Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4bdbe1-MThmY


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation


Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed. Operational-Level Training Requirements Awareness-Level competencies of NFPA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:146
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: FPP53
Learn more at: http://www.ashlandcityfire.com


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation

Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd

Operational-Level Training Requirements
  • Awareness-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Operational-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Additional training as required by DOT, EPA, and
    OSHA requirements
  • Local and state/provincial occupational health
    and safety requirements

Primary Responsibilities
  • Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in
    an incident if possible
  • Analyzing an incident to determine the nature and
    extent of the problem
  • Protecting first responders, nearby persons, the
    environment, and property from the effects of a

(1 of 2)
Primary Responsibilities
  • Developing a defensive plan of action to address
    the problems presented by the incident
  • Implementing the planned response to control a
    release from a safe distance and keep it from
  • Evaluating the progress of the actions taken to
    ensure that response objectives are safely met

(2 of 2)
Emergency Response Centers
  • Look in the current Emergency Response Guidebook
    (ERG) to find phone numbers

Information to be Furnished to an Emergency
Response Center
  • Your name, callback phone number, and FAX number
  • Location and nature of problem (spill, fire,
  • Name and identification number of material(s)
  • Shipper/consignee/point of origin
  • Carrier name, railcar, or truck number

(1 of 2)
Information to be Furnished to an Emergency
Response Center
  • Container type and size
  • Quantity of material transported/released
  • Local conditions (weather, terrain, proximity to
    schools, hospitals, waterways, etc.)
  • Injuries and exposures
  • Local emergency services that have been notified

(2 of 2)
Assistance Provided by Emergency Response Centers
  • Confirming that a chemical emergency exists
  • Recording details in writing and on tape
  • Providing immediate technical assistance to the
  • Contacting the shipper of the material or other
  • Providing the shipper/manufacturer with the
    callers name and callback number so that the
    shipper/manufacturer can deal directly with the
    party involved

Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Solid Substance that has both a specific shape
    (without a container) and volume
  • Liquid Fluid that has no independent shape but
    has a specific volume flows according to laws of
  • Gas Fluid that has neither independent shape
    nor volume and tends to expand indefinitely

(1 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Flash point Minimum temperature at which a
    liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient
    vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near
    its surface
  • Fire point Temperature at which enough vapors
    are given off to support continuous burning

(3 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Autoignition temperature/point Minimum
    temperature at which the fuel in air must be
    heated to initiate self-sustained combustion
    without initiation from an independent ignition
  • Flammable, explosive, or combustible range The
    percentage of the gas or vapor concentration in
    air that will burn or explode if ignited

(4 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • LEL/LFL (Lower explosive limit/Lower flammable
    limit) The lowest concentration that will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present
  • UEL/UFL (Upper explosive limit/Upper flammable
    limit) The highest concentration that will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present

(5 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Vapor pressure Pressure exerted by a saturated
    vapor above its own liquid in a closed container
  • Expressed in psi, kPa, mmHg, or atm
  • The higher a substances temperature, the higher
    the vapor pressure
  • Vapor pressures reported on MSDSs are usually
    very low
  • The lower a substances boiling point, the higher
    its vapor pressure

(6 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Atmospheric pressure Force exerted by weight of
    the atmosphere at the earths surface
  • Boiling point Temperature at which the vapor
    pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than
    atmospheric pressure
  • Expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius at sea
    level air pressure

(7 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion)
    Occurs when a liquid within a container is
    heated, causing the material inside to boil or
    vaporize beyond the vessels ability to relieve
    the excess pressure
  • Melting point Temperature at which a solid
    substance changes to a liquid state at normal
    atmospheric pressure

(8 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Freezing point The temperature at which a
    liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric
  • Sublime To change directly from a solid into a
    gas without going into a liquid state in between
  • Vapor density Weight of a given volume of pure
    vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal
    volume of dry air at the same temperature and

(9 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Solubility The percentage of a material (by
    weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient
  • Non-water-soluble liquids remain separate when
    combined with water water-soluble liquids mix
    easily when combined with water.
  • Water-soluble agents usually cause upper
    respiratory tract infection, quickly resulting in
    coughing and throat irritation.
  • Partially water-soluble agents penetrate into the
    lower respiratory systems causing delayed
    symptoms that include breathing difficulties,
    pulmonary edema, and coughing up blood.

