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Moving Towards Sustainable Materials Management


Moving Towards Sustainable Materials Management Presentation to the Air and Waste Management Association Southern Section Annual Conference September 13, 2012 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Moving Towards Sustainable Materials Management

Moving Towards Sustainable Materials Management
  • Presentation to the
  • Air and Waste Management Association
  • Southern Section Annual Conference
  • September 13, 2012

Hierarchy of Materials Management
  • Reduce
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Repurpose or Beneficial Use
  • Waste To Energy and Waste To Fuels
  • Close the Loop Buy Recycled
  • Responsible Waste Disposal

Why Recycle?
  • Amount of waste we generate demands that we
    recover materials
  • State Law promotes and encourages recycling
  • Economic benefits and jobs are created by
  • Southeastern manufacturers need recyclable for
    their processes
  • Manufacturing processes can be improved through
    processing recovered materials and
  • The quality of life can be improved for
    communities by increasing recycling

National Recycling Profile
  • Each person in the U.S. generates 4.5 pounds of
    solid waste each day (more than any other country
    in the world)
  • U.S. EPA set a national recycling goal of 40
  • EPA estimates that currently the U.S. recycles
    approximately 82 million tons of materials (34)
  • Approximately 86 of the people in the U.S. have
    access to local recycling programs.

National Waste Quantities
  • Americans generate 680 lbs of paper waste per
    person annually. The average American throws away
    13,000 pieces of paper each year.
  • Americans throw away an average of 1500 aluminum
    cans per second. Over 80 billion are used and
    over 30 billion are disposed in landfills
  • Americans use 100 million steel cans every day.
  • Americans throw away 2.5 million plastic bottles
    an hour.
  • Over 41 billion glass containers are used in the
    U.S. each year.

What is in Our Waste?
Mississippi Recycling Profile
  • Mississippi generates around 3.5 to 4 million
    tons of municipal solid waste annually and 7 to 8
    million tons of solid waste overall
  • Mississippi Law has an annual statewide waste
    reduction and recycling goal of 25
  • Approximately 50 of the states population has
    access to local government sponsored recycling
  • MDEQ approximates the state recycling rate to be
    around 12.

Recycling Provisions in Mississippi Law
  • Mississippi Code Annotated, Section 49-31-5
    states The Legislature declares it to be the
    policy of the State of Mississippi that the
    generation of waste should be reduced or
    eliminated at the source, whenever feasible
    waste that is generated should be recycled or
    reused whenever feasible waste that cannot be
    reduced or recycled should be treated in an
    environmentally safe manner and disposal or
    other permitted release into the environment
    should be employed only as a last resort and
    should be conducted in an environmentally safe

Recycling Provisions in Mississippi Law
  • Mississippi Code Annotated, Sections 49-31-7 and
    49-31-11(3) state The purposes of this chapter
    are To encourage local governments to develop
    and implement recycling programs within their
    jurisdictions to return valuable materials to
    productive use and to protect capacity at waste
    management facilities
  • The Commission on Environmental Quality shall
    coordinate recycling activities among
    municipalities and local governing authorities
    and promote pollution prevention, recycling,
    reuse of wastes, in lieu of treatment and
    disposal of such wastes.

Recycling Provisions in Mississippi Law
  • Mississippi Code Annotated Section 17-17-227
    states Each county, in cooperation with
    municipalities within the county, shall prepare,
    adopt and submit to the commission for review and
    approval a local nonhazardous solid waste
    management plan for the county. Each local
    nonhazardous solid waste management plan shall
    include, at a minimum, the following.... .
    (d) A strategy for achieving a twenty-five
    percent (25) waste reduction goal through source
    reduction, recycling or other waste reduction

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • U.S. Recycling Economic Information Study 2001
  • 56,061 recycling establishments
  • 1.1 million people directly employed
  • 37 billion in annual payroll
  • 236 billion in annual revenues
  • Average wage paid - 32,700
  • Manufacturers were responsible for over half of
    the economic activity.

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • U.S. Recycling Economic Information Study 2001
  • 1.4 million jobs provided in support businesses
    with a payroll of 52 billion and 173 billion in
  • 1.5 million jobs supported by the employee
    personal spending with a payroll of 41 billion
    and receipts of 146 billion.

