Developing Information Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Developing Information Systems PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4bc5ab-NjBkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Developing Information Systems

Description:

9 Chapter Developing Information Systems All I have to do is want to do it and I do it Jesse Sullivan (on how to move his computerized artificial arms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:111
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 75
Provided by: AnnaM89
Learn more at: http://carl.sandiego.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Developing Information Systems


1
9
Chapter
Developing Information Systems
All I have to do is want to do it and I do
it Jesse Sullivan (on how to move his
computerized artificial arms responding to his
brain waves)
2
Learning Objectives
3
Learning Objectives
4
Information Systems Development
  • Systems analysis and design
  • Process of designing, building, and maintaining
    information systems
  • Systems analyst
  • Early IS development
  • Very unstructured
  • Programmer skills varied

5
Information Systems Development
  • 1990s
  • Evolution from IS development as art to IS
    development as discipline
  • Software engineering
  • Benefits
  • Easier to train systems analysts
  • Systems would be easier to maintain

Information Systems Today Managing in the
Digital World
9-5
6
Options for Obtaining Information Systems
7
IS Development in Action
  • Structured process moving through steps
  • Problem decomposition
  • Problems broken up into simpler, smaller pieces

8
The Role of Users in Systems Development Process
  • Systems users are involved in all phases of
    systems development process
  • Mutually respectful relationship necessary
  • Organizational members need to understand the
    development activities well

9
Learning Objectives
10
Steps in the Systems Development Process
  • Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
  • Arrows flowing down represent flow of information
  • Arrows flowing up represent the possibility of
    returning to a prior phase

11
Phase 1 Systems Identification, Selection and
Planning
12
Phase 1
  • Identify and select potential projects
  • Projects critical to mission, goals, and
    objectives
  • Selection process varies among organizations
  • Formal information systems planning process
  • Ad hoc process
  • Differential focus of projects based on selection
    source

13
Evaluation Criteria for Systems Projects
  • Different criteria may be used to evaluate
    projects
  • Usually multiple criteria examined for each
    project

14
Phase 2 Systems Analysis
  • Designers gain understanding of current
    processes

15
Key Elements to Development of a System
3
1
2
4
16
Collecting System Requirements
  • Arguably the most important activity
  • Requirements collected from
  • Users
  • Managers
  • Business processes
  • Documents
  • System requirements collection techniques
  • Interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Observations
  • Document analysis

17
Critical Success Factors Methodology
  • Critical success factor (CSF)
  • Something that must go well to ensure success
  • Systems analyst interviews individuals to
    identify their CSFs
  • Organization-wide CSFs are identified

18
Critical Success Factors Methodology (II)
  • Strengths and weaknesses of the CSF approach

19
Joint Application Design
  • Special type of group meeting
  • Reduced time for requirements collection

20
Strengths and Weaknesses of the JAD Approach
21
Modeling Organizational Data
  • Systems analysts need to understand what data
    will be collected
  • Data modeling tools
  • Entity-relationship diagram

22
Modeling Organizational Processes and Logic
  • Data flows
  • Movement of data through an organization

23
Processing Logic
  • The way in which data are transformed

24
Phase 3 System Design
25
Designing Forms
  • Forms are business documents
  • Contain some data
  • Collect additional data

26
Designing Reports
  • Reports are business documents that contain
    predefined data

27
Designing Interfaces and Dialogues
  • Users interact with IS through various interfaces
  • E.g., text-based, menu-driven
  • User interface standards
  • Mac and Windows operating systems
  • Graphical user interface (GUI)

28
Designing Databases and Files
  • Data modeling tools used for gaining
    understanding
  • Conceptual model ERD
  • Physical data model more detailed

29
Designing Processing and Logic
  • Steps and procedures that transform raw data
    inputs into new or modified information
  • Pseudocode
  • Textual notation for describing programming code
  • Similar to actual programming code
  • Structure charts
  • Decision trees
  • Actual program code

30
Phase 4 System Implementation
  • Transformation of design into a working
    information system

31
Software Programming and Testing
  • Programming
  • Transforming the system design into a working
    computer system
  • Processing and testing should occur in parallel
  • Tests conducted before system completion

32
System Conversion
  • Installation of the new system

33
Documentation
  • Information system documentation
  • Details of the inner workings of the system
  • Written by programmers
  • User-related documentation
  • Written by professional technical writers
  • User and reference guides
  • User training and tutorials
  • Installation procedures and troubleshooting
    suggestions

34
User Training and Support
  • Self-paced training and tutorials the least
    expensive
  • One-on-one training the most costly
  • Ongoing education may be necessary