(10 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Miscibility/immiscibility The degree or
    readiness with which two or more gases or liquids
    are able to mix with or dissolve into each other
  • Miscible Liquids that dissolve into each other
  • Immiscible Liquids that do not readily dissolve
    into each other
  • Specific gravity Ratio of the density
    (heaviness) of a material to the density of some
    standard material at standard conditions of
    pressure and temperature

(11 of 13)
Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Reactivity A substances relative ability to
    undergo a chemical reaction with another material
  • Substances referred to as reactive commonly
    react violently with air, water, heat, light,
    each other, or other materials

(12 of 13)
Reactivity Triangle
  • The reactivity triangle explains the basic
    components of many chemical reactions.
  • Oxidizing agent (oxygen)
  • Reducing agent (fuel)
  • Activation energy source (often heat)

Properties of Hazardous Materials
  • Polymerization Chemical reaction in which a
    catalyst causes simple molecules to combine to
    form long chain molecules
  • Inhibitors Materials that are added to products
    that easily polymerize in order to control or
    prevent an undesired reaction

(13 of 13)
NFA Categories of Hazardous Materials Hazards
  • Thermal
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation
  • Chemical
  • Etiological
  • Mechanical
  • Psychological

Types of Radiation
  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles
  • Gamma rays
  • X-rays
  • Neutrons

Alpha Particles
  • Are positively charged particles that lose energy
    rapidly in matter and do not penetrate very far
  • Are commonly emitted in the radioactive decay of
    the heaviest radioactive elements such as uranium
    and radium as well as by some manmade elements
  • Are usually completely absorbed by dead outer
    layer of human skin and so are not a hazard
    outside the body

(1 of 2)
Alpha Particles
  • Can be very harmful if the material emitting the
    alpha particles are ingested or inhaled
  • Can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper

(2 of 2)
Beta Particles
  • Are fast-moving positively or negatively charged
  • Are emitted from manmade and natural sources such
    as tritium, carbon-14, and strontium-90
  • Are more penetrating but less damaging than alpha
    particles over equally traveled distances

(1 of 2)
Beta Particles
  • Are capable of penetrating the skin and causing
    radiation damage, but are more hazardous when
    inhaled or ingested
  • Can be reduced or stopped by a layer of clothing
    or a few millimeters of a substance such as

(2 of 2)
Gamma Rays
  • Are high-energy photons
  • Often accompany alpha or beta particle emissions
  • Have no charge but are very penetrating, easily
    passing through the human body and being absorbed
    by tissue

(1 of 2)
Gamma Rays
  • Require several feet (meters) of concrete or a
    few inches (millimeters) of lead to stop the more
    energetic gamma rays
  • Can easily penetrate standard fire-fighting
    clothing, which provides no protection from gamma

(2 of 2)
  • Are high-energy photons produced by the
    interaction of charged particles with matter
  • Have essentially the same properties as gamma
    rays but differ in origin (originate outside the
    nucleus while gamma rays originate inside the
  • Are the single-largest source of manmade
    radiation exposure

(1 of 2)
  • Are generally lower in energy and thus less
    penetrating than gamma rays
  • Can be stopped with a few millimeters of lead
    (medical X-rays)

(2 of 2)
  • Are ultrahigh energy particles that have a
    physical mass like alpha radiation but no
    electrical charge
  • Are highly penetrating
  • Are produced along with gamma radiation from
    fission reactions

(1 of 2)
  • Are not a type of radiation commonly used in
    commercial or industrial operations
  • Are most likely encountered in research
  • Cause the release of secondary radiation and thus
    are a health hazard

(2 of 2)
Radiation Exposure
  • Occurs when radioactive particles or rays enter
    the body through one or more routes of entry such
    as inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or

Radiation Contamination
  • Occurs when radioactive material is deposited on
    surfaces, skin, clothing, or any place where it
    is not desired
  • External Radioactive material is on the skin or
  • Internal Radioactive material is breathed in,
    swallowed, or absorbed through wounds.
  • Environmental Radioactive material is spread
    about or unconfined in the environment thus
    presenting another potential source for external

Routes of Entry
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

Radiation Protection Strategies
  • Time The amount of radiation exposure increases
    or decreases according to the time spent near the
    source of radiation.
  • Distance Farther distances equal smaller doses.
  • Shielding Certain materials prevent penetration
    of some of the radioactive particles.

