Today - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Today PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 4ba92c-MzVkZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Today

Description:

Today s Agenda Electoral Institutions (Elec. College) Are Political Parties like sports teams? What happens to voters when the teams don t wear uniforms? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:228
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 76
Provided by: jue6
Category:
Tags: republican | today

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Today


1
Todays Agenda
  • Electoral Institutions (Elec. College)
  • Are Political Parties like sports teams?
  • What happens to voters when the teams dont wear
    uniforms?
  • If so, are interest groups like Nike, Reebok, and
    Adidas?

2
Electoral College
  • Why would we do this, instead of a national
    election?
  • Comes from state sovereignty
  • Individual states are important!
  • Why is it so hard to change?
  • (you know this one)
  • Who has an incentive to change it?

3
How does it work?
  • Basically each state gets to choose their
    preferred candidate
  • Each state gets a of votes for President
  • 2 for each Senator (100 total)
  • of House members (435 total)
  • DC gets 3 votes
  • 100 435 3 538 total electors (These are the
    elites who choose our President!)

4
How does it work?
  • When you vote for president, you are simply
    choosing electors who have promised to vote for
    your partys candidate.
  • Whichever candidate gets 270 electoral votes
    wins!
  • (See how that works? Majority of 538? See?)

5
How does it work?
  • 48 states use the winner-take-all
  • (CO too!)
  • 7 House members
  • 2 Senators
  • 9 votes!

6
How does it work?
  • 48 states use the winner-take-all
  • Nebraska and Maine are special
  • Swing states (battleground states) get a LOT of
    attention
  • Strong partisan states are ignored

7
What are Political Parties?
  • A political party is a group of voters,
    activists, candidates, and office holders who
    identify with a party label.
  • They recruit and run candidates for public office
    under the party label.
  • They try to organize and coordinate the
    activities of government officials under the
    party name.

8
What are Political Parties?
  • A political party is a group of voters,
    activists, candidates, and office holders who
    identify with a party label.
  • They recruit and run candidates for public office
    under the party label.
  • They try to organize and coordinate the
    activities of government officials under the
    party name.
  • They want to win elections!

9
Party Websites
  • Democrats
  • http//www.democrats.org/
  • Republicans
  • http//www.gop.com/
  • Libertarians
  • http//www.lp.org/
  • Green Party
  • http//www.gp.org/

10
The Role of Political Parties in a Democracy
  • Many political scientists believe that parties
    are essential to democracy.

11
The Role of Political Parties in a Democracy
  • Many political scientists believe that parties
    are essential to democracy.
  • The political party is seen by some as the main
    instrument of popular sovereignty and majority
    rule.

12
The Role of Political Parties in a Democracy
  • Many political scientists believe that parties
    are essential to democracy.
  • The political party is seen by some as the main
    instrument of popular sovereignty and majority
    rule.
  • Parties provide a way for the people to keep
    elected officials responsive and responsible
    through competitive elections.

13
Parties and Majority Rule
  • Parties mobilize and educate people about
    politics.

14
Parties and Majority Rule
  • Parties mobilize and educate people about
    politics.
  • Elections create an incentive to include as many
    voters as possible, with a majority being the
    goal of each party.

15
Parties and Majority Rule
  • Parties mobilize and educate people about
    politics.
  • Elections create an incentive to include as many
    voters as possible, with a majority being the
    goal of each party.
  • Parties try to broaden their appeal by running
    candidates from many ethnic, racial, and
    religious groups.

16
The Two-Party System
  • Most nations have either one-party systems or
    multiparty systems.
  • Most Western democracies have multiparty systems.
  • But two parties have dominated the political
    scene in the United States since 1836.

17
Why Only 2 American Parties?
  • Winner-take-all system
  • Legislative seats awarded only to first place
    finishers.
  • Losers get nothing
  • People do not want to waste vote on third place
    finisher
  • Single-member districts
  • Parties have incentive to gobble up third parties
    close to them

18
What happens in other Democracies?
  • Proportional representation
  • Each party gets a share of the votes they receive
    in the election
  • So the Senate and House would be made up of the
    percentage of votes each party received.
  • Germany

19
Tradeoffs?
  • Proportional representation means MORE groups
    given a seat at the table
  • Small parties get some voice
  • Two-party system means less participants, but
    perhaps more efficient.
  • Less bargaining with fewer people

