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Effective Communication


Effective Communication Module 6 Session 3 Activity - Folding paper We are going to start with a quick game. Four volunteers stand up in front of the class (if the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Communication

Effective Communication
  • Module 6 Session 3

Activity - Folding paper
  • We are going to start with a quick game.
  • Four volunteers stand up in front of the class
    (if the whole class wishes to participate that is
    fine too).
  • Each one gets a pieces of blank paper.
  • Volunteers must eyes close their eyes and keep
    them closed.
  • And they are not allowed to ask questions.
  • Once all volunteers are ready and their eyes are
    closed skip to the next slide.

  • Ask volunteers to fold their paper in half and to
    tear off the bottom right hand corner.
  • Tell them to fold the paper in half again and to
    tear off the upper right hand corner.
  • Tell them to fold the paper again and tear off
    the lower left hand corner.
  • This must all be done with closed eyes. The
    director should say the instructions slowly
    enough for them to follow but without responding
    to any questions they might ask.

Display and discuss
  • Finally ask them to open their eyes and show
    their unfolded paper to each other and the
  • Discussion
  • What words in the instructions could have been
    interpreted in different ways?
  • How could direction have been clearer?

Learning objectives
  • Communicate effectively in one-to-one and
    one-to-many discussions
  • Notice when communication is at risk of breaking
    down and help towards avoiding it
  • Provide constructive feedback without being

  • Communication is the transfer and receipt of
    information from one person to another (or from
    one point to another).
  • It is always between at least two people sender
    and receiver and the roles will change
  • But the message must be understood for
    communication to be considered complete.

The Communication Process
  • Understanding occurs only in the mind of the
  • They are responsible for completing the
    communication process.

Key Communication Elements
  • The Method
  • Verbal
  • Non-verbal
  • Written
  • Electronic
  • The Situation
  • Distance
  • Speed
  • Attitude
  • Different cultures
  • The Receiver
  • Could be known or unknown
  • Sender must imagine being the receiver
  • Nature of Content
  • Must be clear and understandable
  • Unacceptable content should be avoided

Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Personal
  • Attitude of both the sender and the receiver
  • Misuse of body language
  • Pre-judgement
  • The I have heard it all before syndrome
  • Emotional Reactions
  • Mental closure
  • Mis-communication (intentional or unintentional)
  • These the ones most easily overcome.
    Communicators can influence them.

Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Situational
  • Improper timing
  • Noise and distractions in the environment
  • Pressure of Time or other Resources
  • Unfamiliar language
  • Knowledge Level
  • More difficult to control.
  • Careful forward planning and thoughtful
    consideration can help.

Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Social
  • Differences between people
  • Relationship between the sender and the receiver
  • Necessary formalities can help.

Barriers that hinder effective communication
  • Filtering sender manipulates information so
    that it will be seen more favourably by the
  • Selective Perception receiver selectively sees
    and hears based on his/her needs, motivations,
    experiences, background and other personal

Barriers that hinder effective communication
  • Defensiveness when individuals interpret
    anothers message as threatening, they often
    respond in ways that retard effective
  • Language even within a language words can mean
    different things to different people.

Effective communication
  • Need to look out for barriers and ways to
    overcome them.
  • catch and put right early,
  • if not can lead to one or more people feeling
    alienated and thus a failure to communicate.
  • When using electronic methods of communication
    use careful, thoughtful planning.

Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
  • Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating
  • Examine the true purpose of communication
  • Consider the total physical and human setting
  • Consult with others in planning communication
  • Be mindful of the overtones as well as the basic
    content of your message

Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
  • Take the opportunity to convey something of help
    or value to the receiver
  • Follow-up your communication
  • Be sure your actions support your communication
  • Seek not only to be understood but to understand
    be a good listener

Activity (practical)
  • Now refer to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 2.
  • This is a short role play exercise.
  • Participants should be in groups of 2 or 3.

Introduction to inclusive language
  • Language is important in shaping and portraying
    perceptions and attitudes, and is by no means
  • Choosing certain words can exclude and devalue
  • Choosing appropriate words allows us to treat
    each other with dignity, respect and sensitivity.
  • so.

Gender-neutral language
  • Use gender-free terms in writing or talking about
    traditionally male or female activities.
  • Let language usage reflect the fact that both men
    and women are involved in workplace, home, etc..
  • Example
  • Degender, dont Re-gender
  • ( e.g., chairman to chair, not chairwomen).
  • Avoid occupational designations having derogatory
    ette and ess endings

  • Unless youre writing is specifically focused on
    disabilities, avoid singling out one disabilities
    simply for the sake of identification.
  • Avoid words that imply victimisation or create
    negative stereotypes (e.g., victim or
    sufferer for someone with a disease).
  • Avoid words such as poor, unfortunate or

  • Avoid the pronoun he when both sexes are
    included. Alternative approaches are
  • Recast the plural.
  • Reword to eliminate the pronoun.
  • Replace the masculine pronoun with one, you, or
    (sparingly) he or she as appropriate.
  • Use a plural indefinite pronoun ( e.g. All those
    who are on the course should bring their notes
    with them tomorrow.)

