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Colonial America

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Title: Colonial America


1
Colonial America
  • European Settlement
  • SSUSH 1

2
Pre-Historic Settlement
  • First inhabitants of North America migrated from
    Asia, probably across a land bridge between
    Siberia and Alaska during the last Ice Age
  • These societies developed some even established
    sophisticated civilizations some were nomadic
    hunter gatherers

3
Bering Strait Land Bridge
4
First Europeans Arrive
  • 15th and 16th Centuries saw Europeans
    establishing colonies.
  • Colonies territories established by the
    government in a foreign land.
  • The three countries that had the most impact were
    Spain, France, and Great Britain.

5
Spain New World Empire
  • The Spanish were the first to arrive and
    establish strong colonies.
  • They dominated much of South America, modern-day
    Mexico, and what eventually becomes the U.S.
    Southwest, Florida, and parts of Georgia.

6
France Goes Hunting!
  • France took advantage of the inland waterways and
    rivers to control parts of the interior.
  • France focused on the fur trading business
    through trapping themselves and trading with the
    Native Americans.
  • Native Americans and French Trappers came to rely
    on one another for commerce

7
Quebec
  • Frances first successful colony in North America
    established in 1608.
  • The colony rested high on the banks of the St.
    Lawrence River excellent location for carrying
    out fur trading and establishing more colonies.
  • Good Military position

8
Jamestown, Virginia
  • First successful British Colony in North America
    founded in 1607
  • A joint-stock company, the Virginia Company
    sponsored the colony to make money off raw
    materials and products.
  • New settlers came to get rich and obtain land.

9
Jamestown, Virginia
  • Colonists were not use to manual labor that was
    needed to build a colony.
  • Most wanted to search for gold to get rich quick,
    instead of raising crops to support colony.
  • Jamestown was built in a swampy area prone to
    infectious diseases, not good for agriculture.
  • Many died from sickness, starvation, and cold
    winters.

10
Jamestown, Virginia
  • John Rolfe saved the colony by introducing a new
    crop tobacco!
  • England was not happy about the crop because of
    its association with corrupt behavior
  • Crop proved to be very profitable for growers
  • To attract more settlers, Virginia instituted the
    headright system.
  • This promised 50 acres of land to those who
    settled in the colony.

11
Virginians and Native Americans
  • Most Native Americans lived under a tribal
    confederation (loose alliance) led by Chief
    Powhatan.
  • Hostility broke out when 200 Natives attacked the
    settlement colonists repelled the attack and
    negotiated a peace.
  • Powhatan kept a close eye on settlers, hoping to
    establish trade with them, but weary of their
    true intentions.

12
Virginians and Native Americans
  • The colony would not have survived its first
    winter had Natives not given them food.
  • Relations were tense Native Americans attacked
    Jamestown in 1622 killing 300 colonists
    Colonist responded by killing as many Natives in
    their own attack.
  • 1644 Indian leader, Opechancanough, attacked
    but he was killed colonists were now in firm
    control of the colony.

13
Virginias Social Structure
  • Most colonial Americans accepted class
    distinctions.
  • Wealthy landowners exercised most of the power in
    each colony.
  • In Virginia, society eventually became divided
    between large landowners, poor farmers,
    indentured servants and slaves.

14
Indentured Servants
  • People who could not afford to come to North
    America on their own.
  • They agreed to work for a landowner for up to
    seven years in exchange for the landowner paying
    for their trip.
  • Once the indentured servants served their seven
    years, they became small landowners.

15
Virginias Social Structure
  • As the population of small landowners increased,
    settlement pushed farther west.
  • Poor farmers in western Virginia experienced
    conflicts with the Natives
  • They became impatient with the Governor in
    Jamestown, who favored the rich and did not do
    enough to protect western Virginians.

