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B2B EC and SCM: Supply Chain Management ????????

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6 B2B EC and SCM: Supply Chain Management . mailto: ckfarn_at_mgt.ncu.edu.tw http://www.mgt.ncu.edu ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: B2B EC and SCM: Supply Chain Management ????????


1
B2B EC andSCM Supply Chain Management ????????
6
  • ??????.?????
  • ???
  • mailto ckfarn_at_mgt.ncu.edu.tw
  • http//www.mgt.ncu.edu.tw/ckfarn
  • 2008.08 updated

2
B2B EC ?????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????
  • ??????????
  • ????
  • ???????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????

3
??????
??? ??
?? ??? ?? ??
?????
?????
??
????
??? ????
????
????
????
4
???????
TSMC
??
??
Intel
??
??
??
??
????
??
??
5
??????????
  • IT????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????,????????

6
???????????
  • ??????????
  • Disintermediation vs. Reintermediation
  • ??????????????
  • ???????

7
???????
  • ??
  • ????
  • ??????
  • ???
  • ???????

????!
8
????-???????????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ?????
  • ????????
  • ??????
  • ??????(??????)

9
??????
??????
10
????????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????

11
?????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????????
  • ??/???
  • ???????
  • ???????????

12
??? Visibility
  • ????????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ??????
  • ???????,??
  • Focal?????
  • Supplier???
  • ???????

13
???????????
  • Coupling OR uncoupling?
  • ??????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ??????,?????????
  • ?????ltgt?????
  • ?????ltgt????

14
????????????
????
??? ???
????? A ????? (MRO) B ???? eProcurement
????? C ???? D ????
????
MRO Maintenance, Repair and Operations
15
????
?????
?? ?? ??
?? ??
?? ?? ??????
????
??????
??
16
?????????
?????
????
?????
17
?????????
??? ????
?? ???????????? ??????????
??? ???? ????
???? ? ?
?????? ? ?
??? ?? ??
18
????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ?????
  • ??????????
  • ????
  • Dynamic pricing
  • ?????

19
Marketplaces Direction of trade
??






??
20
?????? eMarkets
  • ?????????????
  • Private market, private hub
  • ?????
  • ?????
  • Public exchange

21
????2
  • ??????
  • ?? General Electric, Target
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ??????????????
  • ???
  • ???????
  • ??????

22
???????
?
??
?
?
?
????
??
??
  • ??????

23
????
?????
???? ????
?
????
????
???
?
?
?
????
24
???????????
  • ?????? Virtual Hierarchy
  • ???????????
  • ???????????

25
?????
?????????
?????????
26
???? The Bullwhip Effect
????
27
??????
  • ??????????
  • POS?????
  • ????
  • ?????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ???????????
  • Cross Docking
  • ????
  • VMI Vendor Managed Inventory

28
?????? 1
  • ????????????
  • POS ???, QR, ???? (CP)
  • ???????????????
  • ??
  • ??????
  • ????

29
???????
Manufacturer
orders
Distributor
sell-through
Store
Store
Store
30
????
  • ???? 5 ?,??????
  • ?????????????

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
100 110 80 75 120 120
110 90 80 100 110 110
90 95 110 115 100 120
95 100 110 100 110 120
100 110 120 100 110
31
?????????1
  • ????
  • ???????????????????
  • ????
  • ??

Supplier
Focal
Buyer
32
?????????2
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ????????????
  • ??????
  • ??????????????

Supplier
Focal
Buyer
33
??????
  • ??
  • ??????????????
  • ??????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???????

34
?????????????
  • Order-based operation
  • Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)

Buyer
Planning Inventory mgmt Purchase
order Reception Warehousing
Seller
Inventory mgmt Warehousing Sales
order Delivery Planning
Buyer
Planning Inventory mgmt Purchase
order Reception Warehousing
Seller
Planning Inventory mgmt Warehousing Sales
order Delivery
35
???????
  • ???? e-Procurement
  • ?????????????????
  • ???? e-Forecast
  • ???? e-Logistics
  • ?????????
  • ???? e-Design collaboration
  • ???? e-Quality
  • ???? e-Billing, e-Payment, e-Financing
  • ??????,????????????

