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Essentials of Human Anatomy

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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology The Nervous System Chapter 7 Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) Concussion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Human Anatomy


1
Essentials of Human Anatomy Physiology
The Nervous System Chapter 7
2
Regions of the Brain
  • Cerebral hemispheres
  • Collectively called the cerebrum
  • Diencephalon
  • Brain stem
  • Cerebellum

3
Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)
  • Paired (left right) superior parts of the brain
  • Include more than half of the brain mass

4
Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)
  • Surface of the cerebral hemispheres exhibits
  • Elevated ridges of tissue Gyri
  • Shallow grooves- Sulci

5
Lobes of the Cerebrum
  • Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into
    lobes
  • Surface lobes of the cerebrum
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe

6
Lobes of the Cerebrum
7
Brain Anatomy/Physiology
  • Website on basic function/structure

8
Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum
  • Somatic sensory area receives impulses from the
    bodys sensory receptors
  • Primary motor area sends impulses to skeletal
    muscles
  • Brocas area involved in our ability to speak

9
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10
Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum
  • Cerebral areas involved in special senses
  • Gustatory area (taste)
  • Visual area
  • Auditory area
  • Olfactory area

11
Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum
  • Interpretation areas of the cerebrum
  • Speech/language region
  • Language comprehension region
  • General interpretation area

12
Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum
13
Layers of the Cerebrum
  • Gray matter
  • Outer layer
  • Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies

14
Layers of the Cerebrum
  • White matter
  • Fiber tracts inside the gray matter
  • Example corpus callosum connects hemispheres

15
Diencephalon
  • Sits on top of the brain stem
  • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres
  • Made of three parts
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Epithalamus

16
Diencephalon
17
Thalamus
  • Surrounds the third ventricle
  • The relay station for sensory impulses
  • Transfers impulses to the correct part of the
    cortex for localization and interpretation

18
Hypothalamus
  • Under the thalamus
  • Important autonomic nervous system center
  • Helps regulate body temperature
  • Controls water balance
  • Regulates metabolism

19
Hypothalamus
  • An important part of the limbic system (emotions)
  • Thirst, appetite, pain, pleasure
  • The pituitary gland is attached to the
    hypothalamus

20
Epithalamus
  • Forms the roof of the third ventricle
  • Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland)
  • Includes the choroid plexus forms cerebrospinal
    fluid

21
Brain Stem
  • Attaches to the spinal cord
  • Parts of the brain stem
  • Midbrain
  • Pons
  • Medulla oblongata

22
Brain Stem
23
Midbrain
  • Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers
  • Reflex centers for vision and hearing
  • Cerebral aquaduct 3rd-4th ventricles

24
Pons
  • The bulging center part of the brain stem
  • Mostly composed of fiber tracts
  • Includes nuclei involved in the control of
    breathing

25
Medulla Oblongata
  • The lowest part of the brain stem
  • Merges into the spinal cord
  • Includes important fiber tracts
  • Contains important control centers
  • Heart rate control
  • Blood pressure regulation
  • Breathing
  • Swallowing
  • Vomiting

26
Cerebellum
  • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces
  • Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle
    activity controls our balance and equilibrium

27
Cerebellum
28
Protection of the Central Nervous System
  • Scalp and skin
  • Skull and vertebral column
  • Meninges

29
Protection of the Central Nervous System
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Blood brain barrier

30
Meninges
  • Dura mater
  • Double-layered external covering
  • Periosteum attached to surface of the skull
  • Meningeal layer outer covering of the brain
  • Folds inward in several areas

31
Meninges
  • Arachnoid layer
  • Middle layer
  • Web-like
  • Pia mater
  • Internal layer
  • Clings to the surface of the brain

32
Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Similar to blood plasma composition
  • Formed by the choroid plexus
  • Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain
  • Circulated in subarachnoid space, ventricles, and
    central canal of the spinal cord

33
Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
34
Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
35
Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)
  • Concussion
  • Slight or mild brain injury
  • No permanent brain damage
  • Recovery likely with some memory loss

36
Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI)
  • Contusion
  • A more severe TBI
  • Nervous tissue destruction occurs
  • Nervous tissue does not regenerate
  • Cerebral edema
  • Swelling from the inflammatory response
  • May compress and kill brain tissue

37
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
  • Commonly called a stroke
  • The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a
    region of the brain
  • Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood
    source dies
  • Loss of some functions or death may result

38
Stroke-website
39
TIAsTransient Ischemic Attack
  • website

40
Autonomic Nervous System
  • The involuntary branch of the nervous system
  • Consists of only motor nerves
  • Divided into two divisions
  • Sympathetic division
  • Parasympathetic division

41
Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous
Systems
42
Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System
43
Autonomic Functioning
  • Sympathetic fight-or-flight
  • Evident in emergency or threatening situations
  • Takes over to increase activities
  • E Division
  • Exercise, excitement, emergency, embarassment

44
Autonomic Functioning
  • Parasympathetic housekeeping activites
  • Conserves energy
  • Resting-and-digesting system
  • Maintains daily necessary body functions
  • D Division
  • Digestion, defecation, diuresis (urination)
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