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • College of Charleston 2006 Recycling Study for
    State of South Carolina
  • More than 15,000 jobs
  • 1.5 billion in annual personal income for direct
    and indirect jobs
  • Industry projected to grow at a rate of around
    12 with an economic impact of more than 11
  • Overall economic impact to the state of 6.5
    billion dollars.

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • North Carolina Recycling Business Assistance
    Center 2010 Study
  • Growth in recycling jobs up from 11,762 in 2000
    to 15,187 in 2010
  • NC saw a net increase of jobs by almost 5 from
    2008 until 2010
  • Total annual direct payroll is 395 million
  • Almost 50 of the businesses indicated they would
    be creating additional jobs in the next 2 years

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • Southern States Energy Board Study Economic
    Benefits of Recycling Study
  • Mississippi had over 5,000 persons employed in
    the recycling industry representing 2.1 of the
    states labor force
  • Only West Virginia and Louisiana had lower rates
    of recycling employment in the region than the
    state of Mississippi.

Recycling Creates Jobs and Generates Employment
  • Southeast Recycling Development Council 2010
    Markets Inventory
  • Employment in 11 Southeastern States in the end
    use/manufacturing sector equaled 49,527 jobs
  • 33.5 billion dollars in total sales
  • Out of the 11 states, Mississippi ranked 11th in
    number of employees and 8th in annual sales

Recycling can Supplement the Local and State Tax
  • REI 2001 Study The Recycling industry
  • U.S. Government Tax Revenues 25 Billion
  • State Government Tax Revenues - 11.9 Billion
  • Local Government Tax Revenues - 9.4 Billion
  • South Carolina study The recycling industry
    contributed 69 million in tax revenue to South
    Carolina government.

Recycling can Supplement the Local and State Tax
  • Washington County, Kentucky began its recycling
    program in 2002
  • By 2004 the rural county had built its
    recycling volume up to 353,000 lbs. and 2500 in
  • In 2006 formed a cooperative partnership with
    Marion County and together recycled 1.3 million
    lbs and over 10,000 in profits.
  • Built a MRF using inmate labor and developed a
    jobs training program for inmates through the
    recycling facility.

Recycling can Supplement the Local and State Tax
  • Columbus Air Force Base, Columbus, Mississippi
  • Has a mandatory recycling program for residential
  • CAFB averaged approximately 230,000 cost
    avoidance annually by diverting over 50 of its
    wastes to recycling
  • CAFB saw an average profit of 40,000 in sale of
    recyclable materials.

Recycling can Supplement the Local and State Tax
  • The State of Tennessee reports
  • In 2010, Tennessee Communities recycled 1.9
    million tons of solid waste saving 69 million in
    disposal costs
  • Recycling Marketing Cooperative of Tennessee
    helps rural Tennessee communities of less than
    10,000 population with recycling
  • RMCT returns an average of 42,000 in recycling
    revenues to each participating local government
  • RMCT helped recycle an average of 600 tons of
    waste per month saving an average of 18,000 in
    disposal costs.

Existing Industry Needs More Material
  • CVP estimates southeastern states dispose of 1.2
    billion worth of recyclables annually
  • State of Georgia study indicates that state
    spends 100 million annually to dispose of 300
    million worth of recyclables
  • Mississippi Recycling Task Force Survey indicated
    that the number 2 problem for most Mississippi
    Recycling businesses is the lack of available

Existing Industry Needs More Material
  • KW Plastics collects 370,000 lbs of plastic from
    the state of Alabama enough for only one day of
  • North and South Carolina together could provide
    enough HDPE for the Ensley Corporation to run 24
    hrs per day 7 days per week but due to low
    recovery rates Ensley must ship from other places
    in the U.S.

Continued Growth in Recycling will Require New
  • Retail Industry/Consumer Demands
  • Walmart Recycled Content Requirements
  • Product Sustainability Initiatives
  • Various State Legislative Requirements
  • Coca-Cola Recycling
  • Corporate Zero Waste Initiatives
  • Export Markets China, India, etc.