36
?????
  • ???????,??????
  • ????????--?????
  • ??
  • ??????(?????)
  • ?????,??????,?????
  • ???????
  • ????????

37
???????
  • ???????

38
???????????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??

39
????
  • ????QC ?????QA
  • ??????????
  • ?????????
  • ?????,???????
  • ???????

40
????????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ???
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????????????

41
????????2
  • ????????
  • ?????,???????
  • ?????,?A7???????????????????,?????

42
?????????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????????
  • ?????,???,???????
  • ??ERP?????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ????????????
  • ????--????--??/??
  • ???????????????????
  • ?????????????

43
???????
???????,???????
44
?????? 2
  • ????????????
  • CPAR, CPFR

45
CPFR ??????????
  • 1990??, Wal-Mart ? Warner-Lambert ?????
  • ????? VICS (Voluntary Interindustry Commerce
    Standards ) ??CPFR??
  • ??
  • ????
  • ????
  • ?????

Develop front-end agreement
Create joint business plan
Create sales forecast
Identify and resolve exceptions
Create order forecast
Identify and resolve exceptions
Order generation
Source www.cpfr.org
46
What is CPFR?
  • A business practice that combines the
    intelligence ofmultiple trading partners in the
    planning and fulfillmentof customer demand.
  • CPFR links sales and Marketing best practices,
    such as category management, to supply chain
    planning and execution processes to increase
    availability while reducing inventory,
    transportation and logistics costs.
  • 1. Collaborative Planning
  • 2. Collaborative Forecasting
  • 3. Collaborative Replenishment

47
Business Process Model- Generic (1998) ????
CP
1. Frond-End Agreement
??????
2. Joint-Business Plan
????????
????????
SF
CF
3. Create Sales Forecast
??????????
??????????
4. Identify SF exception
???????????
????
????????
????????
5. solve SF exception
OF
6. Create order Forecast
????
??????????
POS??
????
???
??
????/??
??????????
??????????
7. Identify OF exception
????
????????
????????
8. solve OF exception
??
??
CR
9. Order Generation
????
????
??
????
??????
???? / ????
????
??
????
??????
48
CPFR reference model
CPFR 2004
49
CPFR Tasks
????????
?????????
??????
????????
??????
????????
????????
??????
50
tasks 1 Collaboration Arrangement
1.?????????
  • Collaboration Arrangement
  • Sets the business goals for the relationship.
  • Defines the scope of collaboration.
  • Assigns roles, responsibilities, checkpoints and
    escalation procedures.

51
tasks 2 Joint Business Plan
  • Joint Business Plan
  • Promotions.
  • Inventory policy changes.
  • Store opening/closing.
  • Product introduction.

2.????????
52
tasks 3 Sales Forecasting
  • Sales Forecasting
  • Projects consumer demand at the point of sale.

3.????????
53
tasks 4 Order Planning/Forecasting
  • Order Planning/Forecasting
  • Determines future product ordering and delivery
    requirements base upon
  • The sales forecast
  • Inventory positions
  • Transit lead times
  • Other factors, Depending on relationship.

4.????????
54
tasks 5 Order Generation
  • Order Generation
  • Transitions order forecasting to firm demand
    through an automated or release process.

5.??????
55
tasks 6 Order fulfillment
  • Order fulfillment
  • The process of producing, packaging, shipping,
    delivering, and stocking products for customer
    purchase.

6.??????
56
tasks 7 Exception Management
  • Exception Management
  • Evaluates planning and execution data against
    predefined tolerances and thresholds.
  • Alerts collaboration participants to out-of-bound
    conditions.
  • Provides an exception resolution process in which
    plans are adjusted or operational changes are
    made.

7.??????
57
tasks 8 Performance Assessment
  • Performance Assessment
  • Use key metrics to
  • Evaluate the achievement of business goals.
  • Uncover trends.
  • Develop alternative strategies.

8.????????
58
??????
  • ??????
  • ???????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ??
  • ???????????
  • ?????
  • ???????????

