Module 1: Introduction to MIS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Module 1: Introduction to MIS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4b8118-ZDA1Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Module 1: Introduction to MIS

Description:

Objectives Understand the systems approach Why is technology important? Understand Porters 5 forces framework Understand the Value chain framework Differentiate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:82
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Saurab7
Learn more at: http://www.unf.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Module 1: Introduction to MIS


1
Module 1 Introduction to MIS
2
Objectives
  • Understand the systems approach
  • Why is technology important?
  • Understand Porters 5 forces framework
  • Understand the Value chain framework
  • Differentiate between types of systems

3
Systems approach to MIS
4
Management
  • The act, art, or manner of managing, handling,
    controlling directing, etc.
  • Origin to train (a horse) in his paces cause
    to do exercises of the manage
  • To control the movement or behavior of handle
    manipulate
  • To have charge of direct conduct administer
  • To get (a person) to do what one wishes

Websters Dictionary
5
Information
  • Derived from the Latin verb informo, informare,
    meaning to give form to
  • Information etymologically connotes an
    imposition of organization upon some
    indeterminate mass or substratum, the imparting
    form that gives life and meaning to otherwise
    lifeless or irrelevant matter
  • Data that have been shaped by humans into a
    meaningful and useful form.

Schoderbek, Schoderbek Kefalas
6
SYSTEM
  • A set or arrangement of things so related or
    connected as to form a unity or organic whole
  • A set of facts, principles, rules, etc.
    classified or arranged in a regular, orderly form
    so as to show a logical plan linking the various
    parts.
  • A method or plan of classification or
    arrangement

Websters New World Dictionary
7
SYSTEM
A system is defined as (1) a set (2) of objects
(3) together with relationships (4) between the
objects and between their attributes (5) related
to each other and to their environment (6) so as
to form a whole.
SET any well defined collection of elements or
objects within some frame of reference
OBJECTS objects are elements of a system
INPUTS (serial, probable, or feedback), PROCESS
(transformation), OUTPUTS (Intended, waste, or
pollution) Efficiency - ratio of output to input
RELATIONSHIPS the bonds that link objects
together (Symbiotic, synergistic, and redundant)
ATTRIBUTES attributes a properties of both
objects and relationships (defining/accompanying
characteristics)
ENVIRONMENT includes not only that which lies
outside the systems complete control but that
which at the same time also determines in some
way the systems performance.
WHOLE defining attribute.
Schoderbek, Schoderbek Kefalas
8
Individual Information Processing System
Environment
Input
Processing
Output
Sensory Information - Visual - Auditory
- Kinesthetic - Olfactory
Brain Cognitive Frames - Assumptions -
Criteria Internal States
Behaviors Macro - Speaking - Eating
- Pointing Micro - Heart Rate -
Voice Temp - Skin Temp
Memory Personal History
9
The Organization as a System
Science
Technology
Products, goods and services
Labor
Management
Money
Input
Process
Output
Marketable waste
Materials and Equipment
Management
Pollution
Government
Public
Environment
Political, Legal, Social, Physical, Economic,
10
Diagram of a Systems Parameters, Boundary, and
Environment
Systems environment
Systems boundary
i
o
p
To other systems
From other systems
i
p
i
p
o
Input
Process
Output
o
i
Feedback
0
o
p
p
I
11
The Organization, Its Resources and Its
Environment
Customers
Ecology
Labor
Material and Equipment
Government
The organization
Input
Process
Output
Feedback
General Public
Capital
Competitors
Land
Technology
Indicates degree of control, alternatively,
resources Indicates degree of independence or,
alternatively, environment Indicates the boundary
demarking the system from its environment
12
Socio-Technical System
Social System
Technical System
STRUCTURE
TECHNOLOGY
MIS (Direct)
PEOPLE
TASKS
Socio-Technical Model as a Work System
13
CHALLENGES
  • Technology advances
  • Productivity challenge
  • Strategic business challenge
  • People challenge

14
Information Systems1 -- FOCUS
  • People
  • Organizations
  • Technology
  • Problem Solving

1 A set of interrelated components that collect,
retrieve, process, store and distribute
information for the purpose of facilitating
planning, control, coordination, analysis, and
decision making in organizations.
15
5 forces and value chain Organizational processes
16
Competitive Intelligence
One of the most important aspects in developing a
competitive advantage is to acquire information
on the activities and actions of competitors.
  • Such information-gathering drives business
    performance
  • by increasing market knowledge
  • improving knowledge management
  • raising the quality of strategic planning

However once the data has been gathered it must
be processed into information and subsequently
business intelligence. Porters 5 Forces is a
well-known framework that aids in this analysis.
17
Porters Competitive Forces Model
The model recognizes five major forces that could
endanger a companys position in a given industry.
  • The threat of entry of new competitors
  • The bargaining power of suppliers
  • The bargaining power of customers (buyers)
  • The threat of substitute products or services
  • The rivalry among existing firms in the industry

External Competitive Forces
18
Porters Competitive Forces Model
Competitive Forces
19
The Value Chain
Value Chain -- The set of processes a firm uses
to create value for its
customers ( see pg 58)
(an abbreviated version of the term value added
chain from economics)
The Value Chain includes Primary
Processes -- that directly create the value the
firms customer
perceives, and Support Processes
-- that add value indirectly by making it easier
for
others to perform the primary processes
20
The Value Chain
According to the value chain model (Porter,
1985), the activities conducted in any
organization can be divided into two parts
primary activities and support activities.
  • Primary activities are those activities in which
    materials are purchased, processed into products,
    and delivered to customers. Each adds value to
    the product or service hence the value chain.
  • Inbound logistics (inputs)
  • Operations (manufacturing and testing)
  • Outbound logistics (storage and distribution)
  • Marketing and sales
  • Service

