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History of Quality Science

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Title: History of Quality Science


1
UNIT 2
  • History of Quality Science

2
Unit Objectives
  • After reading this unit, the students will be
    able
  • to understand the history of USA quality
    science
  • to understand the history of Japans quality
    movement and
  • to understand the history of quality evolution in
    Malaysia

3
HISTORY OF USA QUALITY SCIENCE
  • The 1920s are widely recognized as the dawn of
    quality science.
  • Bell Laboratories led the way by forming a
    quality department that emphasized quality,
    reliability, testing, and inspection.

4
Walter Shewhart Contribution
  • While with Bell Laboratories Walter Shewhart
    introduced the concept of control charting, and
  • H. F. Dodge and H. G. Romig perfected methods for
    acceptance sampling.
  • The methods developed during those early years
    were recognized and adopted by the War Department
    and the U.S. Army during the war effort of the
    1940s.

5
Control Charts, Sampling SPC
  • Guidelines for the use of control charts,
    sampling inspection standards, and sampling
    techniques were adopted to aid manufacturing of
    war materials.
  • Training courses in statistical quality control
    (SQC) also began to emerge.

6
The Publications Seminars
  • Much of what was learned in the U.S. during war
    time manufacturing was published and taught
    during the fifteen year period following WW II.
  • J. M. Juran and F. M. Gryna published the Quality
    Control Handbook (1957), and
  • both Juran and W.E. Deming were invited to Japan
    to give seminars on statistical methods and
    quality management.

7
The Japanese engineers and scientists The
Stagnant ERA
  • Japanese engineers and scientists also began
    developing methods for quality improvement such
    as Taguchis methods for experimental design, and
    Ishikawas introduction of the cause-and-effect-di
    agram.
  • However, it is interesting to note that after all
    that was gained during this time period, the
    growth of quality methodology during the 1960s
    and much of the 1970s was stagnant.

8
The Awareness
  • Something stalled the course of the quality
    movement in U.S. manufacturing between 1960 and
    1980 when NBC televised W. Edwards Demings first
    white paper titled If Japan Can . . . Why Cant
    We.
  • Many quality professionals believe that
    management gave up on the tools that lead to the
    successful advancement of traditional quality
    science here and abroad.

9
The Emergent of a new modern quality movement
  • Instead management concentrated on productivity
    and profits, and many blamed unfair trade
    practices for loss of market share.
  • However, a new modern quality movement emerged
    after Demings famous white paper, and with it
    came a new philosophy regarding quality and
    continuous improvement.

10
HISTORY OF JAPAN'S QUALITY MOVEMENT
  • The quality movement in Japan began in 1946 with
    the U.S. Occupation Force's mission to revive and
    restructure Japan's communications equipment
    industry.
  • General Douglas MacArthur was committed to public
    education through radio.

11
Roles of Homer Sarasohn
  • Homer Sarasohn was recruited to spearhead the
    effort by
  • repairing and installing equipment,
  • making materials and parts available,
  • restarting factories,
  • establishing the equipment test laboratory (ETL),
    and
  • setting rigid quality standards for products
    (Tsurumi 1990).

12
Sarasohn Recommendations
  • Sarasohn recommended individuals for company
    presidencies, like Koji Kobayashi of NEC, and he
    established education for Japan's top executives
    in the management of quality.
  • Furthermore, upon Sarasohn's return to the United
    States, he recommended W. Edwards Deming to
    provide a seminar in Japan on statistical quality
    control (SQC).

13
Demings Contribution
  • Deming's 1950 lecture notes provided the basis
    for
  • a 30-day seminar sponsored by the Union of
    Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) and
  • provided the criteria for Japan's famed Deming
    Prize.
  • The first Deming Prize was given to Koji
    Kobayashi (NEC) in 1952.

14
JUSEs Role
  • Within a decade, JUSE (Japanese Scientists and
    Engineers) had trained nearly 20,000 engineers in
    SQC (statistical quality control) methods.
  • Today Japan gives high rating to companies that
    win the Deming prize
  • they number about ten large companies per year.

15
Impact of Deming's work
  • Deming's work has impacted industries such as
    those for
  • radios and parts,
  • transistors,
  • cameras,
  • binoculars, and
  • sewing machines.

16
Deming awarded the Second Order of the Sacred
Treasure
  • In 1960, Deming was recognized for his
    contribution to Japan's reindustrialization when
    the Prime Minister awarded him the Second Order
    of the Sacred Treasure.