35
System Maintenance
  • Typically starts after software is installed
  • The largest part of system development effort
    occurs at this stage

36
Types of Software Maintenance
  • Corrective maintenance given higher priority
  • Corrective maintenance most likely to occur after
    initial system installation

37
Learning Objectives
38
Prototyping
  • Used for development of less structured
    information systems
  • Hard to specify
  • Constantly changing
  • Trial-and-error approach

39
Rapid Application Development
  • Four-phase system development methodology
  • Requirements planning
  • User design
  • Construction
  • Move to the new system
  • RAD becomes radical in phase 2 intensive user
    involvement
  • System builders cycle between phases 2 and 3
    until system is built

40
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
  • OOAD approach done in terms of common modules
    (objects).
  • Combines
  • the what (data) with
  • the how (operations to be performed)
  • Different methods used to better integrate
    various aspects of the system
  • Preexisting objects can be used or adapted

41
Example OOAD Tools
42
Strengths and Weaknesses of Prototyping, RAD and
OOAD
  • Approaches try to overcome the limitations of a
    traditional SDLC

43
Learning Objectives
44
Need for Alternatives to Building Systems Yourself
  • Building systems in-house is always an option,
    unless you are faced with
  • Situation 1 limited IS staff
  • Staff may be too small
  • Staff may be occupied in other ways
  • Staff not capable of developing the system
    without additional hiring
  • Situation 2 IS staff has limited skill set
  • Many organizations have outside groups manage
    their Web sites
  • Take advantage of specialized skills

45
Situations When In-House Systems Development Does
Not Work
  • Situation 3 IS staff is overworked
  • Staff does not have time to work on all required
    systems
  • Situation 4 problems with performance of IS
    staff
  • Derailed IS departments
  • Staff turnover
  • Changing requirements
  • Shifts in technology
  • Budget constraints

46
Learning Objectives
47
1. External Acquisition
  • Purchasing an existing system is similar to the
    process of deciding which car best meets your
    needs

48
Steps in External Acquisition
  • Competitive bid process (find the best system for
    lowest possible price)
  • System identification, selection and planning
  • Systems analysis
  • Development of a request for proposal
  • Proposal evaluation
  • Vendor selection

49
Development of a Request for Proposal
  • A report detailing system requirements sent to
    prospective vendors

Areas covered in an RFP
50
Proposal Evaluation
  • An assessment of proposals received from vendors
  • May include system demonstrations
  • System benchmarking
  • Standardized tests to compare different proposed
    systems
  • Common system benchmarks
  • Response time given a specified number of users
  • Time to sort records
  • Time to retrieve a set of records
  • Time to produce a given record
  • Time to read in a set of data

51
Commonly Used Evaluation Criteria
52
Vendor Selection
  • Usually more than one system will meet the
    criteria
  • Need to prioritize/rank the proposed systems
  • Best ranking system is chosen

53
2. Outsourcing
  • Turning over responsibility for some or all of an
    organizations IS development and operations to
    an outside firm
  • Your IS solutions may be housed in their
    organization
  • Your applications may be run on their computers
  • They may develop systems to run on your existing
    computers (within your organization)

54
Why Outsourcing? (I)
  • Cost and quality concerns higher quality or
    lower cost systems may be available though
    outsourcing
  • Problems in IS performance IS departments might
    have problems meeting acceptable standards
  • Supplier pressure aggressive sales force
    convinces senior management to outsource IS
    functions
  • Simplifying, downsizing and reengineering
    focusing on core competencies

55
Why Outsourcing? (II)
  • Financial factors liquidation of IT assets
  • Organizational culture external IS groups
    devoid of political ties
  • Internal irritants external IS group may be
    better accepted by other organizational users

56
Managing the IS Outsourcing Relationship
  • Ongoing management of an outsourcing alliance
    needed
  • Strong, active CIO and staff
  • Clear, realistic performance measurements of the
    system
  • Multiple levels of interface between customer and
    outsourcer
  • Full-time relationship managers should be
    assigned

57
Not All Outsourcing Relationships Are the Same
  • Outsourcing relationships
  • No longer just a legal contract
  • Different types of outsourcing relationships
  • Basic relationship Cash Carry
  • Preferred relationship Set preferential pricing
  • Strategic relationship Share risks/rewards

58
3. End-User Development
  • Growing sophistication of users
  • Actual future users of the system are the
    systems developers
  • Application development may be faster
  • No need to rely on external entities

59
Benefits of End-User Development
  • Cost of labor
  • Cost can be reduced by just giving the required
    tools to the users to develop their own
    applications

