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Title: ??(The Wealth of Nations): ????????????


1
????????
  • ? ?
  • ????????

2
? ?
  • I. ?????--????????
  • ??(The Wealth of Nations) ????????????
  • ????? ???????? ( Das Adam Smith Problem)
  • II. ??( François Quesnay )????
    ?????????
  • ????????-???? (cruel and cool)
  • ??

3
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of The
Wealth of NationsBy Adam Smith 1723-1790
  • The annual labour of every nation is the fund
    which originally supplies it with all the
    necessaries and conveniences of life which it
    annually consumes

4
V. Challenges Ahead
5
According to The Wealth of Nations
  • Wealth is not a fixed quantity - wealth is a
    function of labor productivity and therefore of
    people, and of the incentives which encourage
    them to raise productivity.
  • Even today, some people still mistakenly believe
    that the worlds wealth is a fixed quantity, and
    where one grows richer and another grows poorer.

6
Adam Smith
  • Since mercantilists and colonialists believed
    that wealth was limited, they wanted the
    government to keep most of it. They established
    government-authorized monopolies, controlled by
    their friends and supporter, using the police to
    stop anyone from competing with the monopolies.

7
The Wealth of Nations Specialization and
Division of Labor
  • Nations have become wealthy because labour has
    become more productive.
  • Labour is more productive because it is more
    specialized tasks have been divided and
    subdivided until anyone can easily learn to do
    any job and do it well.
  • The division of labor saves time that is lost in
    passing from one species of work to another.
  • The division of labour leads to invention, and it
    makes it easier for a worker to learn and become
    skilled at the job.

8
The Wealth of Nations - Market and Capital Stock
  • The extent of the division of labour is limited
    by the extent of the market.
  • The more people there are involved in mutual
    exchange, the more specialized each can be.
  • The accumulation of capital (stock) is also
    relevant - Labour can be more and more
    subdivided in proportion only as stock is
    previously more and more accumulated

9
The Wealth of Nations - Liberalism
  • Laissez Faire
  • Every man, as long as he does not violate the
    laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue
    his own interest his own way
  • A system of natural liberty a nations wealth is
    increased by whatever industry is most
    profitable, i.e. whatever industry produces the
    greatest surplus, available to support further
    division of labour.
  • Therefore, the government should not try to
    direct industry into export industry, or into
    agriculture, or in any particular direction.

10
The Wealth of Nations - Speculation
  • Those who are called philosophers or men of
    speculation, whose trade it is, not to do any
    thing, but to observe everything and who, upon
    that account, are often capable of combining
    together the powers of the most distant and
    dissimilar objects.

11
According to Adam Smith
  • Self-interest is an unchangeable part of human
    nature, so it is wise to let personal incentives
    build a richer economy.
  • Strong government was a great necessity,
    particularly to create and enforce laws and to
    ensure justice.

12
Adam Smith
  • The sovereign has only three duties
  • first protecting the society from violence
    and invasion
  • secondly protecting every member of the
    society from the injustice or oppression of
    every other member
  • thirdly erecting and maintaining certain public
    works and certain public institutions which it
    can never be for the interest of any individual,
    or small number of individuals

13
Adam Smith
  • Government and the people should do what it does
    best
  • ?businessmen should not control the
  • justice system
  • ?government should not try to run
  • businesses.
  • ?Monopolyis a great enemy to good
  • management.

14
Regarding Government
  • The market works less efficiently in the
    developing economy than in the developed economy.
  • The market gives better service in rich than in
    poor countries, so also the government tends to
    be better administered, has more resources, and
    is slightly less dominated by politics and
    personal advantage in decision making.
  • The imperfect solution of the market could be
    better than that of the government. The
    government needs to be modernized just as much as
    the market. Also the assumption that the
    government represents the people may not hold

W.A. Lewis, The State of Development TheoryAER
(March 1984), p.4.
15
According to Adam Smith
  • ????
  • No society can surely be flourishing and happy,
    of which the far greater part of the members are
    poor and miserable.

16
According to Adam Smith
  • Adam Smiths economy grows to its full
    complement of riches as permitted by its laws
    and institutions, and there it rests.