17
Role of Dr. Joseph M. Juran
  • In 1954, Dr. Joseph M. Juran of the United States
    raised the level of quality management from the
    factory to the total organization.
  • He stressed the importance of systems thinking
    that begins with
  • product designs,
  • prototype testing,
  • proper equipment operations, and
  • accurate process feedback.

18
From SQC to TQC (total quality control)
  • Juran's seminar also became a part of JUSE's
    educational programs.
  • Juran provided the move from SQC to TQC (total
    quality control) in Japan.
  • This included company-wide activities and
    education in quality control (QC), QC circles and
    audits, and promotion of quality management
    principles.

19
The elements of TQC management
  • By 1968, Kaoru Ishikawa, one of the fathers of
    TQC in Japan, had outlined the elements of TQC
    management
  • quality comes first, not short-term profits
  • the customer comes first, not the producer
  • customers are the next process with no
    organizational barriers
  • decisions are based on facts and data

20
The elements of TQC management
  • management is participatory and respectful of all
    employees
  • management is driven by cross-functional
    committees covering product planning, product
    design, production planning, purchasing,
    manufacturing, sales, and distribution (Ishikawa
    1985)

21
JUSE and QCC
  • By 1991, JUSE (Japanese Scientists and Engineers)
    had registered over 331,000 quality circles with
    over 2.5 million participants in its activities.
  • Today, JUSE continues to provide over 200 courses
    per year, including five executive management
    courses, ten management courses, and a full range
    of technical training programs.

22
"Ishikawa" or "cause-and-effect" (Fishbone)
diagram
  • One of the innovative TQC methodologies developed
    in Japan is referred to as the "Ishikawa" or
    "cause-and-effect" diagram (Fishbone).
  • After collecting statistical data, Ishikawa found
    that dispersion came from four common causes, as
    shown in Figure 1.

23
Figure 1. Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa
1982, 13).
24
Materials Machines
  • Materials often differ when sources of supply or
    size requirements vary.
  • Equipment or machines also function differently
    depending on variations in their own parts, and
    they operate optimally for only part of the time.

25
Process (Method) and measurement
  • Processes or work methods have even greater
    variations.
  • Finally, measurement also varies.
  • All of these variations affect a product's
    quality.
  • Ishikawa's diagram has lead Japanese firms to
    focus quality control attention on the
    improvement of materials, equipment, processes
    and measurement.

26
JTEC (Japanese Technology Evaluation Center)
Observation
  • JTEC panelists observed statistical process
    control (SPC) charts, often with goal lines
    extending into 1995, in a few of the factories
    they visited in 1993.
  • For example, at Ibiden, process control was
    apparent in its laminated process board
    manufacture, where there was extensive use of
    drawings and descriptions of the processes
    necessary to do the job.

27
JTEC Observation
  • Companies that were competing for the Deming
    Prize made extensive use of such charts, and
    companies that had received ISO 9000
    certification also posted the process information
    required for each machine.
  • However, the panel was surprised at the
    relatively limited use of SPC charts within the
    factories visited.

28
JTEC Observation
  • The Japanese believe that the greatest benefit
    occurs when defect detection is implemented
    within the manufacturing sequence,
  • thus minimizing the time required for detection,
    maximizing return on investment, and indirectly
    improving product reliability.

29
ISO 9000 Standards Certification
  • The concept of certification and standards,
    however, breaks down when global competitiveness
    is at stake.
  • Most recently, ISO 9000 certification has become
    a requirement for exports to Europe, and
  • Japan has been forced to obtain ISO
    certification, not because it is a quality issue,
    but because it is a way of increasing market
    share.

30
Company product standards VS QML (Qualified
Manufacturers List)
  • The Japanese companies provide some of the
    highest-quality products, typically
  • using company product standards (best commercial
    practices)
  • rather than external standards like QML
    (Qualified Manufacturers List) or any U.S.
    military standards.

31
Role of The Japan Quality Association (JQA)
  • The Japan Quality Association (JQA) is
    responsible for ISO certification.
  • It was established in 1958 as the Japan
    Management Institute (JMI) under Japan's Ministry
    of International Trade and Industry (MITI) for
    the purpose of export inspection.

32
From JMI to JQA
  • In 1960, JMI moved from inspection to process
    certification,
  • and in October 1993, JMI was renamed JQA to more
    aptly identify its mission.

33
JQA ISO 9000 Certification
  • JQA has provided ISO 9000 certification in Japan
    since 1990 after receiving training from the
    British Standards Institution's (BSI) quality
    assurance division, and
  • it has memoranda of understanding with both BSI
    and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) in the United
    States for reciprocal certification acceptance.

