected, and
    in what situations the techniques can be applied.
    If necessary, you can add examples to help your
    discussion.
  • Data flow diagram is an analysis model describing
    the how data is processed.
  • Describe, with an example, what are the four
    components in a DFD.
  • Describe in detail, step by step, how data flow
    diagrams are obtained.

108
Review Questions
  • DFD, application flowchart, grid charts and
    screen layouts are four analysis models obtained
    after system analysis. Describe what are the
    purposes to obtain such models.
  • Describe what are the tentative contents that
    should be included in the System Investigation
    Report and the System Analysis Report.
  • In the Road Map for system development, describe
    in detail what are the six issues that a system
    developer could follow in order to achieve a
    traceable analysis model.
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