Factors to Consider Regarding Radiation Protection
  • Wearing personal protective equipment (including
    self-contained breathing apparatus) generally
    protects emergency response personnel from
    external and internal contaminates. It does not
    protect against exposure to gamma rays.

Asphyxiation Terms
  • Asphyxiants Substances that affect the
    oxygenation of the body and generally lead to
  • Simple asphyxiants Gases that displace the
    oxygen necessary for breathing
  • Chemical asphyxiants Substances that prohibit
    the body from using oxygen

Routes by Which People can be Exposed to
Hazardous Materials
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

Toxin Categories and Associated Medical Conditions
  • Asphyxiants Suffocation
  • Carcinogens Cancer
  • Corrosives Irreversible destruction or
    alteration of contacted tissue
  • Irritants Reversible inflammation of contacted
  • Hemotoxins Cyanosis, loss of consciousness,
  • Sensitizers Allergic reaction

(1 of 2)
Toxin Categories and Associated Medical Conditions
  • Hepatoxins Liver damage
  • Nephrotoxins Kidney damage
  • Reproductive toxins Fetal defects, birth
    defects, sterility
  • Cutaneous hazards Defatting of skin, rashes,
    skin irritation
  • Eye hazards Conjunctivitis, corneal damage,
    visual impairment, blindness

(2 of 2)
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal dose (LD) Minimum amount of solid or
    liquid that when ingested, absorbed, or injected
    through the skin will kill
  • Median lethal dose (LD50) Statistically derived
    single dose of a substance that can be expected
    to cause death in 50 percent of animals when
    administered by the oral route
  • Lethal dose low (LDLO or LDL) Lowest
    administered dose of a material capable of
    killing a specified test species

(1 of 2)
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal concentration (LC) Minimum concentration
    of an inhaled substance in the gaseous state that
    will be fatal to the test group
  • Lethal concentration low (LCLO or LCL) Lowest
    concentration of a gas or vapor capable of
    killing a specified species over a specified time
  • ID50 Dose that incapacitates 50 percent of the
    population of interest
  • ID10 Dose that incapacitates 10 percent of the
    population of interest

(2 of 2)
Chemical Effects
  • Irritants Toxins that cause temporary but
    sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin,
    or respiratory system
  • Upper irritant Affects respiratory tract above
    the voice box
  • Lower irritant Affects respiratory tract below
    the voice box, including the lungs
  • Convulsants Toxic materials that can cause
    convulsions (involuntary muscle contractions)

(1 of 3)
Chemical Effects
  • Corrosives Chemicals that destroy or burn
    living tissues and have destructive hazards
  • Acid Any chemical that ionizes to yield
    hydrogen ions in water has pH value of 0 to 6
  • Base Any water-soluble compound that breaks
    apart in water to form a negatively charged
    hydroxide ion has pH value of 8 to 14
  • Can be toxic, flammable, reactive, and/or
  • Carcinogens Cancer-causing agents

(2 of 3)
Chemical Effects
  • Mutagens Substances or agents that are capable
    of altering the genetic material in a living cell
  • Teratogens Substances or agents capable of
    causing developmental abnormalities in utero
  • Allergens Substances that cause allergic
    reactions in people or animals
  • Sensitizers Chemicals that cause a substantial
    proportion of exposed people or animals to
    develop an allergic reaction after repeated
    exposure to the chemical

(3 of 3)
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Confusion, light-headedness, anxiety, and
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Changes in skin color or blushing
  • Coughing or painful respiration
  • Tingling or numbness of extremities
  • Loss of coordination
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea

(1 of 2)
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Changes in behavior or mannerisms
  • Unconsciousness
  • Burning eyes, throat, or nose
  • Headache
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Tightness in chest
  • Abnormal euphoria

(2 of 2)
Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
About PowerShow.com