Arthur W. Lewis, 1984
17
Das Adam Smith Problem
  • Question raised by German Historical School
  • How to reconcile altruism in Morality laid
    out vividly in Moral Sentiments of which the
    first chapter in on Sympathy, and self interest
    in Economics which is the core of Wealth of
    Nations.
  • ???????????,??????????????????,?????????????,????
    ???????????

18
Das Adam Smith Problem
  • Chronology of Smiths teaching and writing career
  • 1723 born
  • 1737 Glasgow, studying Greek, Latin,
    Mathematics and Morality
  • 1940 Oxford, studying Philosophy
  • 1948 Edinburgh, lecture
  • 1750 Lecture note on Economics
  • 1751 Glasgow, Professor of Logic 1752
    Professor of Morality
  • 1759 Publishing MS
  • 1761 2nd ed. of MS expanding the part on
    Politics, Economics and
  • Jurisprudence
  • 1763 Lecturing on Law, Police, Revenue,
    and Arms.
  • 1764 Turing in European continent for 2
    years and 8 months with
  • Duke Buccleugh and starting to
    draft WN

19
Smith Problem (cont)
  • 1765.12-66.10 meeting F. Quesnay in Paris
  • 3rd ed. MS, adding considerations concerning
    the first
  • formation of languages
  • More information on taxation in America, 4th ed
    MS
  • 1776 Publication of WN
  • 2nd ed. WN
  • 5th ed. MS
  • 3RD ed. WN
  • 1786 adding Introduction and the final edition
    of WN
  • Honorable principal of Glasgow U.
  • intensive revision of MS, adding sec. III, Ch.3
  • 1790 the final 6th ed. of MS

20
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • Smith has constantly and interweavingly revised
    MS and WN.
  • In the last paragraph of the present work, I
    said, that I should in another discourse
    endeavour to give an account of the general
    principles of law and government and in what
    concerns police, revenue, and arms, and whatever
    else is the subject of law. In the Enquiry I
    have partly executed this promise at least so
    far as concerns police, revenue, and arms.
    Advertisement, MS.
  • ???(???)?????,??,??????????????????,????????????
    ,??????????,???????????????????????,??????????????
    ???

21
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • In Scotland then, moral philosophy covers
    ethnology, morality, jurisprudence, and politics
    including political economy.
  • What purpose isthe pursuit of wealth?
  • what are the advantages which we propose by
    that great purpose of human life which we call
    bettering our condition? To be observed, to be
    attended to, to be taken notice of with sympathy,
    complacency, and approbation
  • ??????????????,?????????
  • ???????????????????????????????????????,????,????,
    ????,??????

22
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • It is the vanity, not the ease, or the pleasure,
    which interests us. But vanity is always founded
    upon the belief of our being the object of
    attention and approbation.
  • the eye is larger than the belly, The capacity
    of his stomach ( the land lord )bears no
    proportion to the immensity of his desires, and
    will receive no more than that of the meanest
    peasant.
  • ?????,?????????????,??????????????????????????????
    ???
  • ?????????????????????????,???????????????

23
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • In what constitutes the real happiness of human
    life, they are in no respect inferiour to those
    who would seem so much above them. In ease of
    body and peace of mind, all the different ranks
    of life are nearly upon a level, and the beggar,
    who suns himself by the side of the highway,
    possesses that security which kings are fighting
    for.
  • ????????????????????,????????????????????????????
    ??,??????????????????????????????,????????????????
    ???????

24
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • When Providence divided the earth among a few
    lordly masters,They are led by an invisible hand
    to make nearly the same distribution of the
    necessaries of life, which would have been made,
    had the earth been divided into equal portions
    among all its inhabitants
  • ?????????????,(????????????????)??????,?????????
    ?????????????????????????

25
Let Smith Answer the Question
  • On government The man of system, is apt to be
    very wise in his own conceit, and is often so
    enamoured with the supposed beauty of his own
    ideal plan of government.
  • ????????????,????,???????????????????????

