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Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation

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Title: Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation


1
Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.

2
Operational-Level Training Requirements
  • Awareness-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Operational-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Additional training as required by DOT, EPA, and
    OSHA requirements
  • Local and state/provincial occupational health
    and safety requirements

3
Primary Responsibilities
  • Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in
    an incident if possible
  • Analyzing an incident to determine the nature and
    extent of the problem
  • Protecting first responders, nearby persons, the
    environment, and property from the effects of a
    release

(1 of 2)
4
Primary Responsibilities
  • Developing a defensive plan of action to address
    the problems presented by the incident
  • Implementing the planned response to control a
    release from a safe distance and keep it from
    spreading
  • Evaluating the progress of the actions taken to
    ensure that response objectives are safely met

(2 of 2)
5
Emergency Response Centers
  • Look in the current Emergency Response Guidebook
    (ERG) to find phone numbers

6
Information to be Furnished to an Emergency
Response Center
  • Your name, callback phone number, and FAX number
  • Location and nature of problem (spill, fire,
    etc.)
  • Name and identification number of material(s)
    involved
  • Shipper/consignee/point of origin
  • Carrier name, railcar, or truck number

(1 of 2)
7
Information to be Furnished to an Emergency
Response Center
  • Container type and size
  • Quantity of material transported/released
  • Local conditions (weather, terrain, proximity to
    schools, hospitals, waterways, etc.)
  • Injuries and exposures
  • Local emergency services that have been notified

(2 of 2)
8
Assistance Provided by Emergency Response Centers
  • Confirming that a chemical emergency exists
  • Recording details in writing and on tape
  • Providing immediate technical assistance to the
    caller
  • Contacting the shipper of the material or other
    experts
  • Providing the shipper/manufacturer with the
    callers name and callback number so that the
    shipper/manufacturer can deal directly with the
    party involved

9
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Solid Substance that has both a specific shape
    (without a container) and volume
  • Liquid Fluid that has no independent shape but
    has a specific volume flows according to laws of
    gravity
  • Gas Fluid that has neither independent shape
    nor volume and tends to expand indefinitely

(1 of 13)
10
Properties of Hazardous Materials
11
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Flash point Minimum temperature at which a
    liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient
    vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near
    its surface
  • Fire point Temperature at which enough vapors
    are given off to support continuous burning

(3 of 13)
12
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Autoignition temperature/point Minimum
    temperature at which the fuel in air must be
    heated to initiate self-sustained combustion
    without initiation from an independent ignition
    source
  • Flammable, explosive, or combustible range The
    percentage of the gas or vapor concentration in
    air that will burn or explode if ignited

(4 of 13)
13
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • LEL/LFL (Lower explosive limit/Lower flammable
    limit) The lowest concentration that will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present
  • UEL/UFL (Upper explosive limit/Upper flammable
    limit) The highest concentration that will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present

(5 of 13)
14
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Vapor pressure Pressure exerted by a saturated
    vapor above its own liquid in a closed container
  • Expressed in psi, kPa, mmHg, or atm
  • The higher a substances temperature, the higher
    the vapor pressure
  • Vapor pressures reported on MSDSs are usually
    very low
  • The lower a substances boiling point, the higher
    its vapor pressure

(6 of 13)
15
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Atmospheric pressure Force exerted by weight of
    the atmosphere at the earths surface
  • Boiling point Temperature at which the vapor
    pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than
    atmospheric pressure
  • Expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius at sea
    level air pressure

(7 of 13)
16
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion)
    Occurs when a liquid within a container is
    heated, causing the material inside to boil or
    vaporize beyond the vessels ability to relieve
    the excess pressure
  • Melting point Temperature at which a solid
    substance changes to a liquid state at normal
    atmospheric pressure

(8 of 13)
17
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Freezing point The temperature at which a
    liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric
    pressure
  • Sublime To change directly from a solid into a
    gas without going into a liquid state in between
  • Vapor density Weight of a given volume of pure
    vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal
    volume of dry air at the same temperature and
    volume

(9 of 13)
18
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Solubility The percentage of a material (by
    weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient
    temperature
  • Non-water-soluble liquids remain separate when
    combined with water water-soluble liquids mix
    easily when combined with water.
  • Water-soluble agents usually cause upper
    respiratory tract infection, quickly resulting in
    coughing and throat irritation.
  • Partially water-soluble agents penetrate into the
    lower respiratory systems causing delayed
    symptoms that include breathing difficulties,
    pulmonary edema, and coughing up blood.

