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Lesson Two

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Title: Lesson Two


1
Lesson Two
  • Marrakech

2
Objectives of Teaching
  1. To comprehend the whole text
  2. To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions
  3. To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences
  4. To understand the structure of the text
  5. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the
    passage.

3
Aims
  1. To know the writing technique of exposition.
  2. To learn the methods in developing an expository
    writing,esp. the use of examples.
  3. To appreciate the language features

4
Teaching Contents
  • 1. Exposition
  • 2. George Orwell
  • 2. Detailed study of the text
  • 3. Organizational pattern
  • 4. Language features
  • 5. Exercises

5
Time allocation
  • 1. Background information (15 min.)
  • 2. Detailed study of the text (120 min.)
  • 3. Structure analysis (15 min.)
  • 4. Language appreciation (15 min.)
  • 5. Exercises (15 min)

6
Exposition
  • Exposition is perhaps the type of writing that is
    most frequently used by a student, a scientist,
    or a professional.Exposition --- expounding
    explaining

7
Exposition
  • An expository paper explains or explores
    something, such as the process of making a
    machine, the causes of a natural or social
    phenomenon, the planning of a project, or the
    solution of a problem.

8
Exposition
  • Description -- deals with appearances and
    feelings
  • Narration --- deals with events and experience
  • Exposition --- deals with processes and
    relationships

9
Exposition
  • Things can be explained by

10
Definition
  • The key to a definition is concreteness. One
    has to give concrete facts to make a definition
    effective.

11
2. Listing
  • We must have enough number of items to be
    listed. Then, if possible, arrange the items in
    the graded order of increasing importance.

12
3. Examples
  • It's the simplest, the most common, best
    method.

13
4. Classification
  • We have to follow a system consistently. The
    categories of division should be mutually
    exclusive. There should be no overlapping. One
    item can belong to one category and only one.

14
5. Comparison and contrast
  • We liken one thing to another by pointing out
    their similarities (comparison) We emphasize the
    difference between the two. (contrast)

15
6. Analysis
  • We may discuss the cause and effect of a
    historical event, its nature and its significance
    in history.

16
Exposition
  • The writer appeals to a reader's understanding
    with verifiable facts and valid information,
    explaining and interpreting that materials so
    that the reader will accept his point of view or
    explanation. Thus he must organize and develop
    his thought objectively and present it with
    honesty and completeness so that the reader will
    have confidence in what he is saying.

17
Exposition
  • 1. generally the writer makes a statement of
    the central thought or of his purpose quite
    early. This statement is sometimes called the
    "thesis", and may even be the title of the
    piece.
  • 2. Sometimes the writer may first present and
    develop his facts and make his general statement
    as a conclusion at the end.

18
The Text
  • It is an exposition, a political essay. Orwell
    leaves no doubt about his feelings concerning
    colonialism and its results. He has shown the
    reader how millions of people can be ignored and
    treated as less than human.

19
Theme ----
  • The suffering and misery of the colonial people
    in Marrakech
  • The writer gives descriptions by examples. The
    objective presentation of examples show that the
    people in colonial countries are
    poverty-stricken.

20
George Orwell
  • A British novelist and essayist between the two
    world wars image-1 http//etext.library.adelaid
    e.edu.au/o/orwell/george/
  • He is mush praised in the west partly because of
    his anti-communist point of view.
  • He was born in India, father, a so called
    empire-builder --serving the British government
    abroad.

21
George Orwell
  • He received good education in Britain and studied
    in the most famous school "Eden.

22
George Orwell
  • He travelled widely. Marrakech is one of the
    places he travelled to. His travel made him take
    a hostile attitude toward imperialism. He showed
    deep sympathy for the poor and became a firm
    supporter of socialism.

23
George Orwell
  • He joined Spanish War. He was seriously wounded.
    The Spanish socialist forces divided into
    faction. The faction he belonged to was
    persecuted. So he became so pessimistic and
    depressed, which led him toward anti-communist
    attitude.