Recycling can make Manufacturing Processes more
  • Can lower manufacturing energy costs
  • Recycling aluminum results in 96 energy savings
    over processing of raw bauxite
  • Recycling plastics results in 67 energy savings
    over processing raw (virgin) materials.
  • Recycling paper results in 64 energy savings
    over the processing of virgin pulp
  • Recycling glass results in 21 energy savings
    over manufacturing virgin glass

Recycling can make Manufacturing Processes more
  • Can reduce the cost to manufacturers for
    extracting raw materials
  • Each ton of paper recycled conserves 380 gallons
    of oil, three cubic yards of landfill space, 4000
    kilowatts of energy, 7000 gallons of water and
    3700 lbs of wood.
  • For every ton of steel recycled, we conserve 1400
    lbs of coal, 2500 lbs of iron ore, and 120 lbs of
  • Recycling one ton of glass saves 1300 lbs of
    sand 410 lbs of soda ash and 380 lbs of
  • Each ton of plastics recycled conserves 16.3
    barrels (685 gallons) of oil.

Recycling can make Manufacturing Processes More
  • Can reduce pollution over extracting and
    processing raw materials
  • Recycling one ton of paper also results in 60
    pounds less air pollutants than processing virgin
  • Recycling steel scrap results in 85 less air
    emissions and 76 less water pollution than
    processing virgin iron ore
  • EPA WARM Model U.S. Recycling Almost 40
    million cars off the road.

Recycling can make Manufacturing Processes More
  • Promotes Safer Working Environment (WasteCap
    Wisconsin Study)
  • Manufacturing facilities built for recycled
    content are often less expensive to build
  • Using recycled content over virgin materials can
    help to preserve the life of manufacturing

Recycling can Help Improve the Quality of Life
for a Community
  • Reduces the need for landfills and the impacts of
    landfills on local communities
  • Helps with the management of problem waste
    streams (e-scrap, tires, HHW, etc)
  • Can help address community aesthetics and
    nuisances such as litter and illegal dumping
  • Comprehensive recycling programs can be an
    attractant for new residents, businesses, and

Keys to Developing a Sustainable Recycling Program
What Are We Discarding?
  • Packaging Wastes Cardboard, Film, Paperboard,
    Pallets, Metal bands, etc.
  • Office Wastes White Paper, Electronics, ink
  • Process Wastes Sludges, Combustion residuals,
    By-products, Process residuals, Off-Spec supplies
    and/or products
  • Maintenance Wastes Solvents, Rags, Floor
    Sweepings Landscaping Wastes
  • Employee Wastes Break Room, Cafeteria, Locker
    Room, Uniforms, personal protective equipment,
  • Architectural Debris Construction, Renovation,
    and Demolition Debris
  • Other Materials Medical Wastes, Scrap
    Equipment, Universal Wastes, etc.

Get Started Recycling
  • Conduct a waste audit of the materials you are
  • Conduct an audit of the materials/supplies that
    you purchase to ensure they are recyclable or
  • Determine what local recycling/re-use options
    exist in/near your facility
  • Review your solid waste collection contracts to
    ensure that you benefit from recycling

Get Started Recycling
  • Start your program out with profitable
    recyclables and grow your recycling system
  • Transition your waste handling systems to
    materials handling systems
  • Consistently review your materials/waste handling
    systems for possible upgrades to transition to
    recycling/reuse opportunities
  • Consider separate collection systems for special
    wastes, process wastes, landscaping wastes and
    other similar materials.

Design Your System to Produce Quantity
  • Educate employees to understand all of the
    materials that can be recycled
  • Consider offering incentives to employees to
    reduce wastes and to recycle
  • Design collection for your manufacturing facility
    or business
  • Consider other sources of recyclables for your
    system employees, contractors, suppliers, other
    businesses and other office complexes
  • Consider cooperative or partnership collection
    efforts with other manufacturers, warehouses,
    businesses, transporters, schools, federal/state
    agencies and local governments
  • Look for piggy back opportunities on recycling
    programs at area institutions or local community

Design Your System to Produce Quality
  • Know your processor/market specifications for
  • Prepare and plan in advance for contamination
  • Educate employees on what you do not collect and
    what problems contamination can cause
  • Locate recycling receptacles in places that can
    be monitored frequently or that have limited
  • Design the receptacles to facilitate deposit of
    only those desirable materials
  • Have your materials management/quality control
    divisions help monitor recycling receptacles.