16
Bacons Rebellion
  • In 1676, this tension led to an armed conflict
    known as Bacons Rebellion.
  • Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia Planter and wealth
    aristocrat, rallied forces to fight Native
    Americans on the Virginia frontier.
  • The Governor condemned his actions, so Bacon
    turned his forces on Jamestown.
  • The governor was forced to flee and Bacons men
    burned Jamestown to the ground.

17
Bacons Rebellion
  • Bacon suddenly died ending his rebellion
  • Uprising showed that colonists expected a
    government that served everyone.
  • Wealthy realized the discontent among the poor
    farmers planters turned away from indentured
    servants as labor.
  • Planters turned to another source of labor
    slavery!

18
Slavery in Virginia
  • Slavery is a system in which people are owed as
    property.
  • It became essential to the colonys economy as
    indentured servitude decreased.
  • First African slaves arrived in Jamestown in
    1619.
  • Originally came as indentured servants with the
    same rights as white indentured servants.

19
Slavery in Virginia
  • The institution of slavery helped to establish
    the plantation system in Virginia and throughout
    the southern colonies.
  • Plantations were huge farms owned by wealthy
    landowners who raised cash crops
  • Cash crops are crops grown for trade or profit.
  • By the late 1600s, slavery was firmly rooted in
    the southern colonies.

20
Virginias Government
  • Due to the colonies great distance from England,
    the British adopted a policy known as salutary
    neglect.
  • Except for limited efforts by the crown to assert
    its control in the mid-1600s, the English
    government let the colonists govern themselves.

21
Virginias Government
  • The colonies established representative
    governments (governments in which the people
    elected their own officials and had a voice.)
  • Colonial governors appointed by the crown were in
    charge, colonial legislatures consisting of local
    residents came to possess most of the power.

22
House of Burgesses
  • 1619, Virginians elected the first legislative
    body.
  • Members were selected directly by the people and
    along with the governor comprised Virginias
    government.
  • Upper class generally served in the government.
  • It helped to lay a foundation for the ideas about
    representative government that would develop in
    other colonies.

23
The Colonies
  • Some colonies were established as royal colonies,
    governed by the King through an appointed royal
    governor.
  • Some colonies were proprietary or charter
    colonies
  • Proprietary colonies were granted to a group of
    private owners for development -Pennsylvania
  • Charter colonies were granted a charter by the
    King for the purpose of establishing a
    government. - Georgia

24
Southern Colonies
  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

25
Southern Colonial Society
  • Southerners generally accepted class distinctions
    and the idea that the wealthy, upper class (known
    as the gentry) is superior to the lower, poorer
    class
  • Public education did not exists in the Southern
    Colonies poor were educated at home wealthy
    educated at home with private tutors or sent off
    to school in Europe.

26
Southern Colonial Society
  • Great Britain established the southern colonies
    for economic reasons rather that religious.
  • Maryland was started as a refuge for Catholics.
  • The Gentry remained a part of the Church of
    England because it was in their economic and
    political interest
  • Methodist and Baptist over time became common
    among the poorer southerners.

27
Southern Colonial Economy
  • Tobacco became very popular in Europe and became
    an important cash crop for Virginia, North
    Carolina, and Maryland.
  • South Carolina and Georgia made rice and indigo
    important cash crops.
  • Southern colonies also produced tar, pitch, and
    turpentine from the abundant pine forest.

28
Southern Colonial Economy
  • The Souths reliance on staple crops (crops that
    are in large demand and provide an income) gave
    rise to the plantation system and a reliance on
    slavery.
  • Plantation owners often had direct access to
    shipping, so large cities did not develop across
    the South.

29
New England Colonies
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut

30
New England Colonies
  • In addition to wealth, there were other reasons
    people came to North America.
  • Religious dissent (disagreement with the Church
    of England) was one of the most common.
  • English leaders viewed any protest of refusal to
    follow Anglican church leaders as a betrayal.
  • Those with different views saw North America as a
    place to escape religious persecution.