20
Parties getting worse?
  • Scandalmonger

21
Historical animosity
  • On May 22, 1856, Congressman Preston Brooks,
    wielding a walking stick, strode into the U.S.
    Senate chamber. Seated at his desk, answering
    routine correspondence, was Senator Charles
    Sumner, whose oration earlier that week had
    energized anti-slavery activists in the North.
  • The South Carolinian strode to Sumner's desk and
    struck the senator across the head with his cane.
    As Sumner, dazed and bleeding, struggled to get
    to his feet, Brooks continued to rain blows upon
    him for about a minute, until his wooden cane
    shattered.
  • Sumner was stitched up by a doctor, but took
    years to fully recover. Brooks was arrested and
    released on bail, and was considered a hero
    throughout the South. People sent him canes to
    replace the one he had broken beating Sumner.

22
Parties getting worse?
23
Parties getting worse?
24
Grover Cleveland Democrat or Republican?
  • United States President Grover Cleveland vetoed
    an expenditure that would have provided 10,000
    of federal aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers.
    When explaining to Congress why such an
    appropriation of taxpayer money was
    inappropriate, he statedI can find no warrant
    for such an appropriation in the Constitution
    and I do not believe that the power and duty of
    the General Government ought to be extended to
    the relief of individual suffering which is in no
    manner properly related to the public service or
    benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the
    limited mission of this power and duty should, I
    think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the
    lesson should be constantly enforced that, though
    the people support the Government, the Government
    should not support the people. ... The
    friendliness and charity of our fellow countrymen
    can always be relied on to relieve their fellow
    citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly
    and quite lately demonstrated. Federal aid in
    such cases encourages the expectation of paternal
    care on the part of the Government and weakens
    the sturdiness of our national character, while
    it prevents the indulgence among our people of
    that kindly sentiment and conduct which
    strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood

25
Realignment Democrat or Republican?
  • United States President Grover Cleveland vetoed
    an expenditure that would have provided 10,000
    of federal aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers.
    When explaining to Congress why such an
    appropriation of taxpayer money was
    inappropriate, he statedI can find no warrant
    for such an appropriation in the Constitution
    and I do not believe that the power and duty of
    the General Government ought to be extended to
    the relief of individual suffering which is in no
    manner properly related to the public service or
    benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the
    limited mission of this power and duty should, I
    think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the
    lesson should be constantly enforced that, though
    the people support the Government, the Government
    should not support the people. ... The
    friendliness and charity of our fellow countrymen
    can always be relied on to relieve their fellow
    citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly
    and quite lately demonstrated. Federal aid in
    such cases encourages the expectation of paternal
    care on the part of the Government and weakens
    the sturdiness of our national character, while
    it prevents the indulgence among our people of
    that kindly sentiment and conduct which
    strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood

26
Party Advertising negative?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vY_zTN4BXvYI
  • Citizens United
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAtjFY29-4FY
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJoG1fbu3IYA
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vCWKTOCP45zY

27
Party organization mass, elites
  • Mays law of curvilinear disparity

28
Party Responsibility
  • What institutional factors help parties be
    responsible?
  • Western Europe versus the U.S.
  • Regional differences note regionally, the
    distribution of preferences differ what effect
    does that have on party responsibility.
  • Effect of party responsibility on voting
  • The expensive turkey sandwich (according to Dr.
    Baird)

29
Party Decline?
30
Interest groups
  • Like Nike, Adidas, and Reebok, interest groups
    like to be on the winning team (regardless of who
    that is).

31
What is the difference?
  • Interest groups DO NOT run their own candidates
    for office (they dont own a sports team).
  • They typically do NOT seek mass membership like
    Political Parties do

32
What are Interest Groups?Three Definitions
  • Neutral Private organizations or associations
    that seek to influence government policies as a
    way to protect or advance some interest or
    concern.
  • Negative Special interests that seek advantage
    over other groups and against the public
    interest.
  • Positive Another way by which Americans can
    influence their government.

33
Questions Assessing the Role of Interest Groups
  • Do interest groups, on balance, help or hurt the
    practice of democracy in the United States?
  • Do interest groups, on balance, help or hurt the
    fashioning of coherent and effective public
    policies?

