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CST Review


10.1 Development of Democracy 10.2 Documents of democracy Glorious Revolution American Revolution French Revolution Age of Napoleon Concert of Europe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CST Review

CST Review
10.1 Development of Democracy 10.2 Documents of
democracy Glorious Revolution American
Revolution French Revolution Age of
Napoleon Concert of Europe 10.3 Industrial
Revolution 10.4 Imperialism
10.5 WWI 10.6 The West Between the Wars 10.7
Totalitarian governments 10.8 WWII 10.9 The Cold
War 10.10 Post WWII Nation building
  • 10.1-10.9

Forms of Government
I didnt do it!
  • Mesopotamian/Egyptian Monarchy
  • Hammurabis Law Code
  • Social inequality
  • Rome
  • Republic (Twelve Tables)
  • Our legal system today
  • Senate
  • Empire
  • Greece
  • Athens Direct Democracy
  • Civil duty to participate in government and your
  • Equality under the law for citizens
  • Sparta Oligarchy (military)
  • Corinth Tyranny

  • Monarchy rule through bloodline (many were
    thought to be gods).
  • Direct democracy directly participate in
  • Democracy rule by the majority.
  • Republic elected representatives run the
    country. (also called an indirect democracy)
  • Oligarchy rule by the military or business
  • Tyranny took control of the government, and
    lost the support of the people.

Judeo-Christian Tradition
  • Everyone is born with worth and dignity because
    they were created by God.
  • Every person has the ability to choose between
    doing good and doing wrong (free will/individual
  • Every person has the responsibility to help
    others in need.
  • Charity, love, forgiveness
  • Written scriptures
  • Spread through the Roman Empire via roads, and
    the Jewish Diaspora

Greco-Roman Tradition
  • Citizens should participate in government.
  • The world has natural laws discovered through
    reason and not superstition.
  • Democracy can be protected through branches of
  • There should be written laws (Twelve Tables).

The Ancient Philosophers
  • Philosopher lovers of wisdom
  • Plato (no pp)
  • Wrote The Republic
  • Said a tyrant becomes troublesome when he loves
    his power so much that he takes drastic measures
    to maintain it.
  • Philosopher King
  • Aristotle
  • Wrote Politics
  • Said that tyrants rule without the will of the
  • Said a constitutional government is the best form.

How the U.S. influenced everyone else!
  • Federalism
  • National government and the states share power
  • Separation of powers
  • Three branches of government that check and
    balance each other.
  • Popular sovereignty
  • The government gets its authority from the
  • Individual rights
  • Rights guaranteed to each citizen (ex the Bill of

The Enlightenment
  • An intellectual movement that began in the 18th
    century (1700s)
  • John Locke
  • Natural rights (life, liberty, and property)
  • Government gets its authority from the people.
  • Montesquieu
  • Separation of powers into three branches of
    government Legislative, executive, and judicial
  • Voltaire
  • Freedom of speech
  • Religious toleration
  • Rousseau
  • Social contract citizens accept certain rights
    and responsibilities, and grant the government
    the power to uphold those rights and

freedom of speech
tabala rasa
separation of powers
The American Revolution and the Enlightenment
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Declaration of Independence
  • James Madison
  • U.S. Constitution
  • Ben Franklin
  • Deism
  • Thomas Paine
  • Common Sense
  • George Washington
  • American Revolution general
  • 1st president
  • Warned against political parties (factions)
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • Federalist
  • Strong federal government, weaker state

Lexington and Concord
James Madison Father of the Constitution
American Influence around the world.
  • Mexican Independence 1824 (Father Hidalgo revolt
    in 1810)
  • Simon Bolivar
  • Fought to liberate his country, Venezuela, from
    Spanish rule.
  • Led movements in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
    Panama, and Peru.
  • Influenced by the American Revolution.

Documents of Democracy
  • Magna Carta (England)
  • 1215, England
  • Limits the power of the monarch
  • Due Process of Law
  • Property and taxes
  • English Bill of Rights
  • After the Glorious Revolution
  • 1689
  • Limited the power of the Monarch.
  • American Declaration of Independence
  • 1776
  • Unalienable rights
  • Thomas Jefferson (influenced by John Locke)
  • U.S. Constitution
  • James Madison (influenced by Montesquieu)
  • French Declaration of the Rights of man and the
  • France
  • 1789
  • Life, liberty, fraternity

The French Revolution
  • Long-term causes
  • Lavish spending of the monarchy.
  • Lack of freedom and justice
  • Old Regime
  • 1st Estate Clergy
  • 2nd Estate Nobility
  • 3rd Estate Bourgeoisie, San Culottes, Peasants
  • Short term causes
  • Bad harvest
  • American Revolution
  • Marie Antoinette

Phases of the French Revolution
  • Phase I National Assembly
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • Constitution
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
  • Womens march on Versailles
  • Phase II Radical Phase
  • Rise of the San Culottes
  • Execution of the King and the Queen
  • De-Christianization
  • Reign of terror/Committee of Public Safety/
    Maximillian Robespierre

