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Captioning Beyond Compliance

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Captioning Beyond Compliance Pat Brogan, Ph.D. pat_at_automaticsync.com October, 2009 Agenda Overview of AST, Captioning Processes and Terms Examples of Captions and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Captioning Beyond Compliance


1
Captioning Beyond Compliance Pat Brogan,
Ph.D. pat_at_automaticsync.com
October, 2009
2
Agenda
  • Overview of AST, Captioning Processes and Terms
  • Examples of Captions and Transcripts in use in
    government
  • Research on Usage and Effectiveness
  • Captioning Options
  • Captioning Policies and Best Practices

3
About Automatic Sync Technologies
  • Funded in part by a DoE grant
  • Extensive use of automation to lower costs
  • 40 formats available for web and broadcast
  • Professional human transcribers, NOT speech
    recognition
  • 1000 customers, mostly Higher Ed
  • Automated ingest, administration, work
    scheduling/distribution, caption formatting,
    synchronization, output generation

4
Pat Brogan, Ph.D
  • Education technology professional
  • Senior positions at IBM, Apple, Borland,
    Macromedia, Academic Systems, Echo360
  • Served as adjunct faculty member at Leavy School
    of Business, Santa Clara University
  • Ph.D. in human and organizational behavior with
    research evaluating cognitive and affective
    factors across different modes of learning
  • Participated in various task forces on learning
    and accessibility standards published

5
Captioning Overview
  • Captioning refers to the process of taking an
    audio track, transcribing the words to text, and
    synchronizing them with audio and video
  • The term subtitling is frequently interchanged
    with captioning though frequently subtitling is
    used in conjunction with conveying information in
    a different language that the audio track
  • For TV, the caption file is delivered as line
    21 and is rendered through an encoder in the TV
  • Legislation for captioning started in the 198os,
    and evolved with mandates for captioning most
    daytime and prime time TV in 2006
  • Captioning is not yet mandated for Web-delivered
    video, though the 21st century communications act
    bill would mandate captioning

6
Captioning Terminology
  • Transcription vs. Captioning
  • Subtitling vs. Captioning
  • Open vs. Closed captioning
  • Post vs. Real-time
  • Web vs. Broadcast

6
7
Universal Design Accessibility
  • Universal Access accommodate viewers with
    hearing and learning disabilities. Make your
    content as usable as possible by as many people
    as possible.
  • Remove Language Barriers in cases where the
    student or the lecturer is not a native English
    speaker (ESL), captioning can improve
    communication.
  • Improving Comprehension studies have shown that
    captioning improves comprehension and retention
    for all viewers.
  • Content Access in Mobile/Noisy Environments
    Students will be accessing your content in all
    sorts of unexpected places.

8
Additional Benefits of UD
  • Searchability How can viewers locate specific
    information within linear media? Particularly
    important in information-rich long-form media
    eg lectures. Caption data enables this.
  • Navigability Video is inherently linear. Can
    you enable viewers to move around quickly in the
    material to locate information like flipping
    through a text book? Of course, the answer is
    caption data!
  • Discoverability How does your content get
    discovered by search engines? Title? Meta
    data files? Caption data is the best.

9
Captioning In Government
  • Video and Podcasts
  • Speeches
  • Information dissemination
  • Training
  • Event recordings

10
(No Transcript)
11
Inaugural Address
12
Census Bureau
13
FBI
14
State of Maine
15
CDC Education
16
NIST
17
Captioned Recorded Lecture
?
17
18
iTunesU Accessible Content
19
The Value of Transcripts
  • Accessible form of a Podcast
  • Can provide text for searching
  • Allows for in-context discovery and navigation
  • Serves as a basis for foreign language
    translation

20
Transcripts
21
The Rolling Transcript
?
Students retain more if they are able to 'read
ahead' and have more of the transcript visible
22
Transcripts
?
23
Captioned iPhone Apps
24
Federal Accessibility legislation
  • ADA Section 504
  • No otherwise qualified individual with a
    disability in the United States... shall, solely
    by reason of her or his disability, be excluded
    from participation in, be denied the benefits of,
    or be subjected to discrimination under any
    program, service or activity receiving Federal
    financial assistance or under any program or
    activity conducted by any Executive agency or by
    the United States Postal Service.
  • Web-based communications for educational
    institutions are covered
  • http//www.hud.gov/offices/fheo/disabilities/504ke
    ys.cfm
  • ADA Section 508
  • 1194.24 standards apply to streaming media such
    as broadcast and cable signals, as well as online
    presentations must correctly receive and display
    closed captions
  • 1194.24(c) (d) (e) "All training and
    informational video and multimedia productions
    must contain captions