34
What are factions?
  • a number of citizens (either a majority or
    minority number) who are united and actuated by
    some common impulse of passion, or of interest,
    adverse to the rights of other citizens
  • James Madison, Federalist 10

35
Madison on Factions
  • There are two methods of curing the mischief
    of faction
  • By removing its causes
  • By controlling its effects
  • James Madison, Federalist 10

36
Madison on Factions
  • There are again two methods of removing the
    causes of faction
  • Get rid of individual liberty
  • Make everyone think the same
  • (Both are B-A-D)
  • James Madison, Federalist 10

37
More on interest groups
  • Teams Without Uniforms
  • Interest groups are EVIL
  • Interest groups are key to a healthy democratic
    government
  • What do interest Groups DO?

38
Non-Partisan Elections
  • What happens when teams dont wear uniforms?
  • When is this?

39
Non-Partisan Elections
  • What happens when teams dont wear uniforms?
  • When is this?
  • Primaries
  • Local elections
  • What does this allow us to do?

40
Non-Partisan Elections
  • What happens when teams dont wear uniforms?
  • When is this?
  • Primaries
  • Local elections
  • What does this allow us to do?
  • Test for Partisan Effects! Yeehaaa!

41
Non-Partisan Elections
  • What happens when teams dont wear uniforms?
  • People switch to other cues
  • Gender
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Profession
  • Past experience
  • Etc.

42
Non-Partisan Elections
  • What happens when teams dont wear uniforms?
  • People switch to other cues
  • Gender
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Profession
  • Past experience
  • Lower turnout!
  • Less interest!
  • Elite voters determine your lives!

43
Assessing the Role of Interest Groups
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?viBELC_vxqhIfeature
    related

44
Assessing the Role of Interest Groups
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFzrBurlJUNk

45
Theories of Interest Group Politics
  • Elite Theory
  • Pluralist Theory
  • Hyper-pluralist Theory

46
Theories of Interest Group Politics Elitism
  • Societies are divided along class lines and that
    an upper-class elite will rule,
  • regardless of the formal niceties of government
    organization.
  • The presence of many groups means nothing, the
    power is not equally divided among them
  • some groups have more.

47
Theories of Interest Group Politics Elitism
  • Power is strengthened by a system of interlocking
    agreements between corporations and other
    institutions.
  • Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few
    at the expense of the many.

48
Interest Group Ratings
  • ACLU (Am. Civil Liberties Union)
  • http//action.aclu.org/site/VoteCenter?congress10
    9locationSpagecongScorecard
  • ACU (American Conservative Union)
  • http//conservative.org/ratings/ratingsarchive/201
    1/unified.htmlCO

49
Theories of Interest Group Politics Elitism
  • Power is in the hands of elites
  • Money
  • Access
  • Officeholders in their pockets
  • They control what policies we get
  • Average people have no chance at influencing
    policy

50
Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism
  • Definition
  • Groups provide the key link between the people
    and the government.
  • Politics is mainly a competition among groups,
    not individuals,
  • Many centers of power exist with many diverse
    groups competing for power.

51
Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism
  • Key Assumption
  • No group becomes too dominant, i.e., no group
    wins or loses all the time.

52
Making friends!
  • what do these groups have in common?

ANSWER AN INTEREST IN DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
53
Pluralism in Colorado?
  • 3M Traffic Control Materials DivisionABATE of
    ColoradoABC Preschool, LTD.ADT
    AutomotiveAFL-CIO, COAFLAC, American Family
    Life Assurance CompanyAFSCME Council 76ARC of
    ColoradoARCO Coal CompanyASARCO Inc.AT and T
    Wireless Services of COATTATC/VANCOM,
    Inc.Academy School District 20Academy of
    Audiology, COAccess, COAckerman Information
    CorporationAcupuncture Association, COAdvantage
    Network Systems, Inc.Aerial Applicators Assoc,
    COAgile Stone/I.N.A.P.Air Transport
    AssociationAirtouch CellularAlcohol and Drug
    Service Providers, CO Association ofAlliance
    (The)Alliance for Managed CareAlliance of
    American InsurersAllied Jewish Federation of
    COAllstate Insurance CompanyAmalgamated Transit
    Union, Local 1001Ambulatory Surgical Centers
    Association, COAmerican Academy of Pediatrics,
    CO ChapterAmerican Automobile Manufacturers
    AssociationAmerican Cancer Society, CO
    DivisionAmerican Community InsuranceAmerican
    Council of Life InsuranceAmerican Express
    CompanyAmerican Family InsuranceAmerican Family
    Insurance CompanyAmerican Home Products
    CorporationAmerican Institute of Architects -
    COAmerican Insurance AssociationAmerican Legion
    (The)American Mobilehome AssociationAmerican
    Republic InsuranceAmerican Society of Mechanical
    EngineersAmerican Subcontractors Association
    COAmoco CorporationAnderson and
    AssociatesAnheuser-Busch Companies,
    Inc.Apartment Association, CO