26
(No Transcript)
27
The Theory of Moral Sentiments1759Chapter I.
Of Sympathy
  • How selfish soever man many be supposed, there
    are evidently some principles in his nature,
    which interest him in the fortune of others, and
    render their happiness necessary to him, though
    he derives nothing from it, expect the pleasure
    of seeing it.
  • ??????????,??????????,??????????,????????????,????
    ???,???????

28
? ?
  • ????,???????-????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????

29
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ?????,???????,???????,??????????
  • ?????????,?1?????????????????????
  • ?????????????,??????????

?1?????????,?????????,?WN, V.I.f.50 781-5?
30
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ??????????,?????,???,???????????????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ????????,???????????,????????????,???????????

31
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ?????????????????????,??????????????
  • ?????????????,?????????3
  • ?????,??????????????????

?3?WN, IV.ii.11 456?
32
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ???????????????????????,??????????????????????
  • ??????????????
  • ???????????????????

33
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ???????(???????),???????????,??????????????,?????
    ???????????,???????4 ????????????,???????????
  • (???)??????????
  • ????????????,????????????????????

?4???????lt????gt??TMS, IV.I.8 181?
34
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ???????????????(To own or to be)
  • ??????????,?????????????,????????5
  • ?????????????????????????????,????????????????????
    ???6

?5??????????????????(Paradise Lost, 1674),
Book 1, Line 253? ?6?TMS, III.3.31 149?
35
Part 1 ?? Wealth
  • ????????????,?????,??????????????,??????????,????
    ?????????7
  • ??????????,??????,???????8
  • (???)???????????,???????

?7?TMS, III.3.31 150? ?8??????????????????Es
say on Astronomy(EPS, IV.34, p.75)?,?????????????
???????????????????(Stewart, EPS, p.275)?
36
Part 2 ?? Transformation
  • ???????????????,???????????,????????????????????
    ????,???????
  • ???????,?????????!
  • ????????????????

?9 ??????,????,????????????????????,????????????
???,???,???????????(TMS, iii.2.6-7 116-117)?
37
Part 2 ?? Transformation
  • ???????????,???????????????????10
  • ????????????,???????,???????????11

?10?TMS, I.I.1 7? ?11??TMS, I.ii.2.1 32?
38
Part 3 ?? Virtue
  • ???????????????!?????????????????????
  • ????,??????????????????????????13
  • ??????????????????(?????????),????,???????????????
    ??

?13???????????????TMS, I.I.1.5 10?
39
Part 3 ?? Virtue
  • ??????,??????????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ??????????????????????,????????14
  • ?????,????,????(??)??????????15

?14?WN, IV.ii.6 454? ?15?J.S. Coleman,
Social Capital in the Creation of Human
Capital, American Journal of Sociology, 94
(Supp1.), 1988, pp. s95-s120?
40
Part 3 ?? Virtue
  • ?????????????,?????????????
  • ?????????,???????????,??????????,?????????????
  • ???????????,????????????????

41
Part 3 ?? Virtue
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????16
  • ???????????, ?????????????????

?16?TMS, VI.I.14 216?
42
Part 3 ?? Virtue
  • ???????????,?????????????????????17
  • ????????????,????????????????

?17???????1689???????????????????????????
43
II. ??( Françis Quesnay )????

44
François Quesnay1694-1774
  • ????(Physiocrats)?????(Agricultural system)
  • ???????,?1755??????????,62??????????

45
Quesnay
  • You recognize but one rule of commerce that is
    to allow free passage (laissez passer) and
    freedom of action (laissez faire) to all buyers
    and sellers whoever they may be.
  • ???????????????????????

46
Quesnay
  • ???(Tableau Economique)????
  • ???,???????????????????????????
  • ???,????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????,????,???????????

47
Quesnay
  • ????
  • Money resembles the blood of human body.

48
  • ??????????
  • ??????????????

Delivering oxygen, nutrients, hormones...
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Looking out for signs of disease and producing
antibodies and attacking
49
V. Challenges Ahead
?????????
?????
Investment Proposals
?????
???? ????
Resource Deprivation
(RBC)

(WBC)
???? ??
?? ?? ??
Inefficient Allocation
Case approved
????
Resource Acquisition/Allocation
Efficient Allocation
50
III. ? ?
  • ????????
  • ???????
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