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Anarchism An Overview

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Title: Anarchism An Overview


1
Anarchism An Overview
  • D. Allen Dalton
  • ECON 325 Radical Economics
  • Boise State University
  • Fall 2012

2
What is Anarchism?
  • anarkhia contrary to authority, without a ruler
  • arkhia authority, ruler
  • Anarchy or anarchism?
  • Dictionary definitions
  • presuming the result
  • Response to gulf of power and riches

3
What is Anarchism?
  • the name given to a principle or theory of life
    under which society is conceived without
    government harmony in such a society being
    obtained, not by submission to law, or by
    obedience to any authority, but by free
    agreements, concluded between the various groups,
    territorial and professional, freely constituted
    for the sake of production and consumption, as
    also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety
    of needs and aspirations of a civilised being.
  • - Kropotkin, Anarchism,
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1905.

4
The Great Anarchists
  • William Godwin (1756-1836)
  • Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793)
  • Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
  • What Is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle
    of Right and Government (1840)
  • General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth
    Century (1851)

5
The Great Anarchists
  • Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
  • Statism and Anarchy (1873)
  • God and the State (1882)
  • Pyotr Kropotkin (1842-1921)
  • The Conquest of Bread (1892-4)
  • Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution (1890-6)
  • Fields, Factories and Workshops (1912)

6
Varieties of Anarchism
  • Anarchist-communism
  • Anarcho-syndicalism
  • Individualist anarchism
  • Mutualist anarchism
  • Anarcho-capitalism
  • Pacifist anarchism
  • Christian anarchism
  • the ideal of a self-organizing society based on
    voluntary cooperation rather than coercion is
    irrepressible.
  • - Ward, Anarchism
  • A Very Short
  • Introduction, p. 10

7
Anarchist Moments
  • Antecedents
  • Medieval Iceland
  • English Revolution 1640s Levellers
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution (Enragés)
  • Revolutions of 1848
  • Paris Commune of 1870
  • Russian Revolution (Makhnovites)
  • Anarcho-syndicalism Spanish Civil War 1930s

8
State and Society
  • Distinction between state and society
  • Franz Oppenheimer, The State (1908)
  • Distinction between the political and economic
    means
  • I propose in the following discussion to call
    one's own labor and the equivalent exchange of
    one's own labor for the labor of others, the
    economic means for the satisfaction of needs,
    while the unrequited appropriation of the labor
    of others will be called the political means.
  • -Oppenheimer, The State, p. 13

9
State and Society
  • The State, completely in its genesis,
    essentially and almost completely during the
    first stages of its existence, is a social
    institution, forced by a victorious group of men
    on a defeated group, with the sole purpose of
    regulating the dominion of the victorious group
    over the vanquished, and securing itself against
    revolt from within and attacks from abroad.
    Teleologically, this dominion had no other
    purpose than the economic exploitation of the
    vanquished by the victors.
  • - Oppenheimer, The State, p. 8

10
State and Society
  • Antecedents of welfare state in friendly
    societies, mutual aid organizations, fraternal
    brotherhoods
  • Alternative to the managerial state rise to
    prominence of professional technocrats
  • Wards Four Principles of Anarchist Organization
  • Voluntary
  • Functional
  • Temporary
  • Small

11
Nationalism and Religion
  • Sources of division and conflict that increase
    the strength of the State in human relations
  • Anarchist response
  • Engagement or Abstention?
  • Liberalism, socialism, communism all products of
    the Age of Reason
  • National socialism (fascism) reaction
  • The special case of Christian Anarchism
  • organized religion v. Christianity

12
Tolstoys Kingdom of God
  • Matthew 5 38-39
  • Jesus said, You have heard that it was said,
    'Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth. But I tell
    you, Do not resist an evil person.
  • I needed only to take these words simply and
    downrightly, as they were spoken, and at once
    everything in Christs whole teachingwas
    comprehensible to meand the main gist appeared
    no longer useless but a necessity everything
    formed a whole - What I Believe, p. 15

13
Tolstoys Kingdom of God
  • Kingdom of God The following of Christs
    teaching, especially the five commandments of the
    Sermon on the Mount
  • Keep the peace and restore it when broken
  • Remain true to one another as man and wife
  • Make no vows
  • Forgive injury and do not resist evil
  • Refrain from breaking the peace for the peoples
    sake.

14
Tolstoys Kingdom of God
  • A society based on Love requires a distribution
    based on its commandments. Two precepts that
    follow from Love are
  • (1) Man lives not to be served, but to serve.
  • (2) Share what you have with the poor gather no
    riches.