54
Pluralism in Colorado?
  • Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc.Apartment
    Association, COArapahoe HouseArkansas River
    Power AuthorityArmstrong and AssociatesArthritis
    FoundationArthur Andersen LLPAsphalt Paving
    CompanyAssessors' Association, COAsset
    Investment Management LLCAssociated Credit
    Bureaus of COAssociated General Contractors of
    COAssociated Governments of Northwest
    COAssociated Students of CO State
    UniversityAssociation for Health/Phys Ed
    Recreation, COAssociation of Chiefs of Police,
    COAssociation of Commerce and Industry,
    COAssociation of Community Centered Boards,
    COAssociation of Community Corrections Boards,
    COAssociation of Distributors, COAssociation of
    Home Builders, COAssociation of Independent
    Title Insurance Companies, COAssociation of Life
    Underwriters, COAssociation of Municipal
    Utilities, COAssociation of Naturopathic
    Physicians, COAssociation of Nonprofit
    Organizations, COAssociation of Nurse
    Anesthetists, COAssociation of Private Resources
    Agencies, COAssociation of Public Employees,
    COAssociation of School Boards, COAssociation
    of School Executives, COAssociation of Ski
    Towns, COAssociation of Transit Agencies,
    COAudubonAurora Public SchoolsAuto-Matic
    CreditAutomobile Recyclers, COBank One Colorado
    Corp.Bankers Association, COBar Association,
    COBarr Laboratories, Inc.Baxter Healthcare
    CorporationBeer Distributors Association,
    COBehavioral Healthcare Council, COBeneficial
    Management Corporation of AmericaBicycle
    ColoradoBigelow and CompanyBingo Raffle
    Association of Volunteers (BRAVE)Biotech
    Industry OrganizationBlackhawk Casino Owners'
    AssociationBledsoe, Defilippo, Rees, LLC

55
Pluralism in Colorado?
  • Bradford Publishing CompanyBrain Injury Task
    ForceBreit, Bosch, Levin and Coppola PCBronco
    Billy's CasinoBrotherhood of Locomotive
    EngineersBrotherhood of Maintenance of Way
    EmployeesBrownstein, Hyatt, Farber and
    Strickland, PCBusiness Alliance, COCF and I
    Steel, LPCIGNA HealthcareCO UnityCPA
    NetworkCable Television Association, COCafca,
    Inc.Car and Truck Renting and Leasing Assoc of
    COCasino Owners Assoc of COCatholic
    CharitiesCatholic Conference, COCatholic Rural
    Life, Archdiocese of DenverCattle Feeders
    Association, COCattlemen's Association,
    COCenter for Energy and Economic
    DevelopmentCenter for Reproductive Law and
    PolicyCentura HealthChamber of Commerce, South
    MetroChevron USA, Inc.Child Care Association,
    COChildren's CampaignChildren's
    HospitalChildren's Legislative
    CooperativeChiropractic Association,
    COChiropractic Society, COChristian Home
    Educators of COChristian Pro-Life
    CoalitionChronic Care Coalition, COCitibank EBT
    ServicesCiticorp Diners ClubCitizens for
    Responsible Government, Inc.Citizens for Right
    to Work, COCitizens for Victims' RightsCity and
    County of DenverCity of ArvadaCity of
    AuroraCity of Black HawkCity of BoulderCity of
    BurlingtonCity of Central ColoradoCity of
    Colorado SpringsCity of Greenwood VillageCity
    of LakewoodCity of LovelandCity of Sterling