31
Puritans
  • Puritans wanted to build a community built solely
    on pure Biblical teaching rather than Anglican
    traditions.
  • 1620, Puritans established the Plymouth,
    Massachusetts Colony.
  • These Puritans became known as the Pilgrims and
    celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621
  • Another group settled further north and
    established the Massachusetts Bay Colony

32
New England Colonial Economy
  • NE Colonies relied heavily on the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Shipbuilding, trade, and fishing became leading
    industries in the region.
  • New Englanders traded English Goods for West
    Indian products, slaves, etc.
  • Boston, Massachusetts became a booming urban
    center for shipping and commerce.
  • Farming in New England was for self-sufficiency

33
New England Education
  • Puritans believed that everyone should be able to
    read the Bible
  • They were the first to promote public education.
  • 1647, Massachusetts required all towns with 50
    families to have a public school.
  • Grammar schools were required to prepare young
    men for College
  • Women were trained in womanly duties at home.
  • Harvard (1636) and Yale (1701) were founded to
    train ministers.

34
New England Government
  • The First Efforts at self-government were defined
    in the Mayflower Compact.(1620)
  • It established an elected legislature and
    asserted that the government derived its power
    from the people of the colony.
  • It also implied that the colonists desire to be
    ruled by a local government, rather than England.

35
Town Meetings
  • The belief in representative government often
    took the form of town meetings.
  • Local, tax-paying citizens, (usually property
    owners) met together to discuss and vote on
    issues.
  • Despite advocating representative government, The
    Puritans still believed that government should
    seek to enforce the will of God.
  • Power tended to rest in the hands of church
    leaders often very authoritative.

36
Religion and Dissent
  • The Puritan Church was a central part of life in
    New England.
  • Every settler in Massachusetts had to attend and
    support the Puritan Church.
  • Dissenters were often banished from the colony.

37
Roger Williams
  • Disagreed with Puritan Church leaders
  • Proponent of separation of Church and State that
    every individual should be free to follow his own
    convictions in religious matters
  • Founded Rhode Island Colony
  • Advocating fair treatment of Indians.
  • Founded the first Baptist Church

38
Anne Hutchinson
  • Disagreed with Puritan leaders felt that women
    could discern the will of God.
  • Banished from colony for teaching a Bible study
    to men and women.
  • Resettled in Rhode Island and New York.
  • She and her family were killed by Native
    Americans.

39
Thomas Hooker
  • Hooker maintained that any adult male who owned
    property should be able to vote and participate
    in civil government, regardless of church
    membership.
  • Left Massachusetts to found the new English
    settlement at Hartford, Connecticut.
  • He is also remembered for his role in creating
    the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut". This
    document is one of the modern world's first
    written constitutions and an influence upon the
    current American Constitution.

40
Religion and Dissent
  • Unrest in Massachusetts took its toll.
  • The colony lost its charter in 1684
  • Massachusetts was made a Royal Colony in 1691
    established a representative legislature
  • Abolished the requirement that every member must
    be a member of the Church.

41
The Half-Way Covenant
  • Original settlers in New England shared deep
    religious convictions as new generations took
    their place, leaders feared their offspring would
    not share the same conversion experiences.
    (coming to faith in Jesus Christ)
  • This was necessary to obtain Puritan Church
    membership.

42
The Half-Way Covenant
  • This threatened the very core of New England
    Society.
  • To fix the problem, the church adopted the
    Half-way covenant.
  • It established partial membership for children of
    full members regardless of conversion experience.
  • So long as they were baptized, they were
    considered church members but without voting
    privileges.
  • Church leaders hoped that younger Puritans would
    reject the non-religious world in favor of
    Puritan teachings

43
Salem Witch Trials
  • 1692, the commitment to Puritan faith resulted in
    a dark episode in American history the Salem
    Witch Trials.
  • Claiming to have been possessed by the devil,
    several young girls accused townspeople of being
    witches.
  • 14 Women 5 men were hanged one was crushed to
    death for refusing to plead others died in
    prison.

