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Effective Communication

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Effective Communication Module 6 Session 3 Activity - Folding paper We are going to start with a quick game. Four volunteers stand up in front of the class (if the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Communication


1
Effective Communication
  • Module 6 Session 3

2
Activity - Folding paper
  • We are going to start with a quick game.
  • Four volunteers stand up in front of the class
    (if the whole class wishes to participate that is
    fine too).
  • Each one gets a pieces of blank paper.
  • Volunteers must eyes close their eyes and keep
    them closed.
  • And they are not allowed to ask questions.
  • Once all volunteers are ready and their eyes are
    closed skip to the next slide.

3
Instructions
  • Ask volunteers to fold their paper in half and to
    tear off the bottom right hand corner.
  • Tell them to fold the paper in half again and to
    tear off the upper right hand corner.
  • Tell them to fold the paper again and tear off
    the lower left hand corner.
  • This must all be done with closed eyes. The
    director should say the instructions slowly
    enough for them to follow but without responding
    to any questions they might ask.

4
Display and discuss
  • Finally ask them to open their eyes and show
    their unfolded paper to each other and the
    audience.
  • Discussion
  • What words in the instructions could have been
    interpreted in different ways?
  • How could direction have been clearer?

5
Learning objectives
  • Communicate effectively in one-to-one and
    one-to-many discussions
  • Notice when communication is at risk of breaking
    down and help towards avoiding it
  • Provide constructive feedback without being
    critical

6
Communication
  • Communication is the transfer and receipt of
    information from one person to another (or from
    one point to another).
  • It is always between at least two people sender
    and receiver and the roles will change
    frequently.
  • But the message must be understood for
    communication to be considered complete.

7
The Communication Process
Feedback
Receiver
Source
Encoding
Channel
Decoding
Message
Message
Message
Message
  • Understanding occurs only in the mind of the
    receiver.
  • They are responsible for completing the
    communication process.

8
Key Communication Elements
  • The Method
  • Verbal
  • Non-verbal
  • Written
  • Electronic
  • The Situation
  • Distance
  • Speed
  • Attitude
  • Different cultures
  • The Receiver
  • Could be known or unknown
  • Sender must imagine being the receiver
  • Nature of Content
  • Must be clear and understandable
  • Unacceptable content should be avoided

9
Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Personal
  • Attitude of both the sender and the receiver
  • Misuse of body language
  • Pre-judgement
  • The I have heard it all before syndrome
  • Emotional Reactions
  • Mental closure
  • Mis-communication (intentional or unintentional)
  • These the ones most easily overcome.
    Communicators can influence them.

10
Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Situational
  • Improper timing
  • Noise and distractions in the environment
  • Pressure of Time or other Resources
  • Unfamiliar language
  • Knowledge Level
  • More difficult to control.
  • Careful forward planning and thoughtful
    consideration can help.

11
Common hindrances to effective communication
  • Social
  • Differences between people
  • Relationship between the sender and the receiver
  • Necessary formalities can help.

12
Barriers that hinder effective communication
  • Filtering sender manipulates information so
    that it will be seen more favourably by the
    receiver.
  • Selective Perception receiver selectively sees
    and hears based on his/her needs, motivations,
    experiences, background and other personal
    characteristics.

13
Barriers that hinder effective communication
  • Defensiveness when individuals interpret
    anothers message as threatening, they often
    respond in ways that retard effective
    communication
  • Language even within a language words can mean
    different things to different people.

14
Effective communication
  • Need to look out for barriers and ways to
    overcome them.
  • catch and put right early,
  • if not can lead to one or more people feeling
    alienated and thus a failure to communicate.
  • When using electronic methods of communication
    use careful, thoughtful planning.

15
Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
  • Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating
  • Examine the true purpose of communication
  • Consider the total physical and human setting
  • Consult with others in planning communication
  • Be mindful of the overtones as well as the basic
    content of your message

16
Ten Considerations of Effective Communication
  • Take the opportunity to convey something of help
    or value to the receiver
  • Follow-up your communication
  • Be sure your actions support your communication
  • Seek not only to be understood but to understand
    be a good listener

17
Activity (practical)
  • Now refer to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 2.
  • This is a short role play exercise.
  • Participants should be in groups of 2 or 3.

18
Introduction to inclusive language
  • Language is important in shaping and portraying
    perceptions and attitudes, and is by no means
    neutral.
  • Choosing certain words can exclude and devalue
    people.
  • Choosing appropriate words allows us to treat
    each other with dignity, respect and sensitivity.
  • so.

19
Gender-neutral language
  • Use gender-free terms in writing or talking about
    traditionally male or female activities.
  • Let language usage reflect the fact that both men
    and women are involved in workplace, home, etc..
  • Example
  • Degender, dont Re-gender
  • ( e.g., chairman to chair, not chairwomen).
  • Avoid occupational designations having derogatory
    ette and ess endings

20
Disabilities
  • Unless youre writing is specifically focused on
    disabilities, avoid singling out one disabilities
    simply for the sake of identification.
  • Avoid words that imply victimisation or create
    negative stereotypes (e.g., victim or
    sufferer for someone with a disease).
  • Avoid words such as poor, unfortunate or
    afflicted.

21
Pronouns
  • Avoid the pronoun he when both sexes are
    included. Alternative approaches are
  • Recast the plural.
  • Reword to eliminate the pronoun.
  • Replace the masculine pronoun with one, you, or
    (sparingly) he or she as appropriate.
  • Use a plural indefinite pronoun ( e.g. All those
    who are on the course should bring their notes
    with them tomorrow.)

