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civilization

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Title: civilization


1
civilization
  • 1.an advanced state of human society, in which a
    high level of culture, science, industry, and
    government has been reached.
  • 2.those people or nations that have reached such
    a state.
  • 3.any type of culture, society, etc., of a
    specific place, time, or group Greek
    civilization.
  • 4.the act or process of civilizing or being
    civilized Rome's civilization of barbaric tribes
    was admirable.
  • 5.cultural refinement refinement of thought and
    cultural appreciation The letters of Madame de
    Sévigné reveal her wit and civilization.
  • 6.cities or populated areas in general, as
    opposed to unpopulated or wilderness areas The
    plane crashed in the jungle, hundreds of miles
    from civilization.
  • 7.modern comforts and conveniences, as made
    possible by science and technology After a week
    in the woods, without television or even running
    water, the campers looked forward to civilization
    again.

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3
Sowhere is the West?
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4
Mercator Mapwhat youre used to
5
New World Map anyone?
6
How about McArthur?
7
Or does Peter have it correct?
8
WHAT IS THE WEST?
  • A geographic area Ex. Europe and North Am.
  • An idea Ex. Christianity, democracy
  • People Ex. race, culture
  • Origins of Western Civilization lay in the
    civilizations of
  • A) Ancient Rome
  • B) Ancient Greece
  • C) Ancient Egypt
  • D) Mesopotamia


9
Mesopotamia The Cradle of Civilization
10
Map of Ancient Trade Routes From Mesopotamia to
Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea
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Earliest Civilization the Fertile Crescent
  • Categorized as the earliest of all civilizations
    as people formed permanent settlements
  • Mesopotamia is a Greek word that means between
    the rivers
  • Specifically, the area between the Tigris River
    and Euphrates River (present day Iraq)

14
Legacies of Mesopotamia
  • Revolutionary innovations emerged in Mesopotamia
    such as
  • codified laws
  • the concept of kinship and the city-state
  • the building of places of worship (ziggurats)
  • the birthplace of writing (cuneiform)
  • Invention of the wheel
  • Oldest written records of a story of creation
    date back to Mesopotamia
  • First civilization to make a prosperous living
    based on large scale agriculture

15
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
16
A Map of Ancient Egypt
17
Geography
  • Highlights of Ancient Egyptian History
  • Death and the afterlife was an integral part of
    Egyptian life
  • Science and technology pyramids, chariots, army,
    expansion of empire
  • Agriculture, city-states

18
Ancient Greece
19
Legacies of Greece
  • Thought
  • Language
  • Politics
  • Philosophy
  • Art and architecture
  • Myths and literature

20
Trojan War
  • event or legend in Mycenaean history
  • Two epic poems by Homer Iliad and Odyssey
    describe the Trojan War
  • Approximately 1194-1184 BCE
  • Greeks vs Troy
  • Helen of Sparta Paris of Troy the face that
    launched a thousand ships
  • Achilles, Odysseus, Hector, Agamemnon and the
    Trojan Horse

21
Origins of DemocracyDemos people kratos
rule
  • Monarchy and Kings
  • Rise in power of aristocracy
  • Hoplites c. 675-650 BCE
  • Age of tyrants
  • Democratic Reforms by Cleisthenes Three
    Pillars of Athenians Democracy 1.
    Council of 500 2. Assembly 3.
    Courts policy of ostracism
  • Athens lived under a radically democratic
    government from 508 until 322 BCE. The People
    governed themselves, debating and voting
    individually on issues great and small, from
    matters of war and peace to the proper
    qualifications for ferry-boat captains

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Timeline of Ancient Rome
27
Roman Republic (509 BCE)
  • Roman Republic Res Publica (public matter)
  • SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus or the Senate
    and the People of Rome
  • Resulted from discontent of tyrannical Etruscan
    monarchy
  • A combination of aristocracy, oligarchy and
    democracy

28
Expansion Trade
  • Over next 400 years, Romes expansion was driven
    by its need to expand itstrade and eventually by
    greed
  • defeated the Gauls 390 BCE
  • gained resources in Sicily (grain)
    Spain(cooking oil) other cities in east (wine,
    produce, leather and woolen goods)
  • Expansion in south led to clashes with the
    trading peoples called the Carthaginians (North
    Africa)
  • Increase in military activity led to massive
    increase in the trade in arms and armour
  • Creation of colonies that were composed of full
    Roman citizens who remained loyal (ie. discharged
    soldiers) and were linked by roads and a unified
    currency