Monitor and Control Costs
  • Invest recycling earnings back into the recycling
    program at your facility
  • Factor landfill savings into the costs and
    earnings of your program
  • Understand and address the costs of
  • Understand market fluctuations and the need to
    inventory recyclables at times.

Monitor and Control Costs
  • Look for back hauling opportunities for
  • Look for unique ways to process/sort your
    recyclables such as correctional facilities,
    rehabilitation centers or private recyclers
  • Support State, Federal or other grant
    opportunities for your local community programs
  • Discuss whether your processor or end user can
    provide resources such as baling equipment
  • Consider partnering with other local businesses
    for special recycling emphasis or project.

Educate, Educate, Educate Your Workforce
  • WHY they should recycle.
  • WHAT they should recycle.
  • WHERE they can recycle.
  • HOW they can recycle.
  • SOLICIT feedback on your program from residents.

Educate, Educate, Educate
  • Partner with other organizations to promote local
    recycling efforts KMB affiliates, Ms Recycling
    Coalition, Main Street Association, Chamber of
    Commerce, and others
  • Include recycling information circulars with
    paychecks or other employee notices
  • Use electronic options to promote your recycling
    message Email Newsletter, Facebook, Twitter,
  • Provide details of your recycling programs in
    packages for new employees.

Measure and Publicize Results
  • Measure the Quantity Recycled
  • Measure the Recycling Rate
  • Measure Participation Rate (if possible)
  • Recognize high performing areas of your facility
    or business and
  • Measure the Benefits Energy Savings and GHG
    Emissions Reduction by EPA WARM Model

Barriers to Sustainable Recycling
  • Transportation Costs
  • Lack of Sufficient Volume of Recyclables
  • Insufficient Laws and Regulations
  • Lack of Interest/Lack of Public Education
  • Lack of Resources/Incentives
  • Poor Local Collection Systems
  • Difficulty in Maintaining Quality of Recyclables.

Recycling Points
  • Recycling is an industry and we need to recruit
    and court this industry like we do other
  • Recycling is likely to be most successful if it
    is an integral part of the local solid waste
  • Quantity and Quality are keys to marketing
    recyclable materials and
  • Public/Work Force Education is a must!

MDEQ Efforts to Grow Recycling
  • MDEQ is promoting local government recycling
    programs through updates of local solid waste
  • MDEQ is now giving priority to recycling projects
    in our solid waste assistance grants
  • MDEQ will soon be announcing our Regional
    Recycling Cooperative Grants to build recycling
    partnerships between local governments and
    private industry in the state

MDEQ Efforts to Grow Recycling
  • MDEQ is providing support and assistance to the
    Mississippi Recycling Coalition to continue to
    grow recycling in the state
  • MDEQ is working with the Southeast Recycling
    Development Council to grow the recycling
    industry in 11 southeastern states.
  • MDEQ is looking to work with recycling
    organizations and local governments in the
    Jackson metropolitan area to upgrade the glass
    recycling efforts.

What You Can Do
  • Review and comment on local solid waste 20 year
    planning efforts for your community
  • Advocate and support local recycling programs
  • Consider community projects to support local
    recycling efforts
  • Advocate with suppliers for materials with
    recycled content where possible
  • Advocate in your own business/facility to
    increase the recycled content and the
    recyclability of your products.
  • Join and support the Mississippi Recycling
    Coalition (

Mississippis Beneficial Use Program
What is Beneficial Use?
  • The legitimate use of a nonhazardous industrial
    by-product or other similar material as a product
    or in the manufacture of a product where the
    by-product has suitable properties to replace a
    natural material or other resource material.

The Benefits of a Beneficial Use Program
  • Helps to legitimize the use of scrap, waste or
    by-product materials as products.
  • Promotes Re-Use of Materials
  • Large quantities of reusable materials are
    landfilled each year.
  • State Solid Waste Regulations historically had
    not allowed for beneficial use of wastes without
    a formal environmental permit.

The Benefits of a Beneficial Use Program
  • The process helps to ease the permitting
    requirements for certain beneficial uses.
  • Beneficial use determinations are generally not
    site specific and allow more flexibility in use.
  • Allows Mississippi to participate fully in EPAs
    Federal Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC).
  • Establishes consistency with other states that
    have beneficial use programs.