34
JQA ISO 9000 Certification
  • By October of 1993, JQA had ISO-certified 300
    firms in Japan, about 80 of which were
    electronics firms the rest were chemical firms.
  • JQA expected to have about 540 companies
    certified by the end of 1994.

35
JQA ISO 9000 Certification
  • Most firms seeking certification were
    electronics firms that depended on exports to
    Europe.
  • At the time of the JTEC visit, JQA was limited to
    about thirty assessments per month.

36
JQA ISO 9000 Certification
  • It typically took companies one year to eighteen
    months to gain certification most had little
    difficulty in obtaining ISO certification.
  • In addition to JQA certification, there were an
    equal number of firms obtaining ISO certification
    from non-Japanese auditors.

37
JTEC (Japanese Technology Evaluation Center)
Panel Observation
  • When the JTEC panel visited Japan, Fujitsu, NEC,
    and Hitachi had the largest number of certified
    factories.
  • Yamagata Fujitsu became ISO 9002-certified in
    February 1993 and was applying for ISO 9001
    certification for early 1994.
  • Fujitsu had over ten certified factories by the
    end of 1993.
  • Most of the factories visited by the panel had
    either received ISO certification or were in the
    process of certification.

38
QUALITY AND RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS IN JAPAN
  • Quality is associated with the degree of
    conformance of the product to customer
    requirements, and thus, in a sense, with the
    degree of customer satisfaction.
  • Implicit in Japanese quality products is an
    acceptable amount of reliability that is, the
    product performs its intended function over its
    intended life under normal environmental and
    operating conditions.

39
Reliability Assurance
  • Reliability assurance tasks such as qualification
    are conducted
  • (1) during the product design phase using
    analytical simulation methods and
    design-for-assembly software, and
  • (2) during development using prototype or pilot
    hardware.

40
Quality conformance
  • Quality conformance for qualified products is
    accomplished through monitoring and control of
    critical parameters within the acceptable
    variations already established, perhaps during
    qualification.
  • Quality conformance, therefore, helps to increase
    product yield and consequently to lower product
    cost.

41
Automation and its impact on quality
  • The Japanese have determined that manual labor
    leads to poor-quality output and that automation
    leads to higher-quality output.
  • Quality has, therefore, become a key driver for
    factory automation in Japan.
  • In addition, factory automation also adds the
    benefits of improving productivity and improving
    flexibility in scheduling the production or
    changeover of product types.

42
Inspection and screening
  • Incoming inspection was negligible at most of the
    companies that the JTEC panel visited, because of
    the view that the quality of suppliers' products
    could be trusted.
  • Since the 1950s, the Japanese government has set
    quality requirements for any company that exports
    products from Japan.

43
  • Suppliers have progressed in status from being
    fully inspected by their customers to being fully
    accepted.
  • Qualified suppliers (Qualified Manufacturers
    List) are now the standard for Japan, and most
    problems come from non-Japanese suppliers

44
Dealing with Reliability Problems in Electronic
Sector (JTEC Observation)
  • Assessment methods
  • Infrastructure
  • Training
  • The factory

45
Assessment methods for improvement
  • Japanese firms identify the areas that need
    improvement for competitive reasons and target
    those areas for improvement.
  • They don't try to fix everything they are very
    specific (very focus).

46
Assessment methods
  • They continuously design products for reduced
    size and cost and use new technologies only when
    performance problems arise.
  • As a result, most known technologies have
    predictable reliability characteristics.

47
Infrastructure
  • The incorporation of suppliers and customers
    early in the product development cycle
  • This has given Japanese companies an advantage in
    rapid development of components and in effective
    design of products.

48
Training
  • The Japanese view of training is best exemplified
    by Nippondenso.
  • The company runs its own two-year college to
    train production workers.

49
Training
  • Managers tend to hold four-year degrees from
    university engineering programs.
  • Practical training in areas such as equipment
    design takes place almost entirely within the
    company.

50
The factory
  • Japanese factories pay attention
  • to running equipment well,
  • to continuous improvement,
  • to cost reduction, and
  • to waste elimination.

51
Total preventive maintenance (TPM)
  • TPM is a methodology to ensure that
  • equipment operates at its most efficient level,
    and
  • that facilities are kept clean
  • so as not to contribute to reliability problems.

