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Communication

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Effective communication Occurs when the intended meanings of the sender and the perceived meaning of the receiver are the same. Efficient communication Occurs at ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Communication


1
Communication
2
  • Effective communication
  • Occurs when the intended meanings of the sender
    and the perceived meaning of the receiver are the
    same.
  • Efficient communication
  • Occurs at minimum costs in terms of resources
    expended time is an important resources in the
    communication process.

3
A understanding communication process
sending
Transmission
Decoding
Encoding
Receiver/ Responder
Noise
Source
Decoding
Encoding
Transmission
  • Feedback loop (verification)
  • Figure 1 The communication process

4
The communication process
  • Source
  • The individual
  • The group
  • Organizational etc.
  • Encoding
  • The process by which the message is translated
    from an idea or thought into transmittable
    symbols
  • Transmission
  • Is the process through which the symbols that
    represent the message are sent to the receiver

5
  • Medium
  • Is the channel or path through which the message
    is transmitted
  • Decoding
  • Is the process by which the receiver of the
    message interprets the messages meaning
  • Receiver
  • The individual, group, or organization that
    perceives the encoded symbols and may or not
    decode them and try to understand the intended
    message.

6
  • Feedback
  • Is the process by which the receiver returns a
    message to that sender that indicates receipt of
    the message.
  • Noise
  • Any disturbances in the communication process
    that interferes with or distorts communication
  • Channel noise
  • A disturbance in communication that is due
    primarily to the medium

7
Communication problems
Root of the problem Type of problem
Source Filtering
Encoding Decoding Lack of common experience
Encoding Decoding Semantics jargon
Encoding Decoding Medium problems
Receiver Selective attention
Receiver Value judgment
Receiver Lack of source credibility
Receiver Over load
Feedback Omission
Organizational factors Noise
Organizational factors Status differences
Organizational factors Time pressures
Organizational factors Overload
Organizational factors Communication structure
8
Improving communication process in teaching
learning
  • Focus Message
  • Question What idea or thought are you
    trying to get across?
  • Corrective action Give more information
  • Give less information
  • Give entire message

SENDER
9
RECEIVER
  • Focus Message
  • Question What idea or thought does the
    sender want you to understand?
  • Corrective action listen carefully to the
    entire message, not just to part of it.

10
  • Focus Symbols
  • Question Does my student use the same
    symbols, word, jargon.
  • Corrective action
  • Say it another way
  • Employ repetition
  • Use students language
  • Before sending, clarify symbols to be used

SENDER
11
  • Focus Symbols
  • Question What symbols are being using.
  • For example foreign language, technical
    jargon etc?
  • Corrective action
  • Clarify symbols before communication begins.
  • Ask questions.
  • Ask sender to repeat message.

RECEIVER
12
  • Focus Medium
  • Question Is this a channel that the
    receiver monitors regularly? Sometime?
    Never?.
  • Corrective action
  • Use multiple media, change medium increase
    volume (loudness)

SENDER
13
  • Focus Medium
  • Question What medium or media is the sender
    using
  • Corrective action
  • Monitor several media

RECEIVER
14
  • Focus Feedback
  • Question What is the receivers action to
    your message?
  • Corrective action
  • Pay attention to the feedback, especially non
    verbal question. Ask question.

SENDER
15
  • Focus Feedback
  • Question Did you correctly interpret the
    message.
  • Corrective action
  • Repeat message

RECEIVER
16
Barriers to effective communication process in
teaching learning
  • Four major elements that can limit the
    development of effective communication skills
  • People
  • Language
  • Non-verbal behaviour
  • Listening behaviour

17
People Perceptions
  • Perception defined as a way we take in
    information. Each person gathers information
    differently, problems arise in the way each
    individual perceptive things and other people.
  • Misunderstandings occur Bec. People differences
    in their references.
  • References include
  • Past experience
  • Present future expectations
  • Current motivational state
  • Knowledge
  • Socio cultural background

18
Effects
  • Stereotype
  • Example Woman or female student are emotional.
  • Denial
  • We try to protect ourselves from people,
    situations and ideas that threaten our security.
  • Halo effect
  • The perception of certain characteristics or
    traits of an individual influencing the way
    people see other characteristics of that person.
    This effect can be positive or negative.
  • Projection
  • Occurs when people project their own feelings,
    motives desires into their perception of others

19
Corrective action
  1. Self concept
  2. Self discovery
  3. Self disclosure
  4. Self fulfilling prophecy
  5. Language barrier
  6. Alertness
  7. By passing
  8. Incompletes
  9. Levels of abstraction

20
  • Non verbal communication
  • Nonverbal messages are stronger than verbal ones.
  • Nonverbal messages clarify verbal messages and
    they are sent more frequently
  • 3 major divisions of nonverbal communication
  • Environmental communication corporate image,
    time, building design, room layout.
  • Social communication personal space, status,
    symbols
  • Physical communication gesture, facial
    expressions, eyes, voice, clothing, touch
  • Effective managers are sensitive to what their
    peers, subordinates and supervisors are
    non-verbally conveying.

21
  • Listening behaviour
  • 5 stage of listening process receiving,
    understanding, remembering, evaluating, and
    responding.
  • Most people are poop listeners because perception
    and semantic problems interfere with their
    accurate hearing of what another person says.
  • Listening skills can be improved by the proper
    construction of mental outlines
  • Creating an interest in the topic.
  • Constructing a mental outline.
  • Continually reviewing the mental outline.
  • Using key words in the mental outline.
  • Judging between important and unimportant
    information.
  • Tackling distractions head on.

22
Messages
barriers
Student
Lecturer
Develop ideas
Action
Encode
Transmits
Receiver
Decodes
Feedback
Two way communication
  • Figure 2 Communication process

23
So listening demands a great deal of
concentration and effort.
  • Guideline for effective lists
  • Stop talking.
  • Put the talker at ease.
  • Show the talker you want to listen.
  • Remove distraction.
  • Empathize with the talker.
  • Be patient.
  • Hold your temper.
  • Go easy on argument and criticism.
  • Ask question.
  • Stop talking.

24
Successful communication require effective
listening (both).
  • Receiver Must listen to receive and understand
    the senders message.
  • Sender Must listen to receive and understand the
    receivers feedback.
  • Often listening is the weak link in the chain
    of 2 way communication.
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