21
The Value Chain (Continued)
  • Unlike the primary activities, which directly add
    value to the product or service, the support
    activities are operations that support the
    creation of value (primary activities)
  • The firms infrastructure (accounting, finance,
    management)
  • Human resources management
  • Technology development (RD)
  • Procurement

The initial purpose of the value chain model was
to analyze the internal operations of a
corporation, in order to increase its efficiency,
effectiveness, and competitiveness. We can extend
that company analysis, by systematically
evaluating a companys key processes and core
competencies to eliminate any activities that do
not add value to the product.
22
The Value Chain (Continued)
Secondary Activities
Value
Primary Activities
23
IBMs Value Chain Model
24
Does IT matter?
25
Types of systems
26
Information System Focus
Focus on information systems advantage has moved
upward through the organization.
Executive Management
1990s
Middle Management
1980s
Operational Management
1960s - 1970s
27
Organization Levels and Types of IS Used
Top Level ???
Strategic Level
GSS/EIS
Tactical Level
MIS/DSS/GSS/EIS
MIS/DSS/KWS
Knowledge Level
TPS
Operational Level
28
Information System Focus
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) - -
    handles and processes daily exchanges
    (transactions)
  • Office Automation Systems (OAS) - - produces
    documents, plans, schedules
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • produces managerial reports

Operational Level
29
Information System Focus
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS) -
  • supports and assists in all problem-specific
    decision making.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Expert Systems
    (ES) -- Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) - is an
    information system that can make suggestions and
    reach solutions in much the same way as a human
    expert.

Knowledge Level
30
Information System Focus
  • Executive Support System (ESS)
  • Group Support System (GSS) - is an information
    system that can make suggestions and reach
    solutions in much the same way as a human expert.

Strategic Level
Tactical Level
31
TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
KIND OF SYSTEM GROUPS
SERVED
STRATEGIC LEVEL
SENIOR MANAGERS
MANAGEMENT LEVEL
MIDDLE MANAGERS
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

KNOWLEDGE


DATA WORKERS
OPERATIONAL

OPERATIONAL LEVEL


MANAGERS
SALES MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING
HUMAN
RESOURCES
MARKETING
32
Information Systems Process Systems and
Knowledge Systems
Type of system Process systems Knowledge systems Knowledge systems
Type of Data Quantitative / Structured Quantitative / Structured Qualitative / Unstructured

Examples of technology ERP / TPS Business intelligence Content Management
SCM Data Mining Information Portals
CRM Collaborative tools

Example When customers make a purchase from anywhere in the world using EBay's' online auctions, the firms' sales process integrates with a variety of partner and processes that include payment process and its internal process. (Sambamurthy et al., 2003) Sara Lee uses its ability to analyze the sales of retailers it serves. In doing so, they can identify trends and exceptions, draw comparison, perform calculations and obtain fast answers (Turban Aronson, 2000). BP uses 3-D imaging rooms equipped with state-of-the art videoconferencing systems for helping its engineers gather in any of the company's 15 imaging rooms and tap into and share data over the network (Echikson, 2001).
33
Characteristics of Information System
Capabilities
Strategic Information Systems -- Information
systems that play a major role in a products
value chain.
  • Although there is no clear-cut separation between
    strategic information systems and other systems,
    a number of characteristics indicate whether an
    information system should be considered
    strategic.
  • Systems should be considered strategic if
  • they help differentiate the product form its
    competitors
  • if the customers directly perceive the value of
    the information system to them or
  • if the products production, sales, and service
    require the system.

34
Lewins Change Model Unfreezing preparing
for change create felt need disrupt
existing attitudes, behaviors Changing
modify situation sustain effort clear goals
adequate preparation Refreezing
Reinforce desired behavior Support
Evaluation
  • Change Agent
  • Responsible for changing individual system
    (organizational) behavior
  • IS professional as change agent
  • Facilitate support change processes

35
Change
  • Planned Change
  • Deliberate and intentional
  • Response to performance gap
  • Gap between actual desired state
  • Radical
  • massive restructuring frame-breaking
  • Incremental
  • frame-bending
  • continuous improvement

Resistance to Change Causes Fear of
unknown Security No felt need
Power/threatened Rumors Timing
Resources Strategies Communicate
Clarify Show benefit Enlist key
people Accurate info Delay
Provide support
Targets of Change Purpose, strategy,
objectives Structure Technology
Culture Tasks People All are
interrelated
36
Change
Change Strategies Force-coercion
Authority power Good for unfreezing
stage Rational persuasion
Expert power Convince of benefits of
change Shared power Active,
real involvement Takes longest, lasts
longest
  • Resistance to Change
  • Attitudes and behaviors
  • View as useful feedback
  • Educate / communicate
  • Participation commitment
  • Provide support re external constraints
  • Negotiate trade-offs
  • Manipulation speed, use power

37
Strategic Role of IS How Businesses Use
Information Systems Information Systems
Challenges and Opportunities
38
SYSTEM INTERDEPENDENCE
INTERDEPENDENCE
HARDWARE
BUSINESS Strategy Rules Procedures
SOFTWARE
DATABASE
TELE-COMMUNICATIONS
ORGANIZATION
INFORMATION SYSTEM
About PowerShow.com