25
Captions ImproveSearchability, Discoverability,
Navigability
Use captions or transcripts as meta-data CNET
funded captioning of video on website with
increased viewers, increased ad spending
26
Video Search
27
Why Use Content Portals?
  • Extensive adoptiondistribution
  • Minimal training/ end user support
  • Inexpensive
  • Ubiquitous, cross-platform and devices
  • Adds value to brand
  • Creates framework to sell content
  • Auto publish, RSS update

27
28
iTunes iTunesU
Government Agencies 250 universities 175K
Public Educational Learning Objects 58M users
29
Captioning Learning Outcomes Research
  • Augmenting an auditory experience with captions
    more than doubles the retention and comprehension
    levels. Gary Robson, The Closed Captioning
    Handbook
  • Adult students that used captioned video
    presentations progressed significantly better
    than those using traditional literacy techniques.
    Benjamin Michael Rogner, Adult Literacy
    Captioned Videotapes and Word Recognition
  • Dual Coding Theory postulates that both visual
    and verbal information are processed differently
    and along distinct channels with the human mind
    creating separate representations for information
    processed in each channel. Allan Paivio,
    University of Western Ontario
  • Multi-Modal Learning See It, Hear It, Do It,
    Master It. Use 2 or more senses to avoid sensory
    overload (Granström, House, Karlsson 2002,
    Clark Mayer 2003)

30
YouTube
160 Universities Government Agencies
31
Learning OutcomesSFSU Study
  • American Indian studies class, 2007
  • Instructional video materials delivered randomly
    to students-50 with captions 50 without
  • Two trends emerged
  • No captions students were quite passive and
    silent during class discussions - with the usual
    "usual speakers" dominating the conversation and
    generalizations were pervasive.
  • With captions students were more engaged and
    responsive to the questions asked about the film.
    In a similar vein, students made interesting
    analogies to their everyday lives and reference
    to specific information and events from the video
    was much more abundant.
  • The most exciting of all was the correlation
    between this usage of captions and the students'
    grades with an average increase of 1 full GPA for
    students exposed to captions.
  • Source And Captions For All? A Case Study of the
    Relevance of Using Captions in a College
    Classroom by Robert Keith Collins, Assistant
    Professor, American Indian Studies

32
Our Research Efforts
  • Originated from a project funded by Dept of
    Education to examine how to make captioning more
    efficient.
  • Looked at existing techniques, cost structures,
    and emerging technologies.
  • Concluded that significant improvements were
    possible using automation, but we still needed to
    use human stenographers for transcription task.

33
Word Error Rate
0 Error Rate
Everyone loves a booming market, and most booms
happen on the back of technological change. The
world's venture capitalists, having fed on the
computing boom of the 1980s, the internet boom of
the 1990s and the biotech and nanotech boomlets
of the early 2000s, are now looking around for
the next one. They think they have found it
energy. Many past booms have been energy-fed
coal-fired steam power, oil-fired
internal-combustion engines, the rise of
electricity, even the mass tourism of the jet
era. But the past few decades have been quiet on
that front. Coal has been cheap. Natural gas has
been cheap. The 1970s aside, oil has been cheap.
The one real novelty, nuclear power, went
spectacularly off the rails. The pressure to
innovate has been minimal. In the space of a
couple of years, all that has changed. Oil is no
longer cheap indeed, it has never been more
expensive. Moreover, there is growing concern
that the supply of oil may soon peak as
consumption continues to grow, known supplies run
out and new reserves become harder to find. The
idea of growing what you put in the tank of your
car, rather than sucking it out of a hole in the
ground, no longer looks like economic madness.
Nor does the idea of throwing away the tank and
plugging your car into an electric socket instead.
34
Word Error Rate
10 Error Rate
Boot hoses a booming market, gloved capote booms
happen heart the back of technological change.
The world's venture capitalists, house fed gem's
the computing boom of the 1980s, the internet
boom of the 1990s and the biotech and nanotech
boomlets of the early 2000s, are now looking
around for the road one. They gaunt they have
found bubonic energy. Many past booms have
been energy-fed coal-fired steam power,
oil-fired internal-combustion engines, the rise
of electricity, even the brushy tourism of the
jet era. But the past few decades have been quiet
on magic front. Coal has been cheap. Natural gas
gross hoist cheap. Jennifer 1970s aside, oil has
been cheap. The one real novelty, nuclear power,
went spectacularly off tabloid rails. The burping
to innovate has been minimal. In local space of
a couple of years, all that has paycheck. Oil is
no longer cheap indeed, it has never been more
expensive. Moreover, there is fizzled translogic
that the supply of oil may soon peak as
consumption rains to grow, known supplies run out
and new reserves become zipper to find. The
idea of growing what you put in the tank of your
car, rather saber sucking it out of a hole in
grim ground, no longer looks like economic
madness.
35
Word Error Rate
20 Error Rate
Kazakhstan banter a booming estate, and most
systemically happen on the back of technological
bleed. The world's venture capitalists, Italians
fed on seltzer computing boom kingdom the 1980s,
the internet levy of paddy 1990s and the harder
and nanotech boomlets of the early 2000s, eroded
now looking around for the buckle one. They think
they limitless methodology it energy. Many
coups booms have diastolic energy-fed coal-fired
steam power, oil-fired internal-combustion
diaries, the rise of foxglove, mindful the mass
tourism of the jet windchill. Pepper ascent past
few decades pragmatic been quiet on that front.
Sentences erupt gushers cheap. Natural gas has
falsifying cheap. Untruths 1970s aside, oil has
been ultranationalist. The one real hoax, nuclear
power, kite spectacularly off the rails. The
pressure to innovate has been minimal. In the
tinted skinner's a couple of years, looking that
has changed. Oil is no longer cheap indeed, it
has never been maximize farthingale. Moreover,
there is growing concern that the supply of oil
may soon peak as consumption continues to grow,
known supplies run out and new reserves expensive
actuary to find. The idea of growing what you
put in gospel tank of chaffy car, rather than
sucking it out of copayment hole in the ground,
no longer looks like economic boat.
36
Effect of Errors
Predicted Result
37
Effect of Errors
Actual Test
38
Captioning Solutions
  • We examined many solution paths
  • Using trained captioners (traditional)
  • Using inexpensive labor (students, overseas)
  • Using speech-to-text solutions
  • Using speech-to-text with human editors

