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Cessna Flight Training System Philosophies and Techniques

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Title: Cessna Flight Training System Philosophies and Techniques


1
Cessna Flight Training System Philosophies and
Techniques
2
Additional information
  • Be sure to study the Instructors Guide
  • Available under the Documentation menu of the
    Course Tracking Application (CTA).

3
The traditional approach
  • Teach customers how to fly maneuvers
  • They reach a certain proficiency level with those
    tasks
  • We recommend them for a flight test
  • The flight test measures their proficiency in
    those specific tasks
  • The examiner issues them a certificate.

4
Then came FITS
  • FAA-Industry Training Standards
  • Simply go to Google and search for FAA FITS
  • Or faa.gov/training_testing/training/fits

5
What we mean by FITS
  • Cessna has designed the following FITS principles
    into this new training system
  • Scenario-based training (SBT)
  • Single-pilot resource management (SPRM)
  • Learner-centered grading (LCG)

6
The objective
  • The goal of FITS is to build pilots
    decision-making skills during the training
    process so they will be better prepared to make
    aeronautical decisions when they receive their
    certificates.

7
Traditional Approach vs. FITS
  • FITS helps increase decision-making skills as
    well as stick-and-rudder skills

FITS
Traditional Approach
Skills
Skills
Judgment
Judgment
8
Whats the secret?
  • You cannot teach judgment
  • But it can be learned
  • This is where scenario based training (SBT) comes
    in
  • This is not new
  • Airlines Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)
  • Military Fly like you fight
  • Whats new is implementing these philosophies
    into GA flight training.

9
Another part of the problem
  • Flight Director
  • Cessna has one that
  • Directs the climbs, descents, heading changes
  • Prescribes the control input to accomplish those
    maneuvers
  • Directs level offs
  • If the pilot does not make the needed corrections
    in a timely manner, it makes them automatically
  • Called the Flight Instructor
  • Its difficult to sit on your hands and even more
    difficult to shut up

10
Flight instructors
  • You have a lot more airsense
  • You dont have to devote most of your available
    RAM to controlling the airplane
  • You see it happening before the customer
  • You need to let the customer make the call unless
    its going to bend metal or hurt someone.

11
Implementing SBT
  • Reflective Response
  • They need to reflect on their choices
  • No canned answer
  • Multiple solutions
  • Hint Your way is not the only way
  • Never criticize a conservative approach

12
Effective scenarios
  • Realistic
  • Have to be relevant to the current phase of
    training
  • Outcome has to be determined by the learner
  • Instructor coaching must be positive, not
    condescending

13
Wait a minute!
  • I have to make up scenarios for every flight?
  • Nope, we did it for you
  • You can customize each scenario for your school.

14
Course structure
  • Three Stages
  • Stage 1 Pre-Solo
  • Stage 2 Solo Cross-Country
  • Stage 3 Preparing for Your Practical Test
  • Each stage is divided into phases (total of 10)
  • Each phase includes multiple scenarios.

15
Sport/Private Course
16
Memory aid
Stage There are only 3 of these.
Phase There are 10 of these.
Scenario New name for a lesson.
17
Stages
  • Each stage has
  • Suggested one-on-one Knowledge Review Sessions
  • Required Expanded Instructor Briefings
  • Required Progress Checks
  • The suggested one-on-one Knowledge Review
    Sessions are designed to
  • Supplement the web-based knowledge instruction as
    necessary, and
  • Enhance customer learning by identifying any weak
    areas
  • The one-on-one Knowledge Review Sessions
  • Are not required but strongly recommended
  • Can be found in Appendix B of the syllabus
  • IMPORTANT The syllabus does not address
    briefing your local safety practices and
    procedures please review these key items before
    or after your first flight with the customer.

18
Progress Checks
  • Each stage, the customer is required to complete
    a Progress Check that
  • Checks the customers progress and instructor
    pairing
  • Consists of oral quizzing and a flight
  • Is to be performed by the Chief Flight
    Instructor, Assistant Chief Flight Instructor, or
    a designated instructor
  • The progress checks can be found in
  • Stage 1, Phases 2 and 5
  • Stage 2, Phase 7
  • Stage 3, Phase 10.