24
George Orwell
  • Animal Farm ---- a political fableimage-2
  • Each animal represents a certain human
    character, meant to criticise Stalin's socialism.

25
George Orwell
  • In reading his works, several aspects draw our
    attention1. His works show sharp powers of
    observation and deep sympathy for suffering
    people. 2. His works give a deep sense of
    conviction and urgency.

26
George Orwell
  • 3. The use of English is clear, simple and
    direct, with no formality of embellishment.
    (addition/decoration) He said his ideal was to
    write prose like a window pane. ______ as
    clear as glass

27
Detailed study of the text
  • Marrakech 2image-3,4,5

28
Detailed study of the text
  • As the corpse.... The opening paragraph is very
    dramatic. The choice of this scene and the words
    he uses implies much more than what appears on
    the surface. 1) dirty 2) poor

29
in a cloud ---
  • a large number of small things moving through
    the air as a mass a cloud of insects

30
crowd ---
  • It suggests
  • 1) the lack of order
  • 2) people are not terribly concerned about the
    funeral.

31
all men and boys, no women
  • According to Muslim law, Muslims must respect
    women, and for this reason girls and women used
    to be kept in the house, where they could be
    safe. When they went out, they wore the veils to
    cover their faces. But this law has become a kind
    of excuse to discriminate against women.

32
pomegranates ----
  • refers to the fruit of the pomegranate tree, a
    native of Asia. It is a round reddish fruit with
    a mild flavour. The word comes to English from
    the old French. pome --- apple granate ----
    having many seeds

33
chant ---
  • 1. a word or group of words that is repeated
    over and over again, usually by more than one
    person.2. a religious prayer or song that is
    spoken or sung on only a very few notes so that
    there is not much variation in it.

34
appeal to ----
  • If something appeals to you, you find it
    attractive or interesting attract / interest /
    fascinateThese books are designed to appeal to
    children.The idea of becoming director of the
    factory appealed to him.

35
identify ---
  • recognise be able to name Can you identify your
    umbrella among a hundred others? Schoolboys
    could identify almost every car as it passed by.

36
derelict building-lot
  • It would be an ugly, forgotten, abandoned place
    where a building was begun but never
    finished."derelict" --- comes from the Latin
    word meaning to abandon

37
2
  • How people are buried in Marrakech wail a
    short chant hack an oblong hole (dig
    without care) dump the body fling over it
    a little of the dried-up earthThe fact shows the
    human life has no value at all.

38
The thesis
  • ---"All colonial empire....."It is the colonial
    empires that make the people so poor. Empires are
    built up by treating the people in the colonies
    like animals. This thesis is going to be
    supported by more illustrations and examples.

39
Rhetorical questions
  • --- What sort of audience Orwell had in mind when
    he wrote this essay? --- Clearly he is writing
    to readers of his own race and general class . So
    if you say yes, why don't they appear to be so?

40
undifferentiated ---
  • You can't differentiate one brown stuff from
    another, because they look just the same. If
    they do have individuality, it is irrecognizable,
    just like insects, like bees.

41
regularity ---
  • a state or situation in which things happen
    repeatedly There is no regularity about his
    work. He makes the same stupid suggestion with
    great regularity. His heart beats with the
    regularity of a clock pendulum.

42
a gazelle ---
  • image-7 gazelle
  • a hoofed mammal with a slender neck and ringed
    horns. Gazelles are famous for their grace and
    beauty, and are native to Africa and Asia

43
mint sauce ---
  • 2imge-8 mint sauce
  • an English specialty made of a combination of
    chopped mint leaves, vinegar, and water. It's
    traditionally served with roast lamb.

44
stow ---
  • to put, hide away in safe place If you stow
    sth. somewhere, you put it neatly away in a place
    where it can be kept until it is needed.
    storestow away hide

45
stow
  • We stowed all the boxes in the attic.
  • Potatoes must be stowed in a cool dark place.
  • My jewellery is safely stowed away in the bank.
  • His baggage was safely stowed away in the plane.