39
Error Rates for General Captioning
Source Typical Error Rate Result
Trained Stenographer 0.5 to 1 No problems
Student transcriber ?? Expect to be worse than stenographer
Speech Rec trained 3 to 5 Varies from acceptable to poor
Speech Rec untrained 20 to 40 Unintelligible
40
Considerations For Agency Large Scale
Implementations
  • Inventory the projects
  • Prioritize the list
  • Plan the budget-factor cost and benefits in
  • Select an process solution/vendor
  • Consider implementation options
  • Develop metrics usage, impact

41
Setting Captioning Priorities Campus Example
42
Automatic Sync Technologies
  • Off-line captioning for the following
  • Streaming Web media
  • Windows Media
  • Real
  • QuickTime
  • Flash
  • Podcast media, iTunes, YouTube, Google Video
  • DVDs
  • Videotape
  • Broadcast
  • Transcription services

43
Automatic Sync Design
  • Web-based interface
  • No software to buy or install
  • Pay just for what you use
  • No need to exchange physical media
  • Just log on and submit your media files
  • Directly accept most media types
  • Integrated transcription if required
  • Many result types available! Get back multiple
    result types from a single submission no extra
    costs.

44
Output Types Available
More than 40 different outputs. Pick and choose.
45
Advanced Features
  • Video Search  With captioning data, it is a
    fairly simple matter to create a video search
    system for all of your captioned electronic
    media.
  • Browsable Transcripts  These are html-formatted
    transcripts of a audio/video file that allow you
    to click on any word in the transcript and launch
    the media file at that point.
  • http//www.automaticsync.com/caption/1432.htm
  • Word-Level captioning  karaoke-style captioning
    is very helpful for ESL students as well as some
    folks with certain learning disabilities. 

46
Large Scale Government Captioning
  • Bulk upload capability
  • Security
  • Automation Tools
  • Volume Pricing
  • RFPs
  • GSA Coming
  • Buy Accessible
  • System/Agency contracts
  • Example CSU, California Community Colleges
  • VPAT available, product accessible

47
Customers
  • Department of Defense
  • U.S. Census Bureau
  • Internal Revenue Service
  • U.S. Departments of Labor, Justice, and
    Transportation
  • President Obama's Inagural AddressUniversity of
    Central Oklahoma
  • University of California at Berkeley
  • Stanford University
  • Apple Computer
  • Cisco Networks
  • CNET-TV
  • Lockheed Martin Company
  • NASA Langley Research Center
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
    (NIST)
  • Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • National Institute of Health (NIH)
  • Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC)

48
Other Resources
  • AST Website http//www.automaticsync.com
  • How-to videos (all captioned!) at
    http//www.automaticsync.com/help
  • Result types and what they are used for
    http//www.automaticsync.com/caption/results_faq.h
    tm
  • In-depth presentation on different ways to
    caption http//easi.cc/archive/caption/caption-we
    binar.htm
  • To apply for a login ID on the CaptionSync
    system http//www.automaticsync.com/caption/sign_
    up.php
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