19
Phases
  • There are 10 phases of training. Each phase
    includes
  • Web-based Knowledge Instruction that
  • Forms the customers knowledge foundation to be
    used for the flight scenarios
  • Is directly correlated to the phase
  • Is to be completed before the corresponding phase
    can be considered complete
  • Flight Scenarios that
  • Are placed in a suggested order of completion
  • Can be flown
  • Once
  • More than once
  • Not at all
  • Can be customized for your local training
    environment
  • Can be completed out of phase or stage if
    approved by the Chief or Assistant Chief
    Instructor

20
Phases continued
  • Phase Ground Training Checklists that
  • Contain knowledge areas evaluated by the
    instructor on the ground and normally discussed
    during the preflight briefing.
  • Must be demonstrated to the explain level in
    order to complete the phase.
  • Phase Proficiency Checklists that
  • Contain tasks that are to be completed in order
    to the perform level in order to complete the
    phase
  • Contains completion standards for the phase.

21
Phase Proficiency Checklist
  • The customer can move on to the next phase of
    training once all items on the phase proficiency
    checklist are completed to the level of
    performance required for that phase
  • The customer is not required to complete every
    flight scenario within a phase, but it is highly
    recommended that they do so, as the scenarios
    progress in complexity to provide maximum
    efficiency.

22
Example
23
Scenarios
  • The new name for lesson
  • Total of 32 (includes the four progress checks)

24
In each scenario
  • Scenario Title Recognizing and Recovering From
    Stalls (Stage 1, Phase 2, Scenario 1)
  • Objective
  • Learn how to correct for the wind while taxiing,
    perform radio communications, and improve
    aircraft control while learning the skills to
    recognize, avoid and recover from a stall
  • Where to go
  • The vicinity of the highest obstacle in a 20-nm
    radius, keeping the appropriate legal distance
    (vertical and horizontal) from the obstacle and
    then to suitable airspace for the maneuvers
  • How to get there Pilotage
  • Possible deviations None
  • Possible malfunctions None
  • Purpose/pressures (real or simulated)
  • You need to take an aerial photo for a client of
    the highest obstacle within a 20-nm radius of
    your home airport. The deadline for the
    photography is tomorrow morning at 9 am.
  • Risks (real or simulated) Traffic, flying at or
    near stall speed, flying near a high obstacle
  • New this scenario (list of tasks)
  • Improving your skills (list of tasks).

25
Lesson numbers
  • Disadvantages of a traditional lesson-numbered
    syllabus
  • When a customer repeats a numbered lesson, they
    naturally feel that they are spinning their
    wheels and not progressing
  • A rigid structure does not fit the individualized
    nature of flight training
  • This new curriculum does not number lessons from
    beginning to end of the syllabus
  • Instead, each phase includes multiple scenarios
    that are performed until the phase proficiency
    standards are achieved.

26
Watch for DEMO in the syllabus
  • Too many instructors are trying to teach
    customers how to fly the airplane while in the
    traffic pattern
  • Customers need to learn stick-and-rudder skills
    in the practice area, THEN learn how to perform
    takeoffs and landings
  • This syllabus includes the word DEMO next to
    the takeoff and landing tasks in the entire first
    phase
  • This means the instructor is to perform
    (demonstrate) those takeoffs and landings
  • Dont let the customer do it in the first phase
  • Make it something to look forward to.

27
Quality ground training
  • Ask a question that requires the customer to make
    a decision
  • Examine the decision made
  • Explore alternatives
  • Evaluate which way is best
  • Best for the customer
  • Case study training
  • Real, dynamic, interesting
  • ntsb.gov, asf.org (aopa.org/asf/ntsb)

28
Expanded Instructor Briefings
  • Before each significant event the instructor will
    give an expanded briefing to ensure that all goes
    as smoothly as possible for the
  • First solo flight,
  • First solo cross-country flight,
  • And FAA practical test
  • During these expanded briefings, the instructor
    will ask questions about the airplane and local
    flight environment as well as questions specific
    to the phase of training just completed
  • These briefings will be conducted one-on-one with
    the instructor and can be found in Appendix A.

29
Example
30
Learner Centered Grading (LCG)
  • Learner-centered grading includes two parts
  • Learner self assessment, and
  • A detailed debrief by the instructor.
  • The purpose of the self assessment is to
    stimulate growth in the learners thought
    processes and, in turn, behaviors.
  • The self-assessment is followed by an in-depth
    discussion between the instructor and the customer

31
Example
32
Suggested Knowledge Review Sessions
  • Designed to be an optional supplement to the
    web-based knowledge instruction
  • Are conducted one-on-one with the instructor
  • Found in Appendix B of the syllabus.

33
Example
34
So why should I care?
  • Safer, more competent pilots
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Focus on the areas they need to work on
  • Proficiency advancement
  • No expectation of solo by certain time
  • Scenario-based flight tests
  • Required right now

35
Additional information
  • Be sure to study the Instructors Guide
  • Available under the Documentation menu of the
    Course Tracking Application (CTA).

36
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