52
Total preventive maintenance (TPM)
  • In fact, the Japan Management Association gives
    annual TPM (Total preventive maintenance) awards
    with prestige similar to the Deming Prize.
  • receipt of those awards is considered a required
    step for companies that wish to attain the Japan
    Quality Prize. Similar to Malaysian Quality
    Management Excellence Award (QMEA)

53
Quality Improvement through Comprehensive Waste
Reduction
  • Fundamental improvement means working to
    eliminate wastes that can negatively affect
    product quality, cost, and delivery time.
  • The Japan Management Association published a book
    describing the activities of Canon Corporation,
    Canon Production System Creative Involvement of
    the Total Workforce, that outlined a number of
    approaches to improve quality and reliability
    through "waste reduction" strategies (JMA 1987,
    19-22).

54
Comprehensive Waste Reduction
  • These include the elimination of waste associated
    with
  • defective products,
  • systems planning,
  • work-in-process,
  • human resources,
  • equipment,
  • expenses, and
  • excessive startup time for new products.
  • Most Japanese electronics firms now incorporate
    waste reduction as a central part of their TQM
    programs.

55
HISTORY OF QUALITY EVOLUTION IN MALAYSIA
  • Several crucial historical events played very
    important roles in the history of quality
    evolution in Malaysia.
  • The first one was the launching of the Malaysian
    look east policy in the early 1980s, and

56
PMQA and QMEA
  • the second event happened very much later in the
    early 1990s when two quality awards namely
  • Prime Minister Quality Award (PMQA) and
  • Quality Management Excellence Award (QMEA)

57
PMQA and QMEA
  • These two awards were introduced to encourage
    quality excellence among the public and private
    sector.

58
The Look East Policy (LEP)
  • In July 1981, Prime Minister Dato' Seri Dr.
    Mahathir bin Mohamad became the Prime Minister of
    Malaysia.
  • After six months in his office, he announced an
    initiative to learn from the experiences of Japan
    (and Korea) in the nation-building of Malaysia.

59
The Look East Policy (LEP)
  • He considered that the secret of Japanese success
    and its remarkable development lies in its
  • labor ethics,
  • morale, and
  • management capability

60
The LEP
  • He felt a program enabling the young Malaysians
    to learn in Japan would contribute to the
    economic and social development of Malaysia.
  • For this purpose, Malaysia decided to dispatch
    their students to Japan, to study not only
    academics and technical know-how but also to
    learn labor ethics and discipline of the Japanese
    people.

61
LEP Programs
  • This initiative is called "Look East Policy." The
    program consists of two parts.
  • The first is to send Malaysian students to
    Japanese universities and institutes of
    technology.
  • The second is to send trainees to Japanese
    industries and training institutes.

62
LEP Programs
  • These programs are funded by
  • the Government of Malaysia, and
  • the Government of Japan supports these programs
    by sending Japanese teachers to Malaysia and also
    by sharing a part of its costs.

63
Rationale of LEP
  • This policy is designed to emulate the ways of
    the developed countries in the East such as
    Japan, and South Korea.
  • Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad considered that the
    secret of the Japanese success and its remarkable
    development lies in its labor ethics, morale, and
    management capability.

64
Rationale of LEP
  • The Look East was a framework for learning from
    successful Japanese and South Koreans, and
    adapting some of the applicable values into
    Malaysian needs.

65
Objective of LEP
  • The main objective of this policy is to increase
    the quality of management among the workers as
    well as
  • creating a community with good value and positive
    working ethics with the aim of accelerating
    Malaysias development.

66
Implementation of LEP
  • The programs arranged can be divided into three
    categories.
  • Change in Structure Advocate in the use of
    punch cards, nametags, table files, and manual on
    work procedures among workers and also
    implementing counter service.
  • Change in Behaviors Implementation of Clean,
    Efficient, and Trustworthy concept, Leadership
    through Example slogan, and the establishment of
    Quality Control Circle (QCC).
  • Courses and Trainings Programs such as
    technical and academic studies and intensive
    training for the executive staff and
    entrepreneur.

67
The details of the Look East Policy programs are
as follows
  1. ACADEMIC EDUCATION PROGRAM (AEP)
  2. TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM (TEP)
  3. JAPANESE LANGUAGE PROGRAM FOR MALAYSIAN TEACHERS
    (JLPMT)
  4. INDUSTRIAL AND TECHNICAL (IN-PLANT) TRAINING
    PROGRAM (ITTP)
  5. SHORT TERM TRAINING FOR MALAYSIAN EXECUTIVES
    (STME)
  6. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND ATTACHMENT
    PROGRAMME WITH JAPANESE COMPANIES (BMT)

68
Continuity of LEP
  • At the Twelfth Annual Meeting on the Look East
    Policy held in May 1995, Malaysia reaffirmed that
    the Program will continue until the year 2000.
  • In January 1997, when Prime Minister Mr.
    Hashimoto visited Malaysia, Prime Minister Dato'
    Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad stated that the
    Program will continue beyond the year 2000.