56
Pluralism in Colorado?
  • Classified School Employees AssocClean Water
    ActionCloverleaf Kennel ClubCoalition Against
    Domestic Violence, COCoalition for a Secure
    Insurance MarketCoalition for the Homeless,
    COCoalition of Exclusive Agents Association of
    COCoalition of Land Trusts, COCoastal
    CorporationCole and AssociatesColoradans for
    Consumer Choice in ElectricityColorado Cellars
    (Winery)Colorado Communique, Inc.Colorado
    ConcernColorado Dismas, Inc.Colorado
    Legislative Services, Inc.Colorado School of
    MinesColorado Serum CompanyColorado Ski Country
    USAColorado Springs Chamber of CommerceColorado
    Springs Independence CenterColorado State
    University FoundationColorado State University
    System and FoundationColorado and Wyoming
    Railway CompanyColowyo Coal CompanyCommittee
    for Colorado BoxingCommnet Cellular Inc.Common
    CauseCommunique/CO Veterinary Medical
    Association, COCommunity Associations
    InstituteCommunity Corrections Coalition,
    COCommunity Health Network, COCommunity Health
    Plan of the Rockies, Inc.Compensation Insurance
    Authority, COConcept II Research
    ConsultantsConcerned Citizens of Las Animas
    CountyConservation Services, Inc.Consulting
    Engineers Council of CO, AmericanConsumer Credit
    Counseling ServiceConsumers Union of the US,
    Inc.Contemporary Services CorporationContinuum
    Care, Inc.Contract Administration
    FundContractors Association, Inc.,
    COCooperative Council, COCoopers and Lybrand
    LLPCoors Brewing CompanyCopic Insurance
    CompanyCorn Growers Association, COCoroners
    Association, COCotter CorporationCouncil of
    Churches, CO

57
Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism
BUT "The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that
the heavenly chorus sings with a strong
upper-class accent." --
E.E.Schattsschneider
58
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?
  • The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups
  • Free-Rider problem (logic of collective action)
  • Consumer groups have a particularly difficult
    time organizing

59
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?
  • Bigger group bigger free-rider problem.
  • Small groups are better organized and more
    focused on the groups goals.
  • Groups provide selective benefits to overcome
    size

60
INSIDE AND OUTSIDE LOBBYING
  • inside lobbying
  • information
  • policy making
  • bureaucratic rule making
  • litigation
  • outside lobbying
  • public relations
  • grassroots organization
  • electioneering
  • activism
  • PACs

61
How Groups Try to Shape Policy
  • Lobbyists
  • are a source of information.
  • can help politicians plan legislative strategy
  • can help politicians plan campaigns
  • can provide policy ideas and innovations

62
How Groups Try to Shape Policy
  • Electioneering
  • Direct involvement in the election process.
  • PACs Used by groups, corporations and unions to
    donate money to candidates.
  • Groups can do more than just donate money.

63
What Makes an Interest Group Successful?
  • Financial Resources
  • Not all groups have equal amounts of money.
  • Groups are often picky about who gets money.
  • Money (typically) access

64
The Rise of Political Action Committees
65
How Groups Try to Shape Policy
  • Litigation
  • courts may be able to provide a remedy.
  • amicus curiae briefs
  • Class action lawsuits can give small groups big
    power

66
How Groups Try to Shape Policy
  • Going Public
  • Groups try and cultivate a good public image.
  • Groups will purchase advertising to motivate the
    public about an issue.

67
How Groups Try to Shape Policy
  • Going Public
  • Groups try and cultivate a good public image.
  • Groups will purchase advertising to motivate the
    public about an issue.
  • http//www.beefitswhatsfordinner.com/recipes/defau
    lt.asp
  • http//www.gotmilk.com/
  • http//www.eagleforum.org/misc/descript.html

68
The Benefits of Interest Groups for Citizens
  • Promote interest in public affairs
  • Provide useful information
  • Serve as watchdogs
  • Represent the interest of citizens

69
The Negatives Policy Consequences
  • Incoherence Policies can be inherently
    incompatible
  • Gridlock Failure to compromise produces failure
    to respond to problems

70
The Negatives Violations of Political Equality
  • Representational inequalities
  • Resource inequalities
  • PACs/ Soft money/ Independent expenditures
  • Access inequality
  • The privileged position of business

71
What you need to know!
  • Our system rewards organized interests!
  • Even if you are small in number, or
    resource-poor, ORGANIZED Interests GET Attention!

72
What you need to know!
  • Our system rewards organized interests!
  • Even if you are small in number, or
    resource-poor, ORGANIZED Interests GET Attention!
  • BUTIt is extremely hard to organize
    resource-poor groups

73
Interest groups as instruments of democracy
74
Iron Triangle
75
Clint Eastwood
About PowerShow.com