15
Anarchy and Prison Reform
  • Nineteenth and early Twentieth century anarchists
    were first-hand acquaintances with the Prison
    system
  • Political, anti-war and free love activities
  • Kropotkin
  • In Russian and French Prisons (1887)
  • prisons are the universities of crime
  • Alexander Berkman
  • Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist (1912)
  • Decriminalization

16
Anarchy and Workplace
  • Authority in the workplace
  • Many anarchist pioneers linked to early trade and
    industrial unionism
  • Confédération Générale du Travial (CGT) France
  • Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) Spain
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) US
  • Small-scale economy
  • Kropotkins Fields, Factories andWorkshops
  • Economies of scale in industry
  • Small businessmen

17
Anarchy and Education
  • Central to the anarchist program has been
    educational reform
  • Godwins attempt to open a school (1783)
  • Paul Goodman, Compulsory Miseducation (1964)
  • Murray Rothbard, Education Free and Compulsory
    (1972)
  • Against the nationalist system of socialism and
    liberalism
  • Godwin The true object of education, like that
    of every other moral process, is the generation
    of happiness. The Enquirer (1797)

18
Individualist Anarchism
  • Edmund Burke, A Vindication of Natural Society
    (1756)
  • Max Stirner, The Ego and His Own (1845)
  • Henry David Thoreau, Resistance to Civil
    Government, (1849)
  • American Individualist Anarchism
  • Tension with socialist/collectivist immigrant
    tradition
  • Josiah Warren, Lysander Spooner, Stephen Pearl
    Andrews, Benjamin Tucker

19
Individualist Anarchism
  • I heartily accept the motto, "That government
    is best which governs least" and I should like
    to see it acted up to more rapidly and
    systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts
    to this, which also I believe, "That government
    is best which governs not at all" and when men
    are prepared for it, that will be the kind of
    government which they will have. Government is at
    best but an expedient but most governments are
    usually, and all governments are sometimes,
    inexpedient.
  • - Thoreau, Resistance to Civil
    Government

20
Tuckers Economics
  • Property per se, is unobjectionable. What matters
    is the distribution of property. Under the
    current system, the distribution of property is
    built upon Four Monopolies
  • Money Monopoly
  • Land Monopoly
  • Tariff Monopoly
  • Patent Monopoly

21
Tuckers Economics
  • The Four Monopolies raise prices above costs and
    produce usury ( taking of surplus value).
  • - Labor does not receive the full fruits of its
    production.
  • - Free money and credit, Free land, Free trade,
    and Free intellectual property will increase
    supply and lower prices to equal costs.
  • All forms of usury - profits, rent and interest-
    will disappear. Labor will be rewarded its full
    product.
  • - Inequality will not disappear, but only the
    limited inequality between one laborers product
    and another will remain.

22
Anarcho-capitalism?
  • Gustav de Molinari, The Production of Security,
    (1849)
  • First argument for the private production of
    defense and police services
  • French laissez-faire tradition
  • Disciple of Bastiat and Say
  • Pointedly refused the appellation of anarchist
  • Dispute with Proudhon over the nature of interest

23
Anarcho-capitalism?
  • Modern Anarcho-capitalism
  • Murray Rothbard
  • Power and Market (1970)
  • For A New Liberty (1973)
  • The Ethics of Liberty (1982)
  • David Friedman
  • The Machinery of Freedom (1973)
  • Long running dispute about whether
    Anarcho-capitalism is anarchist!
  • The problem of language and intent

24
Anarchy and Modern Society
  • Small liberations of the 20th/21st century
  • Fashion
  • Womens movement
  • Free unions
  • Sexual Revolution
  • Ending of Corporal Punishment
  • Free schools
  • Gay and Lesbian movement
  • Internet
  • WTO and IMF protests

25
Federalism and Anarchy
  • How can self-organizing communities extend to
    multi-regional issues?
  • Federated communities
  • Local interests and commonalities are a barrier
    to tyranny
  • Proudhon, Bakunin, and Kropotkin
  • Individuals, communes, provinces, nations
  • Importance of the right of secession of
    provinces, communes, and of individuals
  • Voluntary Outlawry

26
Federalism and Anarchy
  • Solicit mens views in the mass, and they will
    return stupid, fickle and violent answers
    solicit their views as members of definite groups
    with real solidarity and a distinctive character,
    and their answers will be responsible and wise.
    Expose them to the political language of mass
    democracy, which represents the people as
    unitary and undivided, and minorities as
    traitors, and they will give birth to tyranny
    expose them to the political language of
    federalism, in which the people figures as a
    diversified aggregate of real associations, and
    they will resist tyranny to the end.
  • - Proudhon, The Principle of Federation

27
Green Anarchism?
  • Anarchists have always been distrustful of
    large-scale organizations
  • In modern capitalism, anarchists see the
    artificial support by government of bigness as
    contributing to ecological problems
  • Small self-organizing communities as a solution
  • E.F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful Economics as
    if People Mattered (1973)
  • Murray Bookchin, Post-Scarcity Anarchism (1974)

28
Future of Anarchism
  • Approach to political and economic organization
    that continues to draw adherents dissatisfied
    with hierarchy
  • Life-style anarchism
  • Wave of the future or a dead-end?
  • Paul Goodman on autonomy (Ward, p. 68)
  • Peter Harper (Ward, p. 96)
  • Education and politics
  • Is a federation of anarchists possible?
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