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MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY VMS I, 2003

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MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY VMS I, 2003 LECTURE 2 A ROADMAP OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE LUC VAN KAER, PhD OBJECTIVES: To introduce the basic principles of non ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY VMS I, 2003


1
MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGYVMS I, 2003
  • LECTURE 2
  • A ROADMAP OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
  • LUC VAN KAER, PhD

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  • OBJECTIVES
  • To introduce the basic principles of non-specific
    (innate or natural) and specific (acquired or
    adaptive) immunity.
  • To have a closer look at the components of
    adaptive immunity and the antigens that they
    recognize.
  • To describe the cardinal features of an adaptive
    immune response, and to introduce the clonal
    selection hypothesis that provides an explanation
    for these central principles.
  • To address the language of immunologists,
    especially the meaning of the myriad of CDs and
    ILs.
  • To review whats on the menu in the Immunology
    Section of the Microbiology and Immunology
    Course.

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Properties of Innate and Adaptive
Immunity-----------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------
----- Innate Adaptive
-------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------1)
Specificity low high2)
Diversity small large3)
Memory no yes4) Relies on gene
no yes rearrangement5) Present
in yes no invertebrates
--------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------
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Components of Innate and Adaptive
Immunity-----------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------
----- Innate Adaptive
-------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------1)
Physical barriers skin, mucous
- membranes2) Blood proteins complement
antibodies3) Cells phagocytes, B and T
cells NK cells---------------------------
--------------------------------------------------
-------------------
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INNATE IMMUNITY
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
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  • OBJECTIVES
  • To introduce the basic principles of non-specific
    (innate or natural) and specific (acquired or
    adaptive) immunity.
  • To have a closer look at the components of
    adaptive immunity and the antigens that they
    recognize.
  • To describe the cardinal features of an adaptive
    immune response, and to introduce the clonal
    selection hypothesis that provides an explanation
    for these central principles.
  • To address the language of immunologists,
    especially the meaning of the myriad of CDs and
    ILs.
  • To review whats on the menu in the Immunology
    Section of the Microbiology and Immunology
    Course.

13
Two Types of Adaptive
ImmunityHumoral immunity - Mediated
by antibodies (produced by B cells) -
Can be transferred from one individual to
another by the fluid part (humor) of
the bloodCell-mediated or cellular immunity
- Mediated by T cells (and cells of the
innate immune system) - Can be
transferred from one individual to another by
the cells of the blood
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  • OBJECTIVES
  • To introduce the basic principles of non-specific
    (innate or natural) and specific (acquired or
    adaptive) immunity.
  • To have a closer look at the components of
    adaptive immunity and the antigens that they
    recognize.
  • To describe the cardinal features of an adaptive
    immune response, and to introduce the clonal
    selection hypothesis that provides an explanation
    for these central principles.
  • To address the language of immunologists,
    especially the meaning of the myriad of CDs and
    ILs.
  • To review whats on the menu in the Immunology
    Section of the Microbiology and Immunology
    Course.

18
Cardinal Features of Adaptive Immune
Responses(1) Specificity Mediated by the
receptors expressed by B and T
lymphocytes.(2) Diversity B and T cell
receptors have great variability, due to DNA
rearrangements.(3) Memory Second exposure is
stronger than the first exposure.(4)
Self-limitation The response wanes down after
elimination of the antigen.(5) Self/non-self
discrimination The immune system is tolerant
against self.
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Phases of Adaptive Immune Responses
(1) Recognition Mediated by the specific
receptors on B and T cells. (2)
Activation Lymphocytes proliferate and
differentiate into functional effector
cells (several days). (3)
Effector Elimination of the antigen (execution).

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  • OBJECTIVES
  • To introduce the basic principles of non-specific
    (innate or natural) and specific (acquired or
    adaptive) immunity.
  • To have a closer look at the components of
    adaptive immunity and the antigens that they
    recognize.
  • To describe the cardinal features of an adaptive
    immune response, and to introduce the clonal
    selection hypothesis that provides an explanation
    for these central principles.
  • To address the language of immunologists,
    especially the meaning of the myriad of CDs and
    ILs.
  • To review whats on the menu in the Immunology
    Section of the Microbiology and Immunology
    Course.

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  • The CD Nomenclature
  • CD clusters of differentiation
  • Cell surface molecules recognized by antibodies
  • Often used as markers for specific cells or
    subsets of cells
  • of the immune system
  • Diverse functions as mediators of cell-cell
    contact, receptors for cytokines, etc.
  • Major disadvantage of this nomenclature one ends
    up
  • memorizing several different names for the same
    molecule

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  • The CD Nomenclature
  • CD clusters of differentiation
  • Cell surface molecules recognized by antibodies
  • Often used as markers for specific cells or
    subsets of cells
  • of the immune system
  • Diverse functions as mediators of cell-cell
    contact, receptors for cytokines, etc.
  • Major disadvantage of this nomenclature one ends
    up
  • memorizing several different names for the same
    molecule

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Cytokines, Interleukins,
and more cytokines protein hormones produced by
cells that affect the behavior of other
cells interleukines cytokines produced by white
blood cells lymphokines cytokines produced by
lymphocytes monokines cytokines produced by
monocytes/macrophages chemokines small
cytokines that are involved in the
activation and migration of cells interferons
cytokines that can induce cells to resist viral
replication colony stimulating factors
cytokines that regulate the synthesis of
leukocytes in the bone marrow
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  • The IL Nomenclature
  • IL interleukin cytokine produce by white
  • blood cells
  • Work by binding to a specific receptor
  • Example
  • IL-1 binds with the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)
  • Many cytokines dont have an IL name

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  • OBJECTIVES
  • To introduce the basic principles of non-specific
    (innate or natural) and specific (acquired or
    adaptive) immunity.
  • To have a closer look at the components of
    adaptive immunity and the antigens that they
    recognize.
  • To describe the cardinal features of an adaptive
    immune response, and to introduce the clonal
    selection hypothesis that provides an explanation
    for these central principles.
  • To address the language of immunologists,
    especially the meaning of the myriad of CDs and
    ILs.
  • To review whats on the menu in the Immunology
    Section of the Microbiology and Immunology
    Course.

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LECTURES -- IMMUNOLOGY SECTION --
2003 Lecture 3 The cells, tissues and
organs of the immune system. Lecture 4
The innate immune system. Lectures 5-7
Humoral immunity B cells, antibodies, antibody
diversity, and the complement
system. Lectures 8-13 Cellular immunity MHC
molecules, antigen processing, T cells and
their functions, cell/cell communication,
signaling. Lectures 14-20 Immunity in
infection and disease allergies,
transplant and tumor immunology, autoimmunity,
immunodeficiencies, immune evasion.
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