Eggs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Eggs PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4a4538-NGM1N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Eggs

Description:

Quality ice cream has a custard base (cream or milk and eggs). ... It is the part of the yolk that would develop into a chick if the egg was fertilized. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:90
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 47
Provided by: Barb96
Category:
Tags: chick | eggs | quality

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Eggs


1
Eggs
2
EGGS ARE NUTRITIOUS
Whole eggs are protein-rich, low in sodium and
contain varying amounts of 13 vitamins and
minerals. Eggs are nutrient-rich compared to
calorie intake just 70 calories per large egg.
3
PARTS OF AN EGG
SHELL
1. The shell surrounding the egg is porous.
Odors, flavors, and moisture can pass through the
microscopic holes. For this reason, the egg
should be stored in an enclosed space, such as
the egg carton. The color of the shell depends on
the breed of the chicken, and although brown eggs
may be more expensive, color makes no difference
at all in any quality other than appearance. Do
not wash eggs before storing them, as this
removes a naturally protective coating.
4
PARTS OF AN EGG
INNER AND OUTER SHELL MEMBRANES
2. The inner and outer shell membranes resemble
layers of skin. When an egg is very fresh (less
than 3 days old) and is heated, these membranes
form a bond between the shell and the egg whites.
The shell will be very hard to remove in this
case, without tearing the cooked egg white apart.

5
PARTS OF AN EGG
AIR CELL
3. The air cell is always found on the wide end
of the egg. When peeling a hard-cooked egg, you
always want to start at this air cell.
6
PARTS OF AN EGG
THIN ALBUMEN
THICK ALBUMEN
4 5. There are two types of egg whites in each
egg, the thick and the thin egg whites or
albumen. Egg whites consist of protein and
water. No fat. The older an egg gets, the thinner
the whites become.
7
PARTS OF AN EGG
CHALAZAE
6. The chalazae (cha la zuh) are two rope-like
structures at either end of the egg. They hold
the yolk centered in the egg. As the egg ages,
the chalazae become weaker. When separating the
yolk from the whites, the chalazae often becomes
part of the egg white. Eggs should be stored
pointed end down to maintain the centering of
the yolk and quality of the air cell.
8
PARTS OF AN EGG
7. The yolk is liquid, having no shape of its
own. The round shape of the yolk is due entirely
to the vitelline (vi tuh leen) membrane.
It is completely transparent. When we say we
broke the egg yolk, we actually mean we broke
the vitelline membrane surrounding the yolk.
VITELLINE MEMBRANE
9
PARTS OF AN EGG
  1. The yolk contains protein, fat, and a natural
    thickener or emulsifier called lecithin. The
    color of the yolk depends on the diet of the
    chicken. The fat found in the yolk is a saturated
    fat called cholesterol.