59
CPFR ???
60
???????
61
???????????
62
??????
63
Demand-Driven Supply Network
64
CPFR ???1
65
CPFR ???2
66
CPFR ?????
67
??????????
Factory PO
Factory PO 2W Lead Time
Asia Buying Office
Head Office
Factory PO
Receiving
ASN
US DC
Asia Warehouse Consolidation Yard
Asia Factory
Replenishment 5 Day Lead Time
Store
Inventory
Production
6W
6W
4W
4W
4W
Import Warehouse
Factory
On Water
Store
68
Complete Supply Chain Visibility
Weekly Store Sales
Monthly Store Sales
Monthly DC Demand
Monthly DC Demand Forecast
Monthly DC Supply
Monthly DC On Hand Qty Day On Hand
69
8 Inventory Turnover
Test Rite Logistics Operation Summary Period
August,05 August,06
8DC Inventory Yearly Turnover Rate
70
Warehouse Inventory Reduction
Test Rite Logistics Operation Summary Period
August,05 August,06
Store Count 2500 2500 2200
Average In Stock 97.5 95.6 98.5
Average Turn/Year 10.5 9.6 8.8
71
2006 Storage Business Performance
2005 2006
Retail Sales (USD) 31.4M 43.9M 39.80
Store Instock 92.16 95.17 3.26
Retail Turn 5.6 6.49 15.89
Net Margin 42.32 46.46 9.78
Avg Lead Time (day) 4.8 3.33 45.45
Order Fill Rate 89.73 95.13 6.00
72
???????
  • ???????
  • ?????????
  • ???????
  • Track and trace
  • ????????

73
???????
  • ?????
  • ?????
  • ????
  • ?????

74
????
  • ?????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????,??????
  • ??90?,10???????
  • ?????25?,10??????????????

75
?????
  • ???????so what?
  • ???????????????????
  • ??????
  • ????????Conditional Probability
  • ?????????
  • ???????????

76
????
  • ??????????
  • ???? store-and-forward
  • ???????
  • ???? value-added-logistics
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????????? 3PL

77
?????
  • ???? LSP
  • Logistics service provider
  • ?????? 3PL
  • 3rd party logistics
  • ????????????
  • ?????? 4PL
  • 4th party logistics
  • ?????????

78
?????
????????, ????? ???? ????
??
?? ??/ IPO
?? ??
?? ??
??? ??
?? ??
??
79
?????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????
  • ??????? / ????
  • ????????? / ????
  • ????????

80
?????????
Source Steve Harmon (Kimberly-Clark), John
Fedorchak (Maersk), Global Logistics
Management How to Gain Visibility and Avoid
Errors, U Connect 2007.
81
??
82
???????????
  • Average Global Bunker Prices increased 121 from
    2002 to 2006 YTD July, 29 year-on-year in 2006
    YTD July.
  • Maersk Line spent close to 2 billions on ocean
    bunker in 2005.
  • Additional 20 increase in bunker expense is
    expected in 2006 due to further fuel price hikes.

83
??????
84
????????
  • Total U.S. volume in 2010 is expected to equate
    to 237,000 more TEUs per week
  • Terminal capacity will be exceeded.
  • More trucks will be required.
  • Rail system will need additional cars, engines
    and trackage.
  • Highway system will need to be expanded.
  • More jobs will be created.

Source Steve Harmon (Kimberly-Clark), John
Fedorchak (Maersk), Global Logistics
Management How to Gain Visibility and Avoid
Errors, U Connect 2007.
85
?????
  • ??????????
  • ???????????
  • VMI Vendor Managed Inventory
  • ????????
  • DSD Direct Store Delivery

86
???????????--?????????
87
????????
  • PLM Product Life-cycle Management
  • ????????
  • PDM Product Data Management
  • ??????
  • ?????????
  • ????? CAD Computer Aided Design

88
????????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ??????????????????
  • ???BOM????BOM??
  • ??SOP
  • ???????????????
  • ECN??????
  • ????
  • ????