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30
Daily Life in the Republic
  • Very religious and superstitious tendencies
    (integrated Greek, Etruscan and Roman deities)
  • Belief in werewolves and all forms of magic,
    laying curses, casting spells and foretelling the
    future and astrology
  • All actions (political and military) were made
    with omens of nature which would signal approval
    from the gods
  • Inheritance of property was most important
    element
  • Adoption of males was very common (ie. Caesar
    adopted Octavian, the son of his niece)
  • Arranged marriages were common

31
Latin
  • Romans spoke Latin,which spread throughout the
    Mediterranean (only Greek survived)
  • For next thousand years, Latin was the language
    ofRoman government, legal system and became the
    international language of the Christian church,
    education and scholarship
  • Latin still to this day has a strong presence in
    language of medicine and law

32
Examples of Latin
  • Veni, vidi, vici
  • I am, I saw, I conquered
  • Alter ego
  • another I
  • Bona fide
  • in good faith
  • Et cetera
  • and other
  • Exit or exenut
  • He / she / they go out
  • Habeas corpus
  • you must have the fact / body of the crime
  • Via
  • by way of
  • Vice versa
  • the other way around

33
The First Triumvirate
  • In 60 BCE, three Roman Generals Pompey, Crassus
    and Caesar formed the First Triumvirate Rule of
    Three Men
  • Plan was to usurp the Roman Republic, backed with
    the power of their armies
  • Crassus was killed in battle, and then Caesar set
    out to defeat Pompey (which he did)
  • 46 BCE, Julius Caesar, appointed himself
    dictator for 10 years andthen extended it for
    life as well appointed himself PontifexMaximus
    (Chief Priest)
  • 44BCE- March 15th, the Ides of March, Caesar was
    assassinatedby self proclaimed defenders
    ofliberty

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THE ROMAN EMPIRE
37
Successors to Augustus The Good, the Bad and
the Ugly
  • Tiberus
  • Caligula
  • Claudius
  • Nero
  • Trajan
  • Hadrian
  • Contantine
  • Diocletian

TRAJAN
CONSTANTINE
HADRIAN
DIOCLETIAN
NERO
38
Architecture
  • Roman sculptures developed own styles with
    triumphal arches, columns and symbols and figures
    that celebrated the victories of conquering
    emperors
  • Hadrians Wall
  • Roman Aqueducts
  • Pantheon
  • Thermal Baths
  • Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre) built in 80 CE
    by Emperor Titus
  • Circus, theatres

Arch of Titus
39
Religions in the Roman Empire
  • Cult of Isis- Egypt religion that worshiped Isis
    (wife of Osiris and mother of Horus) was very
    popular in Roman Empire (Pompeii there was a
    temple)
  • Mithraism- Persian deity was popular among
    soldiers and merchants as they traveled to far
    East (ritual killing of bull)
  • Christianity- became popular as it preached
    equality (slave, noble ) could achieve salvation
    but Christians were the most persecuted among the
    rising religions (ie. Nero and Great Fire in
    Rome)
  • Judaism- Diaspora (dispersion) in 586 BCE spread
    out Jews but by 4th century CE, there were 11
    synagogues in Rome

40
Fall of West
  • By 5th century CE, successive invasions by the
    barbarians fromnorth (Germanic tribes consisting
    of Goths, Visigoths, Alans, Franks,Vandals and
    Huns)
  • Effort by Roman Emperors to accommodate and
    settle them, but eventually the barbarians swept
    through the Roman empire creating smaller
    kingdoms run by Germanic monarchs
  • 476 CE, 1200 years after the founding of Rome,
    the Western Empire came to an end
  • Main reasons menacing movements of barbarians,
    high inflation and crashing economy, slavery,
    rise of Christianity and decline of idea of an
    eternal Rome and Roman supremacy

41
Judaism influence on the West
  • Bible Creation story
  • Monotheism belief in one God
  • Jesus - prophet

42
A New Era
  • After the fall of the West, the Roman Empire
    centred in Constantinople and was transformed
    into Byzantium (until 1453)
  • Despite the fall of Rome, its influences
    transcended to the Middle Ages (language of
    Latin, laws, religion of Christianity and
    culture)
  • People of Europe became more Romanized after
    Rome fell than ever before
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