(10 of 13)
19
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Miscibility/immiscibility The degree or
    readiness with which two or more gases or liquids
    are able to mix with or dissolve into each other
  • Miscible Liquids that dissolve into each other
  • Immiscible Liquids that do not readily dissolve
    into each other
  • Specific gravity Ratio of the density
    (heaviness) of a material to the density of some
    standard material at standard conditions of
    pressure and temperature

(11 of 13)
20
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Reactivity A substances relative ability to
    undergo a chemical reaction with another material
  • Substances referred to as reactive commonly
    react violently with air, water, heat, light,
    each other, or other materials

(12 of 13)
21
Reactivity Triangle
  • The reactivity triangle explains the basic
    components of many chemical reactions.
  • Oxidizing agent (oxygen)
  • Reducing agent (fuel)
  • Activation energy source (often heat)

22
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Polymerization Chemical reaction in which a
    catalyst causes simple molecules to combine to
    form long chain molecules
  • Inhibitors Materials that are added to products
    that easily polymerize in order to control or
    prevent an undesired reaction

(13 of 13)
23
NFA Categories of Hazardous Materials Hazards
  • Thermal
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation
  • Chemical
  • Etiological
  • Mechanical
  • Psychological

24
Types of Radiation
  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles
  • Gamma rays
  • X-rays
  • Neutrons

25
Alpha Particles
  • Are positively charged particles that lose energy
    rapidly in matter and do not penetrate very far
  • Are commonly emitted in the radioactive decay of
    the heaviest radioactive elements such as uranium
    and radium as well as by some manmade elements
  • Are usually completely absorbed by dead outer
    layer of human skin and so are not a hazard
    outside the body

(1 of 2)
26
Alpha Particles
  • Can be very harmful if the material emitting the
    alpha particles are ingested or inhaled
  • Can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper

(2 of 2)
27
Beta Particles
  • Are fast-moving positively or negatively charged
    electrons
  • Are emitted from manmade and natural sources such
    as tritium, carbon-14, and strontium-90
  • Are more penetrating but less damaging than alpha
    particles over equally traveled distances

(1 of 2)
28
Beta Particles
  • Are capable of penetrating the skin and causing
    radiation damage, but are more hazardous when
    inhaled or ingested
  • Can be reduced or stopped by a layer of clothing
    or a few millimeters of a substance such as
    aluminum

(2 of 2)
29
Gamma Rays
  • Are high-energy photons
  • Often accompany alpha or beta particle emissions
  • Have no charge but are very penetrating, easily
    passing through the human body and being absorbed
    by tissue

(1 of 2)
30
Gamma Rays
  • Require several feet (meters) of concrete or a
    few inches (millimeters) of lead to stop the more
    energetic gamma rays
  • Can easily penetrate standard fire-fighting
    clothing, which provides no protection from gamma
    rays

(2 of 2)
31
X-Rays
  • Are high-energy photons produced by the
    interaction of charged particles with matter
  • Have essentially the same properties as gamma
    rays but differ in origin (originate outside the
    nucleus while gamma rays originate inside the
    nucleus)
  • Are the single-largest source of manmade
    radiation exposure

(1 of 2)
32
X-Rays
  • Are generally lower in energy and thus less
    penetrating than gamma rays
  • Can be stopped with a few millimeters of lead
    (medical X-rays)

(2 of 2)
33
Neutrons
  • Are ultrahigh energy particles that have a
    physical mass like alpha radiation but no
    electrical charge
  • Are highly penetrating
  • Are produced along with gamma radiation from
    fission reactions

(1 of 2)
34
Neutrons
  • Are not a type of radiation commonly used in
    commercial or industrial operations
  • Are most likely encountered in research
    laboratories
  • Cause the release of secondary radiation and thus
    are a health hazard

(2 of 2)
35
Radiation Exposure
  • Occurs when radioactive particles or rays enter
    the body through one or more routes of entry such
    as inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or
    penetration

36
Radiation Contamination
  • Occurs when radioactive material is deposited on
    surfaces, skin, clothing, or any place where it
    is not desired
  • External Radioactive material is on the skin or
    clothing.
  • Internal Radioactive material is breathed in,
    swallowed, or absorbed through wounds.
  • Environmental Radioactive material is spread
    about or unconfined in the environment thus
    presenting another potential source for external
    exposure

37
Routes of Entry
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

38
Radiation Protection Strategies
  • Time The amount of radiation exposure increases
    or decreases according to the time spent near the
    source of radiation.
  • Distance Farther distances equal smaller doses.
  • Shielding Certain materials prevent penetration
    of some of the radioactive particles.