Pronouns - examples
  • YES
  • Give students their exams papers.
  • The average student is worried about grades.
  • A student who is dissatisfied with his or her
    grade can appeal it.
  • NO
  • Give each student his exam paper.
  • The average student is worried about his
  • If the student is unhappy with his grade, he can
    appeal it.

Activity (practical)
  • Return to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 3.
  • Rewrite the sentences incorporating what you have
    learned about inclusive language

Listening skills
  • Holds as much importance and responsibility as
    speaking and should be pursued actively.
  • Good listening
  • Promotes good understanding of others points
  • Promotes good understanding of how your own
    points are being perceived
  • Will help make you well understood in the group
  • Will promote good relationships

Active listening (6 points)
  • Empathising and identifying with the speaker
  • Help you to understand their points better,
    faster, as a whole gives you better grasp on
    entire issue.
  • allow you to put your own points in a way which
    is attainable and poignant to the listener.
  • Be responsive
  • Maintain a high level of eye contact.
  • Use body language to show interest and openness.
  • Show your understanding using paraphrasing and
    short utterances, be careful to encourage not

Active listening (6 points)
  • Listening and understanding points being made
  • Listen openly to the other person
  • Make sure you understand the point and the point
    of view before you form an opinion
  • Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery
  • Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she
    can provide

Active listening (6 points)
  • Listening between the lines
  • Pay attention to verbal and nonverbal cues about
    how the speaker feels about their points
  • Understanding the speakers feelings will allow
    you to respond sensitively and avoid problems
    such as defensiveness.
  • Pay attention
  • Fight distractions, especially thinking ahead to
    what you are going to say back! Your retort may
    not be relevant.

Active listening (6 points)
  • Testing for understanding (Feedback)
  • Do not make assumptions ask questions to verify
    your understanding.
  • Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend
  • Ask open friendly questions such as If I have
    understood correctly you are saying that?
  • Ask them to repeat themselves if necessary
  • Ask them to rephrase things if you feel you are

Speaking skills
  • Don't totally control conversation
  • acknowledge what has been said and incorporate it
    into your discourse
  • Ask the other for others views or suggestions
  • State your position openly
  • Be specific, not global, make your point as your
  • Be clear in what you are saying but not damning
    of other opinions  

Speaking skills
  • Be validating, not invalidating ("You wouldn't
  • Acknowledge others uniqueness, importance.
  • Don't react to emotional words, interpret their
  • Important not to allow personal feelings to
    derail the focus of the discussion.
  • Respond in a way that acknowledges the emotion
    but eliminates it from the topic.

Constructive Feedback
  • Providing constructive feedback is a key part of
    training.Receiving it is key to the learning
  • We now ideas on providing constructive feedback.
    give some
  • When reading them think about two he principles
    of adult learning
  • Autonomous, participants make decisions for
    themselves you are there to guide not tell them.
  • Experience, particiapants past experience has
    provided them with a strong sense of self. They
    know more about themselves than you do.

Constructive Feedback
  • It must not be focused on the person
  • Avoid accusations
  • Focus on the behavior/message not the person.
  • and behavior which the receiver can do
    something about..
  • It must be presented as your opinion
  • Leaves individual free to use it or not to use it
  • It must not be evaluative - cause defensiveness.
  • Be descriptive about the action, message and how
    you perceived it.

Constructive Feedback
  • It must always be solution orientated
  • Never provide critical feedback for the sake of
  • Must be for improvements sake
  • Must include possible solutions and alternatives
    - which must in turn be open to criticism.
  • It must include praise
  • Points that impressed you as well as those that
    did not.
  • By pointing these out you reinforce what you want
    from them by showing them which path to follow.

Constructive Feedback
  • It must be well focused and clear
  • Be as specific and detailed as possible
  • Be completely clear before you start
  • Misunderstandings and generalisations during
    feedback can be damaging
  • It must be benefit the receiver (not the giver)
  • Given to help, not to hurt. Feedback is not to
    make us feel better or give a psychological
  • Must be an amount of information that the
    receiver can use. Overload will reduce the
    possibility that receiver can use what he
    receives effectively.

Constructive Feedback
  • It must be appropriately timed
  • Feedback presented at inappropriate time may do
    more harm than good.
  • If time has past need to rethink whether you need
    to give the feedback. It is only to help the
    recipient and they may now have helped
  • It must not be presumptuous
  • It concerns what is said and done, or how, not
  • Think of feedback as sharing of information
    rather than giving advice.

Constructive Feedback
  • It is part of the communication process.
  • it can not start until you fully understand the
    point you are providing feedback on.
  • it is not finished until they understand what you
    are explaining to them.
  • It does not finish with your inputs your
    feedback must be open to further feedback.
  • All the principles of communication covered
    earlier apply to feedback sessions too!.

Activity (practical)
  • Return to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 4.
  • This activity involves group work examining
    feedback forms and adapting them to be

Review of learning objectives
  • Are you now able to
  • Notice when communication is in risk of breaking
    down and help towards avoiding it.
  • Be emphatic, encouraging listeners.
  • Understand the importance of good communication
    in providing feedback.
  • Understand the importance of feedback in
  • Provide constructive, well focused feedback.
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