69
The Prime Minister Quality Award (PMQA) and
Quality Management Excellence Award (QMEA)
  • There are two awards of quality excellence in
    Malaysia
  • The awards are the Prime Minister Quality Award
    (PMQA) and
  • Quality Management Excellence Award (QMEA).

70
The Prime Minister Quality Award (PMQA) and
Quality Management Excellence Award (QMEA)
  • These two awards have one thing in common
  • they emphasize quality excellence among the
    public and private sector.

71
The Prime Minister Quality Award (PMQA)
  • The Prime Minister Quality Award (Private Sector)
    was first introduced on 9th November 1990.
  • This annual national quality award is given to
    organizations in private sector in recognition
    for their excellent achievement in quality
    management.
  • Winning the award is a prestigious
    accomplishment, as the Prime Minister Quality
    Award is a proof of Organizational Excellence.

72
Objectives of PMQA
  • Promote Quality Awareness among various
    organizations in the private sector category.
  • Promote the adoption of Quality values in
    organizations.
  • Encourage healthy competition among organizations
    towards continuous improvement of quality.
  • Encourage Information Sharing on successful
    performance strategies and the benefits derived
    from using these strategies.

73
The PMQA Recipient's Responsibilities and
Contributions
  • The Award recipient is required to share
    information of its successful performance and
    quality strategies with other Malaysian
    organizations.
  • However, the recipient is not required to share
    proprietary information even if such information
    is part of the award application.

74
Incentives of PMQA
  • The recipient of the Award will receive and enjoy
    the following benefits
  • The Prime Minister Quality Award (PMQA) Trophy.
  • Cash prize of RM 30,000.
  • Certificate of Appreciation.
  • Eligible to use the Q Symbol for publicity
    purposes for three years from the date of
    receiving the award.

75
Past Winners of Prime Minister Quality Award
(PMQA)
2004 Tioxide (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Teluk Kalung, Terengganu
2003 Subang Jaya Medical Centre Sdn. Bhd. - Petaling Jaya, Selangor
2002 Infineon Technologies (M) Sdn. Bhd - Melaka
2001 Samsung SDI(M) Bhd. Seremban, Negeri Sembilan
2000 Intel Technology Sdn. Bhd. - Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang
1999 Asean Bintulu Fertilizer Sdn. Bhd. - Petaling Jaya, Selangor
1998 Subang Jaya Medical Centre Sdn. Bhd. - Petaling Jaya, Selangor
1997 Shangri-La Hotel Kuala Lumpur - Kuala Lumpur
1996 Selectron Technology Sdn. Bhd. Prai, Pulau Pinang
1995 Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan Bhd. (PLUS) - Kuala Lumpur
1994 Siemens Semiconductor Sdn. Bhd. Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang
1993 SGS-Thompson Micro Electronics Sdn. Bhd. Muar, Johor
1992 Matsushita Industrial Corporation Sdn. Bhd. - Petaling Jaya, Selangor
1991 Motorola Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. - Petaling Jaya, Selangor
1990 Intel Technology Sdn. Bhd. - Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang
76
Quality Management Excellent Award (QMEA)
  • Ministry of International and Industry (MITI),
    Malaysia, has introduced the Industry Excellence
    Award in 1990.
  • NPC (National Productivity Corporation) is
    appointed by MITI as the secretariat for the
    QMEA.

77
Objectives of QMEA
  1. To give due recognition to excellent
    organizations.
  2. To enhance quality awareness and practices in
    management of excellence.
  3. To encourage the production of quality products
    or services.
  4. To promote information sharing on successful
    performance strategies and strategy
    implementation benefits.

78
Categories of Participation in QMEA

79
The QMEA Recipient's Responsibilities and
Contributions
  • The Award recipient is required to share
    information of its successful performance and
    quality strategies with other Malaysian
    organizations.
  • However, the recipient is not required to share
    proprietary information even if such information
    is part of the award application.

80
Incentives of QMEA
  • A trophy and a certificate
  • Eligible to use the logo of the Award for
    publicity purposes for three (3) years from the
    date of receiving the award.
  • To be featured in MATRADE's Publication and given
    space to advertise company product/services in
    MATRADE's export directory.
  • To be nominated for the Prime Minister's Quality
    Award (PMQA) (with exception of the Export
    Excellence Award Services).
  • 20 discount on any program organized by NPC

81
Past Winners of QMEA
82
THE END OF UNIT 2
  • THANK YOU
  • FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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