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General Theories of Classroom Management

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The goal of discipline is self-discipline Tenets of Humanism: ... Assertive Discipline Consequences: An Easier Way to Remember: Slide 7 Slide 8 2. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Theories of Classroom Management


1
General Theories of Classroom Management
2
Social Environments
  • Three main models of classroom management
  • Fall on a continuum from low teacher control to
    high teacher control
  • Different theories use different terms to
    describe each approach

3
1 Interventionist
  • High teacher control
  • Focus on environment controlling the child
  • Rules without explanations
  • Autocratic

4
E.g. Canter and Canter Assertive Discipline
  • Based on behaviourist principles
  • Clear rules and limits are established by the
    teacher
  • Consequences (positive and negative) are
    described beforehand

5
Consequences
  • All consequences (negative or positive)
    immediately follow the target behaviour
  • Four main types of consequences
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Punishment (2 kinds)

6
An Easier Way to Remember
  • The term positive is like the Math sign () and
    means something is added
  • The term negative is like the Math sign (-) and
    means something is taken away
  • Punishment ALWAYS aims to decrease a target
    behavior
  • Reinforcement ALWAYS aims to increase a target
    behavior

7
ADD
SUBTRACT
Punishment in order to decrease behaviour
Positive reinforcement in order to increase
behaviour
SOMETHING CHILD LIKES
Punishment in order to decrease behaviour
Negative reinforcement in order to increase
behaviour
SOMETHING CHILD DISLIKES
8
  • Uses token economies (e.g. names on the board
    with check marks for transgressions, or check
    marks in order to earn rewards).
  • Uses Kounins Ripple Effect (also called
    Banduras Inhibition) Teacher makes reward and
    punishment public in order to increase/decrease
    chance that others will copy behaviors.

9
2. Non-interventionist
  • Low teacher control
  • Focus on child learning to control his/her
    environment
  • Anything goes
  • Few rules, little enforcement

10
Ginotts Congruent Communication
  • Main tenet Children are capable of controlling
    own behaviour if teachers let them
  • Key to making good behavioural choices is healthy
    self-esteem
  • Teachers use communication to help children
    understand their feelings and thoughts

11
Ginotts techniques
  • Sane messages Tell the students what you want
    them to do rather than what they have done wrong.
  • Accept and reflect students feelings- dont deny
    them.
  • Avoid praise. Instead, clearly describe what the
    child has done.

12
  • Negotiate rather than dictate.
  • Use I messages to convey your anger in a calm
    way.

13
3. Interactionist
  • Moderate teacher control
  • Focus on reconciling balance of childs
    power/rights with the power/rights of the group
  • Rules agreed upon by consensus
  • Discussion and explanation
  • Benevolent dictator

14
E.g. Glassers Reality Therapy
  • What is the goal of discipline?
  • Why do we need discipline in our classrooms?
  • The goal of discipline is self-discipline

15
Tenets of Humanism
  • People should be free to make choices and take
    responsibility for them
  • People are whole and complex and cannot be
    treated like a sum of parts
  • PEOPLE ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN IDEAS

16
Glassers Control Theory
  • Describes 5 human needs
  • Needs are not in a hierarchy (like Maslow)
  • The need to survive
  • The need to belong and love others
  • The need for power and influence
  • The need to be free and make choices
  • The need to play, feel joy and have fun

17
  • Schools fail children by failing to give them the
    control over meeting these needs
  • When they are not met, learning decreases and
    behavioral problems increase

18
How can we give students control?
  • Teaching Critical thinking skills
  • makes students independent of objectivism
  • Positive classroom communication
  • respect, wait time, reflective responses
  • Grading practices that encourage learning rather
    than competition
  • criterion-referenced, rich feedback

19
Co-operative learning
  • Co-operative learning
  • Glasser thinks this is most important
  • Inquiry Learning
  • also called discovery learning
  • center-based
  • students select activities and learn concepts and
    relationships through them

20
Restitution
21
Restitution
  • Restitution focuses on relationships not rules.
    On responsibility, not obedience. And on respect,
    not gold stars. Research has repeatedly shown
    that when students and teachers treat one another
    with respect, the environment for learning
    improves and test scores go up.

22
Restitution
  • Restitution is based on control theory which is a
    theory of internal motivation. Traditional
    discipline programs are based on
    stimulus-response psychology and focus on
    consequences either positive ones such as rewards
    or negative ones such as the removal of
    privileges or detention.

23
Restitution
  • Restitution teaches students self-discipline and
    skills needed to accept personal responsibility
    for one's actions. Restitution strengthens. The
    focus of restitution is restituting the self,
    which teaches students to behave to be the person
    they want to be rather than to please others.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Task
  • Choose the classroom management orientation with
    which you most agree. Discuss the strengths and
    weaknesses of the approach with your partner.

26
Reference
http//restitutionsocialdevelopment.blogspot.com
With permission of instructors from U of W
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