60
Benefits of End-User Development (II)
  • Development time
  • User needs may change between the request for
    proposals and implementation of system
  • System becomes obsolete before implementation
  • End-user development may skip the queue
  • Provide more timely systems

Information Systems Today Managing in the
Digital World
9-60
61
Benefits of End-User Development (III)
  • Modifications and updates
  • End-user system development may be better at
    responding to changing needs
  • No need to wait for IS staff to make updates

62
Benefits of End-User Development (IV)
  • Reduce work overload
  • Increase development staff by shifting work
    load to end users

63
Encouraging End-User Development
  • Fourth-generation development (4GL) tools have
    made end-user development easier
  • Categories of 4GLs
  • Personal computer tools
  • E.g., spreadsheets, DBMS
  • Query language/reporting generators
  • Improved searching
  • Graphics generators
  • Extracting information and presenting it in
    graphical format
  • Decision support or modeling tools
  • Support for analysis of more complex,
    multidimensional problems
  • Application generators
  • Analysis specifications given in user-friendly
    language

64
End-User Development Pitfalls
  • Users may not be aware of important standards
  • Need for adequate documentation
  • Built-in error checking
  • Testing
  • Potential lack of continuity

65
End of Chapter Content
66
Opening Case Online Gaming
  • Todays online gaming is more sophisticated with
    many different game genres
  • Single player vs. multiplayer
  • Massive multiplayer games
  • MMOPRG, MMORTS
  • Computers connected via LANs
  • or over the Internet
  • Gaming industry very profitable
  • Game development 1 to 3 years
  • Cost of development decreased by the use of
    international programmers
  • Ban of explicit or violent content in some
    countries

67
Conquering Computer Contagion
  • Blue Security
  • Israel-based Internet security company
  • Spam messages were returned to the advertiser
  • 6 of the top 10 spammers eliminated Blue Frogs
    clients from mailing lists
  • PharmaMaster fought back
  • Blue Security was forced to fold the business
  • White knights

Top 10 viruses (April 2006)
68
Personalities of Broadband Users
  • Netpop research findings for broadband- users
    personalities
  • The content kings
  • Usually younger and interested in entertainment
    content
  • The social clickers
  • Young or old, utilizing the Web for communication
  • The online insiders
  • Producers and consumers of online user-created
    content
  • The fast trackers
  • Seek news on politics, sports and other topics of
    interest
  • The everyday pros
  • Use online tools to leverage everyday
    productivity

69
The Brain-Wave Interface
  • Companies researching possible use of brain-wave
    navigation
  • Honda
  • Hopes to link peoples thoughts with machines
  • Medical field
  • Used for patients with amputations
  • Artificial limbs move based on thoughts
  • Brain-wave typing
  • Combination of brain-waves, facial expressions
    and eye movements
  • Typing for people with disabilities

70
William (Bill) Henry Gates III, Chairman and
Chief Software Architect, Microsoft Corporation
  • Microsoft founded in 1974 by Bill Gates and Paul
    Allen
  • Both are multi-billionaires today
  • Gates has written two books
  • 1995 The Road Ahead
  • 1999 Business _at_ the Speed of Thought
  • Bill and his wife Melinda fund a foundation
    (28.8 billion) dedicated to improving health and
    education around the world
  • Microsoft employs 71,000 workers
  • Microsofts revenues are more than 44 billion
  • Microsoft has subsidiaries in more than 100
    countries

71
Hackers, Patches and Reverse Engineering
  • Hackers
  • Break into computer systems to steal or
    manipulate data
  • Look for security holes
  • Study applications until they discover a hole
  • Follow other hackers guidelines
  • Reverse engineer patches
  • Patches
  • Released by software producers
  • Plug security holes

72
Software Vendors and Clients
  • Software consultants are often torn between two
    choices
  • Recommend the best software for a client?
  • Recommend the software made by a vendor who
    referred the client?

73
The New Web
  • Companies that survived the dot-com failure have
    a few things in common Web 2.0
  • The Web is the business platform
  • The Web creates an advantage (Amazon.com
    selling out-of-print books)
  • The sites leverage all customers (small and
    large)
  • Giving an opportunity to small transactions
    (eBay)
  • Increased use automatically improves the service
  • Taking advantage of users resources
    (peer-to-peer networks)
  • The hyperlink feature is used to the fullest
  • Google revolutionized the search engine platform
  • Lightweight programming
  • Use of open-source philosophy (Wikipedia)

74
The New Web (II)
  • Web 2.0 coined in 2001 to refer to the
    characteristics of successful online companies
  • Some older technologies used by Web 2.0
  • Web services
  • Ajax
  • Web content syndication
  • RSS
About PowerShow.com