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Benchmark 3 Review Notes

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Honors Biology Asexual Reproduction Only one parent required Genetically identical offspring created Uses MITOSIS to make clone organisms No gametes used Types of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Benchmark 3 Review Notes


1
Benchmark 3 Review Notes
  • Honors Biology

2
Asexual Reproduction
  • Only one parent required
  • Genetically identical offspring created
  • Uses MITOSIS to make clone organisms
  • No gametes used

3
Types of Asexual Reproduction
  • Budding
  • Vegetative
  • Binary Fission
  • Used by yeast and hydra
  • Used by plants
  • Used by bacteria

QUESTION Which type of asexual reproduction is
shown to the right???
4
Sexual Reproduction
  • Gametes are produced by the process of meiosis
  • Crossing-Over of Meiosis I ensures genetic
    variation between offspring
  • Gametes are HAPLOID cells (N)
  • Egg and sperm unite to form a zygote
  • Zygote is the first DIPLOID cell (2N) of a new
    individual. The zygote becomes a fully-formed
    individual through mitosis

5
Production of Gametes
6
If a somatic cell has 100 chromosomes. . .
  • Cells undergoing MITOSIS will have 100
    chromosomes each
  • DIPLOID cells created
  • Cells undergoing MEIOSIS will have 50 chromosomes
    each
  • HAPLOID cells created

7
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8
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9
Genetics Review
  • Genotypes
  • Two alleles for an autosomal trait
  • HH homozygous dominant
  • Hh heterozygous
  • hh homozygous recessive
  • Phenotypes
  • Physical characteristics
  • Hh and HH create the same phenotype

10
Punnett Squares for Autosomal Traits
  1. What percentage of children will have the
    dominant phenotype?
  2. What percentage of children will have the
    recessive phenotype?

11
Sex-Linked Traits
  • Carried on X-chromosome
  • Recessive alleles cause disorders like
    colorblindness, hemophilia, and baldness
  • Boys receive X-chromosome and its alleles from
    MOM
  • Use a SPECIAL Punnett Square to predict

12
Sex-Linked Punnett Squares
  1. What percent of males inherit the disorder?
  2. What percent of females are carriers for the
    disorder?

13
Pedigrees
  1. Study the pedigree to the right.
  2. What kind of trait is shown? Explain. . .

14
DNA and RNA
  • DNA is double-stranded
  • Base pair rules
  • AT
  • CG
  • For ATT-CGA what is the complementary DNA strand?
  • RNA is single-stranded
  • Makes a single-strand copy off an open DNA strand
  • For ATT-CGA what is the complementary RNA strand?

15
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16
Functions
  • DNA contains thousands of genes written as
    nucleotide sequences
  • Genetic code determined by DNA nitrogen base
    sequence
  • Kept in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
  • RNA
  • mRNA carries gene information from nucleus to
    ribosome
  • rRNA (ribosome) site where mRNA instructions are
    read
  • tRNA carries amino acid to ribosomes according
    to mRNA instructions

17
Steps of Protein Synthesis
  • TRANSCRIPTION
  • DNA gene opens to attach mRNA nucleotides
  • mRNA copies DNA gene in the nucleus
  • DNA closes back up as mRNA exits
  • TRANSLATION
  • mRNA attaches to a ribosome where tRNA brings
    correct amino acids

18
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19
Two Important Types of Gene Technology
  • Gene splicing
  • Genes from an organism are removed and inserted
    into another organism
  • Example inserting human insulin-producing gene
    in bacteria to produce insulin quickly and
    economically
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Used to replace undesired genes of an organism
    with better ones
  • Example Glow in the dark puppies are created by
    inserting the glowing gene from jellyfish into
    the dog DNA

20
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21
Gel Electrophoresis
  • Used to determine relatedness of organisms
  • Separates DNA bands by size
  • Shorter segments travel the furthest through the
    matrix

22
More Matching Bands Closer Relatedness
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