39
Factors to Consider Regarding Radiation Protection
Time
Shielding
Distance
40
CAUTION!
  • Wearing personal protective equipment (including
    self-contained breathing apparatus) generally
    protects emergency response personnel from
    external and internal contaminates. It does not
    protect against exposure to gamma rays.

41
Asphyxiation Terms
  • Asphyxiants Substances that affect the
    oxygenation of the body and generally lead to
    suffocation
  • Simple asphyxiants Gases that displace the
    oxygen necessary for breathing
  • Chemical asphyxiants Substances that prohibit
    the body from using oxygen

42
Routes by Which People can be Exposed to
Hazardous Materials
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

43
Toxin Categories and Associated Medical Conditions
  • Asphyxiants Suffocation
  • Carcinogens Cancer
  • Corrosives Irreversible destruction or
    alteration of contacted tissue
  • Irritants Reversible inflammation of contacted
    tissue
  • Hemotoxins Cyanosis, loss of consciousness,
    death
  • Sensitizers Allergic reaction

(1 of 2)
44
Toxin Categories and Associated Medical Conditions
  • Hepatoxins Liver damage
  • Nephrotoxins Kidney damage
  • Reproductive toxins Fetal defects, birth
    defects, sterility
  • Cutaneous hazards Defatting of skin, rashes,
    skin irritation
  • Eye hazards Conjunctivitis, corneal damage,
    visual impairment, blindness

(2 of 2)
45
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal dose (LD) Minimum amount of solid or
    liquid that when ingested, absorbed, or injected
    through the skin will kill
  • Median lethal dose (LD50) Statistically derived
    single dose of a substance that can be expected
    to cause death in 50 percent of animals when
    administered by the oral route
  • Lethal dose low (LDLO or LDL) Lowest
    administered dose of a material capable of
    killing a specified test species

(1 of 2)
46
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal concentration (LC) Minimum concentration
    of an inhaled substance in the gaseous state that
    will be fatal to the test group
  • Lethal concentration low (LCLO or LCL) Lowest
    concentration of a gas or vapor capable of
    killing a specified species over a specified time
  • ID50 Dose that incapacitates 50 percent of the
    population of interest
  • ID10 Dose that incapacitates 10 percent of the
    population of interest

(2 of 2)
47
Chemical Effects
  • Irritants Toxins that cause temporary but
    sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin,
    or respiratory system
  • Upper irritant Affects respiratory tract above
    the voice box
  • Lower irritant Affects respiratory tract below
    the voice box, including the lungs
  • Convulsants Toxic materials that can cause
    convulsions (involuntary muscle contractions)

(1 of 3)
48
Chemical Effects
  • Corrosives Chemicals that destroy or burn
    living tissues and have destructive hazards
  • Acid Any chemical that ionizes to yield
    hydrogen ions in water has pH value of 0 to 6
  • Base Any water-soluble compound that breaks
    apart in water to form a negatively charged
    hydroxide ion has pH value of 8 to 14
  • Can be toxic, flammable, reactive, and/or
    explosive
  • Carcinogens Cancer-causing agents

(2 of 3)
49
Chemical Effects
  • Mutagens Substances or agents that are capable
    of altering the genetic material in a living cell
  • Teratogens Substances or agents capable of
    causing developmental abnormalities in utero
  • Allergens Substances that cause allergic
    reactions in people or animals
  • Sensitizers Chemicals that cause a substantial
    proportion of exposed people or animals to
    develop an allergic reaction after repeated
    exposure to the chemical

(3 of 3)
50
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Confusion, light-headedness, anxiety, and
    dizziness
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Changes in skin color or blushing
  • Coughing or painful respiration
  • Tingling or numbness of extremities
  • Loss of coordination
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea

(1 of 2)
51
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Changes in behavior or mannerisms
  • Unconsciousness
  • Burning eyes, throat, or nose
  • Headache
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Tightness in chest
  • Abnormal euphoria

(2 of 2)
52
Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.
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