89
????
  • ?????????
  • ????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ???????

??????????
? ? ?
90
?????????
  • ????
  • ?????????????
  • ???????,?????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ?????????
  • ????????????
  • ???????,?????????
  • ??????
  • ????

???
91
???????
  • ???? OEM/CM
  • ????????? (per contract)
  • ??
  • ???????????????
  • ??????????
  • ?????????????

????
92
????
  • OEM
  • ????????????
  • ODM
  • ????
  • ????????,?CM??
  • CDM
  • ?????
  • ?????????

93
OEM?????
????HP
94
ODM???????
????HP
95
ODM???????
????HP
96
CDM?????
????HP
97
CDM???
  • Collaborative Design and Manufacturing
  • ???????
  • ???????????????
  • ????sourcing
  • ?OEM???
  • ??????
  • ????????--??????

98
???????(???)
??
CM
???
CM
CM
CM
CM Contract Manufacturer
99
?????????????
????
?? ??
???
???
??? ??
???
100
????Design collaboration
  • ?????????
  • ??time to market, time to volume
  • ????????
  • PDM
  • ????
  • ???????
  • ??????
  • ECN,
  • ??????????

101
??????????
  • ??????Online design collaboration
  • ??????-Collaborative sourcing
  • ????????-Co-developing core technology
  • ERP integration
  • Design for X(DFX)

102
???????DFX
  • Design for X
  • eXcellence
  • Manufacturability
  • Maintainability
  • Quality
  • Reliability
  • Logistics
  • Disposal
  • Environment
  • ???,??????????

103
??????
  • ????
  • Part sourcing
  • Design Specification/BOM
  • Design diagrams
  • Engineering change
  • Customer requests
  • ?????
  • On Line Collaboration
  • Design Process/Control
  • Diagrams Mgt./Documents Mgt.
  • ????

104
????
  • ????
  • Lower product costs throughout the total life
    cycle
  • Better product quality
  • Shorter time-to-market
  • ????
  • Early Involvement
  • Joint Decision Making
  • Relationship Improvement
  • ????
  • Innovation Quality
  • Innovation Numbers
  • Access to New Technology Complementary Skills

105
????
  • ????????,????
  • ??????(??????????),??????
  • ???????????
  • ???????,?????????

106
???????
  • 1999?,?????IAeB(???????????)??
  • ???????
  • ???AB???CDE??
  • ?????????????
  • ????????????????????????
  • ????????????

107
A?B?C?D?E?????
??? ??? ?????? ????
??? ?? ?? ???
A??
B??
C??
D??

?
E??

108
??????
  • B2B ????
  • ???????B2Bi
  • ??????RosettaNet(??? http//www.rosettanet.org)
  • CPFR
  • ???????????????

109
????B2B ???(IOS)
  • ????(Focal)?????
  • ???ERP?????
  • ???SCM EC server (?? / ??)
  • Focal??????????
  • Web-based
  • Information Exchange
  • Process integration
  • ??????????????????
  • ???????

110
???????-Focal(1)
ERP Server
EC Server
XML??
ERP
111
???????-Focal(2)
112
?????????-??(1)
ERP/MIS
ERP
Browser
113
?????Process Integration??
???
Rosettanet/XML
Focal
ERP
XML
EC Server (Enterprise Ver.)
EC Server (Standard Ver.)
Internet
ERP
XML
RosettaNet PIPs
114
??????????
115
????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ????????
  • ??
  • ??????(?????????)?????,????(????????????)
  • ??????
  • ??
  • ???????????
  • ????Process integration

116
??????
  • ??????????(??,????)
  • ????????(???)???(?ftp, e-mail)
  • EDI
  • ?????????
  • ???????
  • ????UN/EDIFACT?
  • EOI- EDI over Internet
  • HTML (??)
  • XML
  • ????(?RosettaNet, ebXML)

117
???????(Markup Language)
  • Markup is a method of conveying metadata (that
    is, information about a dataset).
  • Markup Language use string literals, or tags,
    to delimit and describe this data.
  • ??????????????
  • printer typesetting, proofreader, punctuation,
    ASCII, C, RTF