46
815
  • The writer described the plight of the Jews, an
    poorest minority in a colonial country. Their
    fate could be worse than that of the natives.

47
quarters ----
  • apartment (room/house) residential
    area for particular kind of people
  • the doctor's quarters
  • servants quarters
  • officers' quarters
  • confined to quarters
  • sleeping quarters

48
ghettoes or ghettos
  • Orwell uses ghettos here in the traditional sense
    of a portion of a city populated almost
    exclusively by Jews.
  • A ghetto is a part of a town or city in which
    many poor people or many people of a particular
    race, religion, or nationality live in isolation
    from the majority group in the town or city.

49
ghettoes or ghettos
  • It's about this black kid growing up in the
    ghetto.
  • ---- ghetto life in European cities ----
    slums and ghettos

50
overcrowding ---
  • adv v ing dry-cleaning over-eating
    updating downgrading

51
sore-eyed ---
  • Eyes are infested from 1.
    malnutrition 2. lack of medical care
    3. unhygienic condition

52
skull-cap ---
  • a close-fitting brimless cap
  • It is often worn indoors and often by Orthodox
    Jews. Men who strictly practice Judaism are never
    supposed to have their heads bared. There must be
    some piece of cloth etc. between man and God.

53
infest ---
  • When insects, rats or other animals infest a
    plant, area, they spread in a large numbers and
    cover the area, usually causing damage.
  • overrun swarm pack crowd teem flood fill
    be thick withfly-infested --- full of fliesThe
    back yard was infested by rats. 

54
booth ---
  • a stall for selling goodspublic telephone
    boothan announcer bootha motion picture
    projection booth

55
prehistoric ---
  • ancient out-of-date or old-fashioned His ideas
    on morals are really prehistoric. (derog or
    humor)
  • Is Simon's prehistoric car still working?

56
lathe ---
  • a machine for shaping wood, metal 

57
warp ---
  • to cause to bend, curve, or twist out of shape
  • The hot sun warped the boards.
  • Some gramophone records warp in very hot
    weather.

58
frenzied adj.
  • full of uncontrolled excitement
  • Will this push him too far and lead to a frenzied
    attack?
  • She was climbing now with a sort of frenzied
    haste. --- a frenzied mob of over a thousand
    student --- make frenzied efforts

59
self-contained ----
  • self sufficient A self-contained community is
    one in which all or nearly all the needs of the
    community are met from within. There is little
    need to go outside for material or cultural
    desires. The Jewish ghettos are self-contained
    not only by preference but also by necessity,
    since Jews may have been unwelcome outside.

60
a good job ---coll. BrE
  • a fortunate state of affairs
  • This restaurant is not cheap, so it's a good job
    you've brought plenty of money.
  • He's gone, and a good job too.

61
That's only for show ---
  • The Jew only pretends to work as a poor
    labourer.show --- n. sth false or superficial,
    pretence
  • I make a show of interest, but I really couldn't
    have cared less.
  • He put on a good show, but he didn't deceive
    anyone.
  • He is not really ill he is just putting on a
    show.

62
witchcraft ---
  • Orwell is probably referring to many occasions in
    the 1600's in both England and America when
    innocent women were tried and often burned or
    otherwise punished for witchcraft. By the very
    nature of the charge it was impossible for the
    accused to defend herself, just as it was for the
    Jews. And like the Jews witches served as
    scapegoats for the ills of society that couldn't
    be explained. Such trials reached their peak in
    America at Salem, Massachusetts.

63
1617
  • Have you already sensed out the tone? Orwell
    here is extremely bitter and ironical. He didn't
    openly criticize the white colonialists who paid
    no attention to the people who suffer from
    poverty and misery. Instead, he pretends that
    they have a sound reason to ignore such people.
    The people simply cannot be seen because they are
    of the color of the earth.