44
New Englanders and Native Americans
  • Relations were peaceful at first Natives taught
    the Pilgrims how to grow corn that helped them
    survive the harsh winters.
  • A series of wars broke out that pushed the
    Natives off lands they had lived on for
    generations.
  • 1675, King Phillip ( Native American name was
    Metacom) united the tribes to fight the settlers.

45
King Phillips War
  • Despite killing nearly 2,000 settlers, Metacoms
    forces retreated when the settlers fought back.
  • Colonial soldiers killed Metacom in a Rhode
    Island cave.
  • The confrontation became known as King Phillips
    War and resulted in the English gaining firmer
    control over New England.

46
Middle Colonies
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware

47
Middle Colonies
  • Located between New England and the Southern
    Colonies.
  • The middle colonies were more culturally diverse
    because of their location, the degree of
    religious tolerance, and the fact that other
    countries (Sweden, Dutch) had originally settled
    them before England.

48
Mid-Colonial Economy
  • Middle Colonies depended on both farming and
    commerce.
  • Farmers raised staple crops like wheat, barley,
    and rye.
  • Large cities like Philadelphia and New York were
    home to a diverse group of people.
  • Slaves were not as numerous
  • Good waterways gave access to wooded interior,
    fur trading, and an economic relationship with
    the Iroquois Indians.

49
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
  • William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a homeland
    for the Quakers.
  • Quakers did not recognize class differences,
    promoted equality of the sexes, practiced
    pacifism (non-violence) and sought to deal fairly
    with Native Americans.
  • Pennsylvania was a place of religious tolerance
    attracting many different denominations.

50
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
  • New York was originally a Dutch colony, so its
    residents spoke other languages.
  • Jews, as well as, Christians made New York home
    the colonies first synagogue was located there.
  • Urban areas continued to grow and develop and
    Philadelphia became the largest city in the
    colonies.

51
Middle Colonies Social Order
  • Merchants who dealt in foreign trade formed the
    Upper class aristocracy
  • Sailors, unskilled workers, and some artisans
    comprised the lower class.
  • The middle class consisted of craftsmen,
    retailers, and businessmen.

52
New Amsterdam to New York
  • The area we know as New York was originally
    settled by the Dutch, which they named New
    Netherland.
  • 1625, they established a trading post at the
    mouth of the Hudson River New Amsterdam
  • They traded furs, local goods, and agricultural
    products with Europe and the other colonies.
  • New Amsterdam became a key port.

53
New Amsterdam to New York
  • England took notice of the colonys prosperity
    King Charles declared the region under the rule
    of his brother, the Duke of York.
  • New Amsterdam surrendered and was immediately
    renamed New York in 1664
  • The entire colony quickly came under the control
    of the British.

54
Colonial Culture
  • SSUSH 2

55
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • The Atlantic Slave trade involved shipping slaves
    from Africa to the Americas.
  • This trade grew from the fifteenth century to the
    nineteenth century ending in the 1808
  • The slave trade existed in Africa before
    Europeans arrived.

56
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • American colonization and the plantation system
    made the slave trade very profitable for European
    and African slave traders.
  • Slave ships carried millions of African slaves to
    the Americas.
  • By the 1700s, black slaves outnumbered white
    settlers in Latin America and in South Carolina

57
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • These slaves arrived by way of the Middle Passage
  • Middle Passage was the route taken by ships
    carrying slaves from Africa to North America.
  • It was called the Middle Passage because it was
    the middle leg of the triangular trade route

58
Middle Passage
  • Africans were forced to live in cramped quarters
    aboard slave ships and suffered inhumane
    treatment
  • Due mostly to poor sanitation and disease, many
    of them died before reaching America.

59
Colonial African American Culture
  • Slaves came from many different cultures within
    Africa.
  • Slave populations on any particular plantation
    usually consisted of Africans from a variety of
    backgrounds different languages, different
    religions,
  • Africans developed a tight knit community over
    time quickly adopted the English language
    adopted Christianity to their African beliefs.