118
Example HTML Document
ltHTMLgt ltH1 ALIGNCENTERgt??lt/H1gt ltFONT FACE
size2gt???lt/FONTgt ltFONT FACE size2gt??lt/FONTgt ltFON
T FACE size2gt????lt/FONTgt ltFONT FACE
size2gt???lt/FONTgt
119
Example XML Document
extended data tags
lt?xml version"1.0" encoding"Big5" ?gt lt????gt
lt??gt??????????,??? 2 ?lt/??gt lt??gt
lt??gt12478943lt/??gt lt??gtIBM 240lt/??gt
lt??gt58,455lt/??gt lt??? ??"http/www.ibm.com.t
w/product/nb/tp240"gtThinkPad 240lt/???gt
lt/??gt lt??gt lt??gt83424723lt/??gt lt??gtDell
A123lt/??gt lt??gt58,999lt/??gt lt???
??"http//www.dell.com.tw/product/nb/a123"gtNB
A123lt/???gt lt/??gt lt/????gt
120
XML???
  • ???? open, platform-independent
  • Vocabulary ???Application Domain ??tag
  • An XML vocabulary is a description of XML data
    that is used as the medium for information
    exchange, often within a specific domain of human
    activity(business, chemistry, law, music, for
    example)
  • Program Readable
  • ?XML is not a programming language, nor an
    object-based system, nor an operating system. It
    is a powerful, elegant technique for thinking
    about, exchanging, and presenting data in a
    platform-independent manner.

121
XML????
  • XML???????????
  • HTML Interpreter ? XML Parser
  • XML?Hypertext????Application??
  • Application Software ? Browser Software
  • XML???????,???????????

122
Client Side of Web-XML
Browser
URL
Application
Parser
Present-ation Module
Valid- ater
Document Handler
XML File
HTTP Server
123
RosettaNet
  • RosettaNet is a consortium of major Information
    Technology, Electronic Components and
    Semiconductor Manufacturing companies working to
    create and implement industry-wide, open
    e-business process standards.
  • Cluster 0 RosettaNet Support
  • Provides administrative functionality
  • Cluster 1 Partner, Product and Service Review
  • Allows information collection, maintenance and
    distribution for the development of
    trading-partner profiles and product-information
    subscriptions

124
RosettaNet
  • Cluster 2 Product Information
  • Enables distribution and periodic update of
    product and detailed design information,
    including product change notices and product
    technical specifications
  • Cluster 3 Order Management
  • Lets partners order catalog products, create
    custom solutions, manage distribution and
    deliveries, and support product returns and
    financial transactions
  • Cluster 4 Inventory Management
  • Enables inventory management, including
    collaboration, replenishment, price protection,
    reporting and allocation of constrained product

125
RosettaNet
  • Cluster 5 Marketing Information Management
  • Enables communication of marketing information,
    including campaign plans, lead information and
    design registration
  • Cluster 6 Service and Support
  • Provides post-sales technical support, service
    warranty and asset management capabilities
  • Cluster 7 Manufacturing
  • Enables the exchange of design, configuration,
    process, quality and other manufacturing floor
    information to support the "Virtual
    Manufacturing" environment

126
RosettaNet PIP
  • Partner Interface Process (PIP)
  • message guidelines and XML DTD's (Document type
    definition).
  • Understand what the PIP number represents.
  • A PIP number has 3 parts  a number a letter
    another number.  Example 3A4
  • The first number represents the Cluster.   PIP
    3A4 is in Cluster 3.
  • The letter represents the Segment.  PIP 3A4 is in
    Segment A of Cluster 3.
  • The second number is a sequential number which
    completes the PIP number.  PIP 3A4 is the 4th PIP
    in Segment A of Cluster 3.

127
RosettaNet 3A4 PIP
128
RosettaNet 3A4 PIP
RN 3A4
129
ebXML
  • ?????????????
  • ?XML???
  • ?????EDI??????
  • ?????
  • ???????????? repository
  • ???????????

130
ebXML Repository
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