64
In a hot country
  • You dont even see the labore ploughing the
    field.
  • South of Gibralter --- all countries or ear in
    North Africa
  • East of Suez --- the middle-east Asian countries

65
It is only because of this
  • This here stands for the fact that people
    always miss the peasants laboring in the fields
    because they have the color of the earth. It is
    only because of this reason that these poor
    starved countries are accepted as tourist resorts.

66
What does Morocco mean ...
  • Morocco being a French colony, to many Frenchmen
    Morocco has no more meaning than a place where
    they might find a government job, buy an orange
    grove with their money or invest his money. To an
    Englishman Morocco means nothing but a romantic,
    mysterious country which he has read in the
    novels. Camels, castles are the romantic bits in
    his mind by the novels.

67
erode ---
  • wear away eat into If rock or soil erodes or
    is eroded by the weather, sea or wind, it cracks
    and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed.
  • Rain and rivers eroded the soft sand-stones.

68
desolate ---
  • barren (of a place) in a ruined and neglected
    state1. If sth is desolate, it is empty of
    people and lacking in comfort.2. If sb. is
    desolate, they feel very sad, lonely and without
    hope. The forest was left desolate by the fire.
    After the war the town was a desolate place.
    She has been desolate since losing her job.

69
desolate ---
  • v.-- The land was desolated by floods. We
    were desolated by the death of our good friend.

70
lucerne ---
  • 2image-9
  • named from the French "Luzerne" (glow worn - from
    its shiny seeds) is more commonly called alfalfa.
    It is widely cultivated and used as forage.

71
fodder --- n.
  • rough food for cattle or horses, gathered from
    the fields and stored
  • spike --- n. long pointed piece of metal with an
    outward or upward point
  • harrow --- n. heavy frame with metal teeth or
    disks for breaking up ground after ploughing

72
This is as much equal to
  • The animals yoked to the plough had just enough
    strength to plough the soil to a depth of about
    four inches. They could not make deeper furrows.

73
get at
  • to reach
  • Marrakech is very dry. Even at a depth of 30 or
    40 feet there is only but a trickle of water.

74
Para 19.
  • Miserable life of women

75
I suppose that
  • The author gave the old woman a little money. The
    response was a shrill wail for she was greatly
    surprised. The old woman was fully accustomed to
    her miserable existence and to not being taken
    notice of by any one, so she almost considered
    the author to be doing something unnatural by
    giving her the money.

76
She accepted her
  • She took it for granted that as an old woman she
    was the lowest in the society, that she was only
    fit for doing heavy work like an animal.

77
St. Bernard dog ---
  • 2image-10
  • A Saint Bernard dog is a large, strong dog, the
    breed of which comes from Switzerland. These dogs
    are often used as a patrol dogs in the mountains.
    The name comes from the monks of the Saint
    Bernard monastery who made use of the breed.

78
fifteen-hands mule
  • A mule about 60 inches or 5 feet high

79
infuriate --- v.
  • fill with fury or rage outrage aggravate
    enrage provoke

80
Comparison
  • Donkey and Woman
  • Both are overloaded.
  • Both are willing creatures.
  • Both are small.
  • Both are ill-treated.
  • Both have an miserable end.

81
Comparison
  • Donkey and Woman
  • Visible
  • Invisible
  • Implication --- Women are worse treated.

82
Para. 22. As the storks
  • The passive plodding ,earth-bound blacks are
    contrasted with the glittering white birds so
    great, pure and lofty who sail above them in the
    sky. While the former are weighed down by heavy
    packs, are sweating and uncomfortably hot, the
    latter are to soar unfettered in the cool sky
    above

83
Contrast
  • Stork -- north
  • Negro south

84
clump and clatter
  • onomatopoeia words describing the sound of boots
    and iron wheels as they moved over the road.