Cholesterol is the type of fat that can clog the
arteries of the body if eaten in excess. People
with heart disease may need to limit egg yolk
intake.
YOLK
10
PARTS OF AN EGG
GERM CELL
9. The germ cell appears as a whitish-colored
disc on the surface of the yolk. It is the part
of the yolk that would develop into a chick if
the egg was fertilized. The hen will lay eggs,
approximately one every 24 hours for 2 years,
whether or not there is a rooster around to
fertilize them before it is laid.
11
EGG GRADING
Egg grades are based on the shape of the yolk and
the amounts of thick and thin whites.
Before they are sold, eggs are graded. This is
done by shining a bright light in a manner so you
can see through the shell. This process is called
candling.
Grade AA egg
Grade A eggs have a flatter yolk and less thick
egg whites
The egg will lose quality as it ages. Eggs must
be refrigerated to maintain quality.
12
EGG GRADING
Grade B eggs will not have a high quality
appearance, and spreads out a lot when removed
from the shell. Grade C eggs are generally
considered unfit for human consumption, but may
be used in pet food products.
13
EGG GRADING
The size of the egg varies with the age of the
chicken. The young pullet lays a much smaller egg
than a mature hen. Most recipes are based on the
use of large eggs. Large eggs weigh 24 oz. per
dozen. You may need to adjust cooking time for
smaller or larger eggs. A larger egg does NOT
denote better quality.
14
How can you tell a fresh egg from a spoiled one?
A spoiled egg has a shiny shell and floats in
water. It is only AFTER you crack open the egg
that it smells bad, and by that time you may have
added the egg to your other ingredients. That
would be TOO LATE! If you suspect that an egg
may be spoiled, use this water test first.
A fresh egg has a domed yolk. There is plenty of
thick egg white (notice both the thick and thin
whites in the picture) and the whites are
translucent (not transparent). A refrigerated
egg maintains maximum freshness for one week.
15
Cooking Rules for Eggs
1. Avoid excessive temperatures
2. Avoid excessive cooking time
16
Cooking Rules for Eggs
As the protein in eggs heats
up, it forms a network or type
of web. If
heating is excessive, the
network becomes tough and rubbery. It also
tightens up, squeezing out water. The food may
become dry or has water standing on the surface.
Overcooked eggs may also turn a greenish color.
This is a reaction of iron in the yolk and sulfur
in the whites that occurs when the cooking is
excessive.
17
COAGULATION DENATURATION OF PROTEIN
Coagulation (ko-ag-yuh-LAY-shun) changes a liquid
protein into a soft, semisolid clot or solid
mass. It occurs when polypeptides unfold during
denaturation and then collide and clump together
during cooking processes. Coagulation is not
reversible.
Coagulation of egg protein caused by heat.
Denaturation (dee-nay-chuh-RAY-shun) is a process
that causes protein to become a looser, less
compact structure. It can be caused by heat,
freezing, sound waves, mechanical treatment like
beating, the addition of ingredients that raise
or lower pH levels, or the presence of minerals
such as sodium, copper, potassium, or iron.
Denaturation is sometimes reversible.
Denaturing protein by mechanical method.
18
Egg safety
According to the American Egg board, about one in
every 20,000 eggs might be contaminated by
Salmonella. To decrease the risk of illness, make
sure to utilize fresh, whole, grade A or AA eggs
that are uncracked and properly refrigerated OR
use frozen or dried pasteurized eggs rather than
shell eggs, OR pasteurize raw eggs before using
them.
When you pasteurize eggs you bring them up to
about 140-150 degrees for 3-5 minutes depending
on the age and the size of the eggs. If the
temperature goes any higher you start to cook the
egg. Pasteurizing eggs wont completely eliminate
the risks that eating raw eggs bring, it will
however drastically reduce the chance of
contamination.
19
Egg safety
Cooking eggs to a temperature of 145º F or higher
kills all disease-causing microorganisms in eggs.
An egg with a runny yolk is a higher risk than
one with a fully-cooked yolk. Avoid holding egg
dishes longer than one-half hour.
Scrambled eggs are less-hazardous than
sunny-side-up eggs. Hard-cooked eggs are safer
than soft-cooked eggs. Higher-risk foods include
mayonnaise, Caesar salad dressings, meringues,
hollandaise and béarnaise sauces, and eggnog.
It is no accident that we feed scrambled eggs to
young children and patients in hospitals.
20
Cooking eggs
The 100 pleats on a chefs toque (toke) (tall,
white hat) are said to represent the 100 ways a
chef can prepare eggs!
Eggs can be baked or shirred (shurred) Place
in greased ramekin or custard cup cover with 1
T. milk bake for 12-18 min. until whites are
set.
Eggs can be poached fried in water, milk, or
broth instead of in fat. Remove the eggs with a
slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Eggs
made without grease are easily digested and
low-calorie.
21
Eggs can be scrambled do not stir
constantly cook until yolks and whites are
firm
Cooking eggs
Blindfolded/basted
Over/over-easy
Eggs can be fried in a small amount of fat A.
sunny-side-up has just-cooked whites B.
over is flipped over during cooking until yolk
is hard C. over-easy is flipped over
during cooking but yolk is soft D.
blindfolded or basted is like sunny side up,
only adding a small amount of water and a lid
forms a film on the top of the yolk
22
Cooking eggs
Eggs can be cooked in the shell (since boiling is
an excessive temperature for eggs, they should
be cooked in hot liquid just under the boiling
point) Soft-cooked eggs are brought to
boiling, and then allowed to sit in the hot water
for 4-5 minutes run under cold water until they
are cool enough to handle. Hard-cooked eggs are
brought to boiling, and then allowed to sit in
hot water for 15 minutes (large eggs). Cool
immediately.
23
Functions of Eggs
  • Eggs have numerous functions when used as an
    ingredient in various types of foods.