60
Colonial African Culture
  • Southern slaves worked on farms harvesting crops
    and processing agricultural products
  • Northern slaves worked as artisans (barrel
    makers, blacksmiths, carpenters) and household
    servants.
  • Some worked for wages and bought their freedom.
  • Slaves in the British colonies became less mobile
    and their treatment more harsh.
  • Southern slaves suffered as the economy came to
    rely on the institution of slavery for their
    profits.
  • Some free blacks became slave owners themselves,
    but blacks saw the few rights they had decline
    over time.

61
Individualism and Social Mobility
  • Social Mobility ( the ability to move from one
    social class to another) was limited in Europe
  • If you were born into the Upper class, you had
    opportunities that the lower class did not have.
  • Owning land gave you access to better education,
    wealth, political office, serving in the
    military, etc.
  • Members of the lower class had little chance of
    advancing.

62
Individualism and Social Mobility
  • In the colonies, it was different.
  • Those who came as indentured servants, eventually
    became land owners and obtained the right to
    vote.
  • Lower class people who came found that if they
    worked hard that they could advance their
    economic status.

63
Individualism and Social Mobility
  • A belief in the ability of each individual to
    achieve success if they apply themselves and work
    hard is called individualism.
  • This led to the idea of universal suffrage and
    democracy.
  • Universal suffrage all white males were allowed
    to vote not just landowners.
  • Democracy- people electing whomever they wish to
    serve in public office rather than just the
    ruling class.

64
Benjamin Franklin
  • He was an inventor, scientist, writer,
    ambassador, and founding father of the United
    States.
  • He is also an example of individualism.
  • He was not born into the upper class.
  • His father made candles and soap for a living and
    his mother was a daughter of a former indentured
    servant.

65
Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin quit school at the age of 10 and became
    an apprentice to his brother who was a printer
    and eventually made his way to England.
  • 1726, he returned to Philadelphia and opened his
    own print shop.
  • He was an autodidact, a self taught person.

66
Benjamin Franklin
  • Because of his wit and ability to communicate his
    ideas and opinions, Franklin made a fortune as a
    writer, scientist and inventor.
  • He also created the first fire department
  • He used his natural abilities to climb the social
    ladder of the colonies.
  • The example of Franklin established the idea that
    success was open to all and still is today!

67
Religious Expression
  • Many Europeans fled to North America in search of
    religious freedom.
  • This did not mean that they were prepared to
    offer such freedom to those who believed
    different from them.
  • Religious expression became more diverse over
    time but remained predominantly Christian and
    Protestant.

68
Religious Expression
  • In the 1730s, the colonies experienced what was
    known as the First Great Awakening.
  • The Awakening was a religious movement that
    featured passionate preaching from evangelists
    like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield
  • It encouraged people to seek a sincere
    relationship with Jesus Christ instead of a
    religion

Edwards
Whitfield
69
Great Awakening
  • It encouraged colonists to think for themselves
    on religious matters.
  • Helped to ensure that principles like freedom of
    religion and separation of church and state (the
    government not imposing a particular religion on
    its citizens, but allowing citizens to practice
    their own faith) became valued colonial
    principles.

70
Why did nations establish colonies?
  • Mercantilism theory that countries grow
    wealthier and maintain their national security by
    consistently exporting more than they import.
  • To do this nations needed colonies for additional
    resources and markets
  • American colonists began a profitable
    trans-Atlantic trade

71
Trans-Atlantic Trade
  • Colonies shipped their products and raw materials
    to England and the West Indies.
  • England passed the Navigation Acts which required
    the colonies to sell certain goods only to
    England.
  • Colonists could make more money by selling
    directly to other countries, so they broke the
    law and did just that.
  • Strict enforcement of the Navigation Act
    contributed to the call for revolution.