85
Senegalese
  • The black soldiers were from Senegal.
  • Senegal Republic of Senegal, a country in
    western Africa, formerly part of French West
    Africa, population 5,085,388, capital Dakar. It
    became independent in 1960.
  • 2image-11,12

86
reach-me-down
  • British colloquialism
  • second-hand or readymade clothing

87
wide-eyed
  • With the eyes opened widely, as because of
    surprise, fear, lack of sophistication

88
I saw how it was.
  • I understand the reason why.
  • This is the result of colonization

89
This wretched boy.
  • This miserable black boy is, as a result of the
    colonization of his country, a French citizen.
    Therefore he has been forced to leave his home in
    the forest and come to a garrison town where he
    ahs to do hard labor such as scrubbing floors for
    the whites and where he will catch syphilis.
    However this boy, instead of hating the whites,
    has deep respect for them.

90
In this connection
  • in this case.
  • While speaking of such things (while speaking of
    the one thought which every white man thinks)

91
It doesnt matter twopence
  • It doesnt matter a bit.
  • It doesnt matter at all.

92
NCO
  • N.C.O. or NonCOs
  • Noncommissioned officer an enlisted person of
    any various grades in the armed forces, from
    corporal ?? to sergeant ?? inclusive

93
ranks
  • The body of soldiers of an army, as distinguished
    from the officers.

94
  • cattles / soldiers --- obedient

95
Symbol
  • white bird/ scraps of paper
  • --- symbolic of freedom

96
Five examples to illustrate the fact
  • 1. the burial of the poor people2. an employee
    of the municipality3. poor living and working
    conditions of the Jews4. poor natural
    conditions5. miserable life of women

97
The cause of their poverty
  • 1. Colonialization "All colonial empires are in
    reality founded upon this fact" (para.1 17)
  • 2. Racial discrimination "The people have brown
    faces -- besides there are so many of them"
    (para.3 ) "He is the same colour as the earth,
    " (para.16)

98
The cause of their poverty
  • 3. Black people's ignorance He showed his
    profound respect to his enemy. " He ... has
    feelings of reverence before a white skin"
    "Only the Negroes didn't know it
  • 4. Poor natural conditions

99
Organizational pattern
  •  Sect.1 (para 1--2) Ex.1
  • objective presentation of Example 1 the
    burial of the people in Marrakech
  • Sect.2 (para 3 ) the thesis ---- All colonial
    empires are founded upon this fact
  • the author's central idea Colonialization is
    based on the fact that people are very poor.

100
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.3 (para4--7) Ex.2 The Arabian government
    employee is as poor as a beggar.
  • Sect.4 (para8--15) Ex.3
  • 1) the living conditions of the Jews 2) the
    hard work the Jews do 3) biased attitude
    against the Jews

101
Organizational pattern
  • The specific example of the people clamouring for
    a cigarette shows that the people are so poor,
    yet people still have rumours about them and have
    great prejudice against them.

102
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.5 (para16--18) Ex.4
  • The country is very poor. The poverty was not
    noticed by the white people. Because of their
    black color, the white people didn't even see
    them.
  • 1gt The soils are poor. " dried-up soil"
    " eroded soil" "
    desolate" "waste" " broken-up
    brick
  • 2gt Everything is done by hand. "capital Ls

103
Organizational pattern
  • 3gt The farming tools are rough. "The plough
    is so frail, a rough iron spike which stirs the
    soil to a depth of about four inches.
  • 4gt The farming animals are weak and the peasants
    calculate carefully.
  • 5gt The natural conditions are poor. "dry" They
    had to dig deep ditches.

104
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.6 (para19--21) Ex.5 the miserable
    life of women
  • The writer is describing objectively the
    physical appearance of the old woman, yet his
    anger comes through. Notice his choice of words.
    ( poor old mummified reduced to bones
    leathery skin bent double crushing weight)

105
Organizational pattern
  • Sect.7 (para22--26) conclusiondescription of
    the black troops in general and one black soldier
    individually.
  • It won't be long for the white people to keep
    these black people in ignorance.

106
Language
  • 1. simple words, simple statements to convey
    deeper meaning
  • 2. the use of rhetorical questions which is very
    effective in conveying his anger
  • 3. terse, lucid prose style.
  • 4. good diction 
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