.
24
Functions of Eggs
  1. They add flavor
  2. They add color
  3. They cause foods to get thick a thickener

This hollandaise sauce is the perfect example of
using eggs to add flavor, color, AND to thicken.
.
25
Functions of Eggs
4. They are a binder they hold foods together
Without the eggs, this meatloaf would fall apart.
26
Functions of Eggs
5. Mixing coffee grounds with egg (and even the
egg shells) before brewing clarifies the
coffee trapping the dust from the grounds and
keeping it clear and less bitter
27
Functions of Eggs
6. They help create structure as the protein
in the egg coagulates
.
28
Functions of Eggs
7. They cause browning when using an egg
wash
Egg washes are commonly used on pastries and
breads for a glossy, brown coloring.
.
29
Functions of Eggs
8. They preserve texture egg yolks are natural
emulsifiers, which help keep batters smooth. An
emulsifier has the ability of keeping a fat and a
liquid mixed together without separation.
9. They enrich adding nutrients such as
protein
.
30
Functions of Eggs
10. They are a leavening agent beaten eggs
incorporate air, which rises up as it warms
  • They add
  • moisture

.
31
Separating Eggs
Some recipes call just for the egg whites, while
others call only for the yolks. When separating
the two parts, be careful not to break the yolk.
Use the method of separation that works the best
for you strive to learn the most efficient
method.
Most efficient method
32
Separating Eggs
Use the sharp, jagged edge of the broken egg
shell to remove any unwanted yolk or pieces of
shell from your egg mixture. The edge of the
shell will cut through the whites, when the edge
of a spoon or knife will not.
33
Egg whites start out being slimy. As they are
beaten, air is added. The whites turn from pale
yellow to white in color and increase in
volume. The more volumethe better. You
should follow as many rules as possible for
increasing the volume of beaten egg whites!
A. Eggs should be at room temperature
B. Dont get any yolk mixed in with the whites
C. Use a smaller deep bowl, rather than a