72
Road to Revolution
73
French and Indian War
  • Known as the Seven Years War in Europe
  • British colonists began to move west and found
    themselves fighting French settlers and the
    Native Americans.
  • In 1754, tensions resulted in the French and
    Indian War Britain fighting against the French
    and the Native American allies.

74
French and Indian War
  • After nine years of fighting, France, Great
    Britain, and Spain ( a French ally) signed the
    Treaty of Paris in 1763
  • France gave up its claim to Canada, as well as,
    all lands east of the Mississippi River.
  • Spain ceded Florida to the British.
  • Great Britain was now the only colonial power in
    North America.

75
Tensions Rise
  • After the French and Indian War, relations
    between England and its colonies deteriorated .
  • Great Britain was heavily in debt after the war
    and felt that the colonies should help pay for
    the expenses.
  • Great Britain now possessed vast new territory
    and felt that it needed a way to control them.
  • GB made some steps that angered the colonists.

76
Proclamation of 1763
  • Forbade colonists from settling west of the
    Appalachian Mountains.
  • Put the territory under British Military control.
  • Also was an attempt to ensure peace with the
    Native Americans.
  • Colonists resented the restrictions and most
    ignored it.

King George III
77
Stamp Act
  • British government taxed nearly all printed
    materials by requiring a government stamp.
  • Colonists met in what came to be called the Stamp
    Act Congress they declared No Taxation without
    representation
  • Colonists responded with a boycott of British
    goods refused to buy products of English
    businesses.

78
Sons Daughters of Liberty
  • Group formed to support and enforce the boycott.
  • Sons often used violence to intimidate any
    merchant or royal official who might use the
    stamps.
  • Daughters used their skills to weave fabric
    called homespun that were usually imported
    from Great Britain.

79
Stamp Act
  • Georgia was the only colony to issue any of the
    stamps, prompting angry South Carolinians to
    threaten an invasion of Savannah.
  • The boycott and other protest led England to
    repel (cancel) the law.

80
Declaratory Act
  • On the same day that they repelled the Stamp Act,
    parliament passed the Declaratory Act.
  • This act stated that Parliament had the authority
    to impose laws on the colonies.
  • In effect, England was saying that it expected
    them to comply with British law whether they felt
    represented or not.

81
Committees of Correspondence
  • Thomas Jefferson proposed that the colonies form
    groups dedicated to organizing resistance to
    British laws.
  • These groups made sure that colonists remained
    discontent with British rule.

82
Boston Tea Party
  • British laws had given an unfair advantage to the
    British East India company in the selling of tea
    (favorite drink of colonists)
  • December 1773, Massachusetts committee of
    correspondence led a group of radicals dressed as
    Mohawk Indians- marched to Boston Harbor- raided
    ships and dumped crates of tea into the harbor.

83
Coercive Acts
  • Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the
    colony of Massachusetts.
  • Closed Boston Harbor placed a military governor
    over Massachusetts expanded the Canadian border
  • Because of the severity of the act the colonists
    called it the Intolerable Acts

84
The Revolution Begins
  • To deal with the crisis, representatives from all
    colonies except Georgia gathered for the First
    Continental Congress in 1774.
  • It sent a letter to King George III saying that
    the colonists had a right to be represented in
    Parliament, since they were not that they had a
    right to govern themselves.

85
Lexington and Concord
  • April 1775, British troops were on their way to
    seize arms and ammunition stored by colonists in
    Concorde, Massachusetts.
  • Colonial Militia, known as the Minute Men, met
    the Redcoats (Regulars) in Lexington
  • Someone fired the shot heard round the world
    that started the American Revolution.
  • One month later, the colonists met in the Second
    Continental Congress to discuss the situation.

86
Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • January 1776, Paine publishes his famous
    pamphlet, Common Sense.
  • In it, he made a compelling case for independence
    that won many to the cause.
  • Due to his influence and that of others, the
    Second Continental Congress stopped seeking
    resolution with England and chose to declare
    independence.
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