Phases II and III
  • Phase III the Directory
  • Moderate
  • Corrupt
  • Coup detat of Napoleon
  • Phase IV the Age of Napoleon
  • Continental system
  • Concordat of 1801
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Russian Winter/Scorched Earth Policy
  • Waterloo
  • St. Helena

Congress of Vienna
  • 1814-1815
  • King Frederick William III of Prussia, Czar
    Alexander I of Russia, Metternich from Austria
  • Russia, Austria, Prussia, and England
  • Balance of power
  • Restore the monarchies

Concert of Europe
  • A European alliance that met when issues arose
    also called the Holy Alliance.
  • Russia, Austria, and Prussia
  • Concert of Europe
  • Russia, Austria, Prussia, England
  • Promised to help each other stop the spread of

Revolutions of 1848
  • Uprisings for self-government
  • Nationalists in France, Austria, Germany, and
  • Shared culture and ethnicity
  • Unification of Germany in 1871 and Italy in 1872.

Toward the Unification of Germany, 1740-1871
The Industrial Revolution
  • 1750 England
  • Factors of production
  • Land, labor, capital
  • Natural resources
  • Iron, coal
  • Raw materials
  • Cotton (textile industry)
  • Population growth
  • Agricultural revolution
  • Enclosure movement
  • Political stability
  • No wars or revolutions
  • Other nations
  • Belgium, U.S, France, Japan, Russia, Austria,
    Germany, Italy

Inventions and Social Change of the Industrial
  • James Watt Steam engine
  • Eli Whitney cotton gin
  • Henry Bessemer Bessemer process (iron ore into
  • Louis Pasteur pasteurization of liquids, let to
    antibiotics (penicillin by WWII).
  • Thomas Edison electric light.
  • 1840s England is connected by railroads.
  • Travel time is significantly less
  • 1870s communication (international mail,
    telegraph, and the telephone.

Population Shifts
  • Population explosions
  • Agricultural revolution more food
  • Spread of Disease
  • Industrial pollution, terrible sanitation, cheap
    tenements, poor living conditions, polluted air
    and water, streets full of pooh!
  • Rural to urban migration
  • Labor force needed to be close to the factories
  • New market centers for new goods.
  • Banking and commercial centers.

The Evolution of Work and Labor
  • The end of the slave trade
  • Free labor (earning a wage) was the only way to
    grow an industrial society.
  • Immigration
  • Most immigrants to the United States in the 18th
    century were from France, England and Germany
  • In the 19th century most immigrants were from
    Asia, and western Europe
  • By the 20th century most immigrants were from
    South Europe, and Eastern Europe
  • Division of labor
  • Upper, middle, and lower class
  • Working class proletariat
  • The Union Movement
  • Union an organization that speaks for the
    workers is represents.
  • Collective Bargaining negotiations to resolve
    disputes between the workers and employers.
  • Strike union members refuse to work until their
    demands are met.

Responses to Capitalism
  • Capitalism an economic system that emphasizes
    profit and private ownership, the factors of
    production are privately owned.
  • United States and Western Europe
  • Utopianism people live and work together
    sharing goods and property.
  • Robert Owen
  • Socialism the factors of production are owned
    by the people, and used for the benefit of all.
  • Communism revolutionary struggle in which the
    workers take control of all the factors of
    production. The government ends up owning and
    operating all factors of production.
  • Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto
  • China, USSR, Cuba, Vietnam, N. Korea
  • Social Democracy government plays a role in
    managing production and provides certain social
  • Welfare and food stamps
  • Universal health care system
  • Social security.

The Art Stuff
  • Classicism imitated the art of ancient Greece
    and Rome
  • Enlightenment (logic and reason.
  • 18th century
  • Romanticism
  • Emotion, imagination, revolutions, nature
  • William Wordsworth Daffodils.
  • William Blake weird religious stuff about
  • Realism
  • Social Critics (industrial pollution and disease)
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Charles Dickens
  • Cubism modern art Picasso and the bombing of
  • Surrealism dream-like state
  • Dali

Imperialism European domination!
  • Nationalism more power, increase their armies,
    naval bases around the world
  • Natural Resources and raw materials, and more
  • Iron ore, coal, oil, rubber, sugar, cotton,
    feathers, silk
  • Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer)
  • Belief that the while culture is superior
  • White Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling
  • Christianity
  • Missionary impulse to spread religion to the

"White Man's Burden"
Imperialism- the policy of a powerful nation
dominating the politics, economy, and society of
another nation.
Locations of colonial rule
  • England and France colonized most of Africa
  • England had the largest empire
  • India, Australia, Burma, South Africa
  • United States
  • Spanish American War 1898
  • Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
  • Berlin Conference
  • Partition or division of Africa

Responses to Colonial Rule
  • Forms of resistance
  • Conflict against their invaders, or rulers.
  • Boxer Rebellion
  • Opium Wars
  • Guerrilla warfare
  • Kenya
  • Labor union, strikes, boycotts
  • Ghana
  • Non-violent (civil disobedience)
  • India