larger shallow one
D. Use a copper bowl
E. Make sure eggs are at least 3 days old
F. No grease residue allowed! (none on beaters,
bowl, etc.)
34
A meringue is basically a mixture of
beaten egg whites and sugar, baked in an oven.
Although there are several types, the most common
use of meringue is as a topping for pies.
MERINGUE
If the oven temperature is too high, the meringue
will shrivel and shrink back from the edges of
the crust. Too low of temperature causes the
meringue to be dry. If too much sugar is beaten
into the egg whites, yellow liquid beads of
sugar appear on the baked and cooled meringue
surface. This is an undesirable quality is
called weeping.
35
What might have caused your egg whites to turn
gray while being beaten?
You were probably using an aluminum bowl or
aluminum beaters, or perhaps your nickel or
chrome plated beaters have a nick on the finish.
Egg whites exposed to aluminum causes them to
turn gray in color!
What caused your egg whites to turn green while
being beaten?
Were you using a copper bowl that had traces of
some sort of acid presentlike cream of tartar or
lemon juice? The metal copper in combination
with acid causes egg whites to turn a greenish
color!
36
Selecting eggs for hard-cooking (hard boiling)
...
In eggs fresher than 3 days old, the outer
membrane adheres to the shell during the cooking
process. When you try to peel the egg, chunks of
egg white cling to the shell, and are removed
when the egg is peeled. What a mess!
EGGS USED FOR HARD-COOKING MUST BE AT LEAST 3
DAYS OLD!
37
How can you tell a raw egg from a hard-cooked egg
without breaking the shell?
Place the egg on its pointed end, and spin it
like a toy top. A hard-cooked egg will spin, but
a raw egg will topple over immediately! (The
heavy yolk wobbles back and forth inside, causing
the egg to topple over.)
38
Adding egg yolks to hot mixtures...
You cannot add egg yolks directly to hot mixtures
or the egg will cook instantly and cause lumps!
You must first warm the yolks. Begin by slowly
adding the hot mixture to the beaten yolks while
stirring the yolks constantly. Then reverse the
procedure, adding the warmed yolks to the hot
mixture. This process of warming the yolks
first is called
tempering!
39
CUSTARDS
A custard is any soft, egg-based dish.
Unsweetened ones can be served as main or side
dishes, while sweet custards are served for
dessert.
Real men dont eat quiche! The delicate flavors
of a custard-based quiche are often not
appreciated by the meat and potatoes crowd.
Quiche Lorraine is an egg pie with bacon and
Swiss cheese.
Pumpkin pie and baked custard cups (a type of
steamed pudding) are two favorite dessert
custards.
40
CUSTARDS
Use the knife test to check a custard for
doneness. Insert the knife halfway between the
center and the edge of the dish. If the knife
comes out cleanthe custard is done.
Custard cups are often set in a pan of water for
baking. The water moderates the baking
temperature so the outside edge does not overbake
before the center gets done.
Crème brûlée is a baked custard with a hard sugar
coating, burned under a grill or with a
blowtorch.
41
Delicate egg sauces...
A classic vanilla sauce is called a crème anglais
(krem an-GLAY). It is a delicate sauce that is
made from milk, egg yolks, and sugar.
A hollandaise sauce, such as one over Eggs
Benedict or poured over green vegetables is a
delicate lemon-butter-egg sauce.
curdled
Sauces may need to be made in a double boiler. If
they overheat, they may curdle. It will appear
separated or develop lumps. Straining the sauce
may help save it.
42
Delicate egg sauces...
A pastry cream is a sweetened pudding-like
filling for cream puffs or éclairs. Sabayon
(suh-by-OWN) is a very fragile foam of egg yolks,
sugar, and Marsala wine.
Quality ice cream has a custard base (cream or
milk and eggs). It does not weep or separate as
it softens at room temperature.
43
Challenging egg dishes...
Are you looking for a challenge? Perhaps you
should try making a soufflé. Served as a main or
side dish, or sweetened and served as dessertthe
key ingredient of any souffle are the beaten egg
whites that are carefully folded in. The
voluminous egg whites cause the souffle to rise,
but even a slight vibration or temperature change
may cause it to fall!
This high hat soufflé is baked in a straight
sided dish. It rises above the edge of the dish
and obtains a crown-effect.
44
Made by hard-BOILING the eggs
COMMON EGG DISHES DEVILLED EGGS
1. Check eggs for cracks. Cover with cold water.
2. Bring water to just-under-boiling. Time for
10 minutes.
3. Immediately cool eggs. Overcooking allows
the iron in the yolk to reach the outside of the
yolk and leave a green ring around the yolk.
4. Remove shells.
6. Place yolks in a shallow dish, such as a pie
plate.
7. Thoroughly mash yolks with a fork.
5. Cut eggs in half lengthwise and remove yolks.
8. Moisten with mayonnaise. Add mustard and
seasonings to taste.
9. Fill hollows of egg whites with the yolk
mixture. Garnish as desired. Paprika is a
popular garnishadding color and sweetness.
45
COMMON EGG DISHES FRENCH SOUFFLÉD OMELETS
1. Select a skillet with sloping sides and a
lid. Non-stick surfaces such as teflon are ideal.
2. Beat whole eggs and seasonings. Usually 2 or
3 eggs are used.
3. Melt butter in skillet (even if teflon) and
add beaten eggs.
4. Carefully lift edges of cooked eggs, allowing
uncooked mixture to run underneath.
5. If you are adding fillings such as diced ham
and grated cheese, place those fillings on only ½
of the egg mixture. Adding the lid at this time
will help heat the filling.
6.Using a spatula/turner, carefully lift the
unfilled side of the cooked egg mixture and fold
it in half over the filled side of the omelet.
Continue cooking til filling is completely done.
7. Carefully slide the omelet out of the skillet
and onto a plate.
8. Serve this French omelet plain or with
condiments.
A fluffy or souffléd omelet is one in which
stiffly beaten egg whites are folded into egg
yolks. It starts cooking on the stovetop and
finishes in the oven. It is not filled, but
often served with sauce.
46
THE END
NOW IT'S YOUR TURN TO COOK
THE INCREDIBLE, EDIBLE EGGS!
About PowerShow.com