22
Pronouns - examples
  • YES
  • Give students their exams papers.
  • The average student is worried about grades.
  • A student who is dissatisfied with his or her
    grade can appeal it.
  • NO
  • Give each student his exam paper.
  • The average student is worried about his
    grades.
  • If the student is unhappy with his grade, he can
    appeal it.

23
Activity (practical)
  • Return to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 3.
  • Rewrite the sentences incorporating what you have
    learned about inclusive language

24
Listening skills
  • Holds as much importance and responsibility as
    speaking and should be pursued actively.
  • Good listening
  • Promotes good understanding of others points
  • Promotes good understanding of how your own
    points are being perceived
  • Will help make you well understood in the group
  • Will promote good relationships

25
Active listening (6 points)
  • Empathising and identifying with the speaker
  • Help you to understand their points better,
    faster, as a whole gives you better grasp on
    entire issue.
  • allow you to put your own points in a way which
    is attainable and poignant to the listener.
  • Be responsive
  • Maintain a high level of eye contact.
  • Use body language to show interest and openness.
  • Show your understanding using paraphrasing and
    short utterances, be careful to encourage not
    interrupt.

26
Active listening (6 points)
  • Listening and understanding points being made
  • Listen openly to the other person
  • Make sure you understand the point and the point
    of view before you form an opinion
  • Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery
  • Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she
    can provide

27
Active listening (6 points)
  • Listening between the lines
  • Pay attention to verbal and nonverbal cues about
    how the speaker feels about their points
  • Understanding the speakers feelings will allow
    you to respond sensitively and avoid problems
    such as defensiveness.
  • Pay attention
  • Fight distractions, especially thinking ahead to
    what you are going to say back! Your retort may
    not be relevant.

28
Active listening (6 points)
  • Testing for understanding (Feedback)
  • Do not make assumptions ask questions to verify
    your understanding.
  • Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend
  • Ask open friendly questions such as If I have
    understood correctly you are saying that?
  • Ask them to repeat themselves if necessary
  • Ask them to rephrase things if you feel you are
    misunderstanding

29
Speaking skills
  • Don't totally control conversation
  • acknowledge what has been said and incorporate it
    into your discourse
  • Ask the other for others views or suggestions
  • State your position openly
  • Be specific, not global, make your point as your
    own
  • Be clear in what you are saying but not damning
    of other opinions  

 
30
Speaking skills
  • Be validating, not invalidating ("You wouldn't
    understand")
  • Acknowledge others uniqueness, importance.
  • Don't react to emotional words, interpret their
    purpose
  • Important not to allow personal feelings to
    derail the focus of the discussion.
  • Respond in a way that acknowledges the emotion
    but eliminates it from the topic.

 
31
Constructive Feedback
  • Providing constructive feedback is a key part of
    training.Receiving it is key to the learning
    process.
  • We now ideas on providing constructive feedback.
    give some
  • When reading them think about two he principles
    of adult learning
  • Autonomous, participants make decisions for
    themselves you are there to guide not tell them.
  • Experience, particiapants past experience has
    provided them with a strong sense of self. They
    know more about themselves than you do.

32
Constructive Feedback
  • It must not be focused on the person
  • Avoid accusations
  • Focus on the behavior/message not the person.
  • and behavior which the receiver can do
    something about..
  • It must be presented as your opinion
  • Leaves individual free to use it or not to use it
  • It must not be evaluative - cause defensiveness.
  • Be descriptive about the action, message and how
    you perceived it.

33
Constructive Feedback
  • It must always be solution orientated
  • Never provide critical feedback for the sake of
    criticizing
  • Must be for improvements sake
  • Must include possible solutions and alternatives
    - which must in turn be open to criticism.
  • It must include praise
  • Points that impressed you as well as those that
    did not.
  • By pointing these out you reinforce what you want
    from them by showing them which path to follow.

34
Constructive Feedback
  • It must be well focused and clear
  • Be as specific and detailed as possible
  • Be completely clear before you start
  • Misunderstandings and generalisations during
    feedback can be damaging
  • It must be benefit the receiver (not the giver)
  • Given to help, not to hurt. Feedback is not to
    make us feel better or give a psychological
    advantage.
  • Must be an amount of information that the
    receiver can use. Overload will reduce the
    possibility that receiver can use what he
    receives effectively.

35
Constructive Feedback
  • It must be appropriately timed
  • Feedback presented at inappropriate time may do
    more harm than good.
  • If time has past need to rethink whether you need
    to give the feedback. It is only to help the
    recipient and they may now have helped
    themselves.
  • It must not be presumptuous
  • It concerns what is said and done, or how, not
    why.
  • Think of feedback as sharing of information
    rather than giving advice.

36
Constructive Feedback
  • It is part of the communication process.
  • it can not start until you fully understand the
    point you are providing feedback on.
  • it is not finished until they understand what you
    are explaining to them.
  • It does not finish with your inputs your
    feedback must be open to further feedback.
  • All the principles of communication covered
    earlier apply to feedback sessions too!.

37
Activity (practical)
  • Return to the Practical sheet and complete
    Activity 4.
  • This activity involves group work examining
    feedback forms and adapting them to be
    constructive.

38
Review of learning objectives
  • Are you now able to
  • Notice when communication is in risk of breaking
    down and help towards avoiding it.
  • Be emphatic, encouraging listeners.
  • Understand the importance of good communication
    in providing feedback.
  • Understand the importance of feedback in
    training.
  • Provide constructive, well focused feedback.
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