Boxer Rebellion
Struggles for Independence
  • South America
  • Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin used
    military force to drive out the Spanish.
  • China
  • Sun-Yat Sen and the Three Principals of the
  • Freedom from imperialism
  • A government based on a constitution by the
  • Healthy economy
  • Became the first president of the Republic of
    China in 1911 after the fall of the Qing Dynasty
  • India
  • Gandhi
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Independence from Great Britain in 1947
  • Haiti
  • Toussaint LOuverture
  • Slave revolt led to independence from France in

WWI Causes
  • Nationalism
  • More power
  • Imperialism
  • New markets, natural resources and raw materials
  • Germany is late to imperialize
  • Militarism
  • Arms race, growing military strength in
    preparation, industrial revolution, and the
    glorification of war.
  • Alliance System
  • Triple Alliance (central powers)
  • Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy
  • Triple Entente (Allies)
  • Russia, England and France
  • Powder Keg
  • Balkan Peninsula (Serbia)
  • Bosnia Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated
    by the Black Hand in 1914 started WWI.

WWI A War on Two Fronts
  • The Western Front
  • Schlieffen Plan
  • Stalemate and Trench Warfare
  • No mans land
  • Battle of the Marne
  • Battle of Verdun
  • War of attrition
  • Battle of the Somme
  • The Eastern Front
  • Tannenberg
  • The Mediterranean
  • Gallipoli
  • Access to Russia through the Dardanelles.

WWI and the U.S.
  • Isolationism (U.S. foreign policy)
  • No alliances
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Lusitania
  • Propaganda
  • German atrocities
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • Mexico? Really?
  • Russian Revolution (1917)
  • Lenin, the Bolsheviks and the Treaty of

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk pulled Russia out of
WWI - that is always the answer!
Costs of WWI
  • A War to End All Wars?
  • Military casualties high Germany
  • Poison gas, tanks, machine guns, airplane bombs,
    grenades, submarines.
  • Total war mobilization of all resources.
  • Influenza killed 30 million people in 1918
  • Colonial troops fought to gain their independence
  • Russian Revolution continued to kill people until
  • Armenian Genocide
  • Turkey

Treaty of Versailles
  • At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Georges Clemenceau
  • David Lloyd George
  • Vittorio Orlando
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • War Guilt Clause
  • 33 billion in reparations
  • Loss of colonies
  • Demilitarization of the Rhineland
  • 100,000 army
  • Map changes
  • Creation of Poland and Czechoslovakia
  • Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
  • Break up of the Austria-Hungarian Empire
  • Yugoslavia
  • Wilsons 14 Points
  • Self-Determination
  • League of Nations

Postwar Disillusionment
  • Reparations led to inflation of the Deutschmark
  • Dawes Plan
  • Stock market Crash
  • Great Depression
  • Political instability leads to the rise of
  • Promises order and stability in a time of chaos
  • Mussolini in Italy
  • Hitler in Germany
  • Lost Generation writers
  • Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Stein
  • Hopelessness and meaninglessness

Russian Revolution
Ideology - classless society!
  • Causes
  • Autocracy of the Czars
  • Duma
  • Nicholas II
  • Russo-Japanese War
  • Bloody Sunday
  • Rasputin
  • March Revolution
  • Poor working conditions
  • Lenin and the Bolsheviks
  • The Red Army defeats the White Army and ends the
    Civil War
  • NEP
  • Communism and the Gulags
  • USSR 1922
  • Rise of Stalin

Bolshevik means majority! (remember the majority
of men are full of what?)
Totalitarian Governments
  • In common
  • Dictator
  • One party rule
  • Ideology
  • Secret police
  • Propaganda
  • Censorship
  • State control of the economy
  • State control of everyday life
  • Stalin
  • Cheka, gulags, communist (classless society)
    command economy.
  • Italy
  • Black shirts, squadristi, or Ovra, corporate
    economy, fascist (emphasis on the state, not the
  • Germany
  • SA, Gestapo, SS, NAZI ideology (racism,
    Lebensraum, foreign aggression, and nationalism

Hitler and the Holocaust
  • Nuremberg Laws (1935)
  • Deprived Jews of their citizenship
  • Kristallnacht
  • Attack on Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues
  • Deportation
  • Labor camps and concentration camps
  • Final Solution
  • Heydrich and Himmler
  • Death Squads

Wannsee Conference
Drive for Empire
  • Germany
  • Lebensraum and the Unification of German People
  • Anschluss (1938)
  • Sudetenland (1938)
  • Munich Conference (1930
  • Neville Chamberlain
  • Appeasement Peace for our time
  • Poland (1939) begins WWII on September 1st,
    declaration on the 3rd.
  • Italy
  • Ethiopia (1935)
  • Haille Sellassies warning.
  • Albania
  • Japan
  • Manchuria 1931
  • Invasion of China 1937
  • Rape of Nanjing
  • Asia for the Asiatics and the Greater East Asia
    co-Prosperity Sphere
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7th 1941
  • FDR A Day Which Will Live In Infamy

Rape of Nanjing 1937
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