Material Applicability
  • Regulation Applicability
  • Applies to any person, organization, business
    that intends to distribute an eligible by-product
    for beneficial use
  • Does not apply to recovery of common recyclables
    such as glass, paper, cardboard, wood, metals,
  • Does not apply to compost materials which are
    regulated under the Nonhazardous Solid Waste Mgt.
  • Does not apply to beneficial fill projects
  • Does not apply to hazardous wastes or treated
    hazardous wastes

By-Product Eligibility Requirements
  • By-Product Eligibility
  • Must meet the definition of a by-product (Common
    by-products may include wood ash, coal combustion
    byproducts, process residuals, slag, other
    process materials)
  • Must possess beneficial chemical and physical
    properties for the proposed use
  • Must be nonputrescible (doesnt decay easily)
  • Must be nonhazardous without treatment

Use Eligibility Requirements
  • Use Eligibility
  • Must be a suitable replacement for a raw material
    and must provide comparable benefit to that raw
  • Must not solely constitute disposal or fill
  • Must have a demonstrated, legitimate use
  • Must conduct a demonstration effort/project for a
    proposed unproven use

Beneficial Use Demonstration Projects
  • Demo projects are generally specific to a site or
  • Demo projects should demonstrate the benefits of
    the material
  • Demo projects should demonstrate that the use of
    the material has no environmental consequence
  • A final report is due to MDEQ summarizing the
    results of the demo project.

Demo Project Results
Beneficial Use Categories
  • State Regulations separate beneficial uses into
    four categories
  • Category I Uses Standing Uses that are
    pre-approved uses described in regulation
  • Category II Uses Construction Uses includes
    road construction, construction stabilization and
    other civil engineering applications
  • Category III Uses Land Application Uses
    includes soil amendments or conditioners
  • Category IV Uses Other various uses not covered
    under previous categories.

BUD Request Procedures
  • Category I uses do not require submittal of a
    request nor a review by MDEQ.
  • Categories II, III and IV require completed
    request forms and review by MDEQ.
  • Applicants must request a Beneficial Use
    Determination (BUD) on forms provided by MDEQ.
  • Applicants can be a generator, processor, broker,
    or end user of the material.

Category I Standing Uses
  • Uses of untreated wood products as mulch, animal
    bedding, fuel, compost additives, etc
  • Other rubbish that is legitimately used, reused,
    or reclaimed
  • Uses of waste tires and waste tire-derived
    material approved under the Mississippi Waste
    Tire Management Regulations

Category I Standing Uses
  • Uses that are contained in an environmental
    system that is regulated under an MDEQ
    environmental permit (includes uses in landfills,
    wastewater lagoons, manufacturing systems, etc.)
  • Uses in which a by-product is utilized as a
    contained or encapsulated additive in the
    manufacture of a product and
  • Other uses which have been sufficiently
    demonstrated by the owner, distributor, supplier
    or user and approved by MDEQ as a standing use.

Procedures/Parameters for Categories II, III IV
  • Proposed uses must conform to the beneficial use
    eligibility requirements.
  • Proposed uses must conform with the Beneficial
    Use constituent standards in Table A of the
  • Should a by-product fail to meet Table A
    standards, additional testing may be done to
    demonstrate compliance with Table B standards.

Procedures/Parameters for Categories II, III IV
  • Category II Uses must also include
  • Certification from a Professional Engineer of the
    construction performance
  • Confirmation that the material meets any
    ASTM/MDOT/Other standards
  • Guidance or BMPs to the end user(s) on the
    proper management and employment of the material.

Procedures/Parameters for Categories II, III IV
  • Category III Uses must also include
  • Testing must also demonstrate compliance with the
    secondary soil amendment thresholds found in
    Appendix 2 of the regulations
  • Application to the Mississippi Department of
    Agriculture and Commerce
  • BMP/Agronomic use instructions for distribution
    to end users.

Beneficial Use Standards
  • MDEQ Beneficial Use Standards were derived from
    the TCLP standards and MDEQ Compost standards
  • TCLP standard were developed and adopted on a
    scientific basis
  • TCLP standards are familiar for most generators
  • TCLP testing has been conducted or will be
    conducted by most generators
  • TCLP testing and standards simulate worst case
    scenario conditions

Procedures/Parameters for Categories II, III IV
  • Upon review and approval of the application
  • MDEQ may issues a request for additional
  • MDEQ may direct the requesting party to develop a
    demonstration effort
  • MDEQ may issue Beneficial Use Determination
    (BUD) to the party requesting approval.
  • MDEQ may issue a notification in writing of the
    denial of the beneficial use determination.

Beneficial Use Standards
  • Secondary standards are derived from Federal 503
    soil amendment standards for biosolids
  • Regulations allow for the employment of
    additional standards where a constituent of
    concern is identified that is not an adopted
    state beneficial use standard
  • Regulations allow for alternative testing to
    demonstrate by-product suitability (e.g. risk
    based modeling, etc.).

Beneficial Use Denial
  • Where a proposal to beneficially use a by-product
    is denied, the applicant may
  • Appeal the denial to the Mississippi Commission
    on Environmental Quality within 30 days of the
    notification of the action
  • Apply to the Mississippi Environmental Quality
    Permit Board for a site specific solid waste
    management permit to conduct the beneficial use

Reporting Requirements
  • For persons who obtain a beneficial use
    determination from MDEQ, an annual report must be
    submitted by February 28th of the following year.
  • Annual reports generally must contain
  • Quantity used/distributed in the reporting year
  • Updated analytical data as needed and
  • Other information specifically requested

Beneficial Use Reporting
  • 45 Beneficial Use Determinations have been issued
    by MDEQ for uses of various material types in the
  • In 2010,almost 1.3 million tons of by-products
    were used under the beneficial use program for
    construction and soil amendment purposes.

MDEQ Beneficial Use Web Page
Other Beneficial Use Options
  • Solid Waste Regulatory Exemptions
  • Legitimate Use of Rubbish (fuels, feedstock,
  • Processing on the site of generation
  • Beneficial Fill Exemption
  • Exemptions for Recyclable Only Processing
  • Other Contained Uses
  • Landfill Daily Cover Uses
  • Liquid Waste Solidification
  • Solid Waste Management Permit
  • Land application/processing facility

Coal Ash Regulatory Update
  • Kingston Coal Ash spill occurred on December 22,
    2008 spilling 1.1 billion gallons of coal ash
    slurry into the surrounding environment

Coal Ash Regulatory Update
  • U.S. EPA proposed a rule on July 21, 2010 for the
    regulation of Coal Combustion By-products (CCBs)
  • Proposed Subtitle D vs Subtitle C Options
  • Also asked for comment on other options
  • MDEQ and all 50 states provided comment on the
  • EPA issued a Federal Register Notice on Data
    Availability in October 2010 and October 2011
  • EPA continues to review public comment on this

Coal Ash Regulatory Update
  • Bipartisan bill introduced in Senate August 2,
  • Coal Ash Recycling and Oversight Act of 2012
    (Amended version of the Coal Residuals Reuse and
    Management Act of 2011)
  • Sponsored by 12 Dems and 12 Reps
  • Establishes national regulatory standards for
    coal ash disposal under Subtitle D of RCRA
  • Prevents designation by EPA as a hazardous waste

On the Horizon.
  • MDEQ will be announcing regional recycling grants
    this year to help fund cooperative recycling
    efforts among local governments
  • MDEQ is working to promote more organics
    recycling through composting and other alternate
    technologies in the state
  • MDEQ will be streamlining solid waste permitting
    requirements for land application activities,
    composting facilities and processors of
    recyclable materials.

On the Horizon.
  • State EPR initiatives will continue that will
    indirectly influence materials management in
  • EPA appears to be moving to restrict export of
    certain electronic wastes overseas to developing
    nations and
  • EPA rules on CCBs may contain standards for
    beneficial use that could influence uses of other

Contact Information
  • Mark Williams
  • Solid Waste/Recycling Programs
  • Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
  • P.O. Box 2261
  • Jackson, MS 39225
  • Phone 601-961-5304
  • Fax 601-961-5785
  • Email
  • MDEQ Solid Waste Home Page
  • http//