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Energy Policy: Introduction to Energy Policy and Energy Basics


Energy Policy: Introduction to Energy Policy and Energy Basics Frank Felder NJIT EPS 699 Lecture #1 Overview of Today s Class Motivation for course Course structure ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Policy: Introduction to Energy Policy and Energy Basics

Energy Policy Introduction to Energy Policy and
Energy Basics
  • Frank Felder
  • NJIT EPS 699
  • Lecture 1

Overview of Todays Class
  • Motivation for course
  • Course structure and requirements
  • Energy literacy quiz
  • Introduction to energy policy
  • Energy basics

  • Whooo are you, who, who, who the . are you?
  • Who am I?

Why Energy Policy?
  • Why is energy policy important?
  • Why study it in an environmental policy/studies
  • What are the major energy policy issues
    confronting us?
  • Is, and if so why, governmental action necessary
    to address our energy problems?

What Are the Fundamental Characteristics of
Energy Problems?
  • Complex
  • Difficult to predict
  • Different time scales for different subsystems
  • Uncertainty
  • Large
  • Large impacts
  • Long-lived, sunk investments
  • Large-scale
  • Integrated
  • Closely coupled subsystems through feedback loops
  • Open
  • Competing social and political values
  • System

CLIOS Complex, Large, Integrated, Open System
(Prof. Joseph Sussman, MIT)
Course Structure and Requirements
  • Combination of lectures and discussions
  • One short memo
  • Midterm on readings and lecture materials
  • Nuclear power case study that integrates much of
    what you will have learned
  • Team-based case study presentations
  • Individual write up of case study

Question 1 How Much Energy Does the World Have?
  • Are we running out of energy?
  • Which energy sources will we run out of first?
  • Have we run out of energy sources in the past?
  • How accurate are forecasts of future energy
  • What factors affect the amount of recoverable
    energy resources?

Question 2 What is the Relationship between
Energy Use and Environmental Damage?
  • Which energy resources are the most
    environmentally destructive?
  • Which energy resources are the most
    environmentally benign?
  • Is our current consumption of energy sustainable?
  • Which energy resources are sustainable?
  • What are the negative consequences, if any, of
    switching from fossil fuels to other forms of

Question 3 What is the Relationship between
Energy Use and Development?
  • Does increasing energy consumption cause wealth
    or is it a result of wealth?
  • Must per capital energy consumption increase to
    improve our standard of living?
  • What link, if any, exists between our culture and
    energy consumption?
  • How is economic development measured?

Question 4 What are Some Basic Energy Factoids?
  • How much oil does the U.S. import and from whom?
  • How much natural gas does the U.S. import and
    from whom?
  • What is the fuel mix of the U.S. electric power
  • How much does oil, natural gas, and electricity
    cost in the U.S.?
  • What are the different pollutants emitted by
    different energy sources?

Energy Policy
  • What is policy?
  • A a definite course or method of action
    selected from among alternatives and in light of
    given conditions to guide and determine present
    and future decisions B a high-level overall
    plan embracing the general goals and acceptable
    procedures especially of a governmental body
    (Merriam-Webster on line)
  • Public policy is government action or inaction in
    response to social problems (Kraft Vig, 2003)
  • What are the objectives of energy policies?
  • Who makes energy policy?
  • How is energy policy made?
  • What are the major stakeholders in energy policy?
  • How would you determine what energy policy is for
    the U.S., NJ, .?

Energy Policy (cont)
  • Why is energy policy so contentious?
  • How does energy policy depend on the process that
    makes it?
  • Legislative, executive, court, agency (commission
    vs. administrator)
  • How does energy policy depend on where it is in
    the policy cycle
  • Formulation, legitimization, implementation,
    evaluation, and change
  • Which federal governmental bodies and agencies
    substantially shape energy policy?
  • State level?
  • Local level?
  • What are the jurisdictional issues that arise in
    U.S. energy policy?
  • How should energy policies be made versus how
    they actually are?

Energy Policy (cont)
  • Given the division of governmental authority in
    the U.S., what are its implications for energy
  • How is energy policy articulated and promulgated?
  • What are the causes of uncertainty in energy
  • What analytical tools and methodologies are used
    to evaluate energy policies?
  • What are the important components of energy
  • What motivates changes in energy policies?
  • What are the major milestones in U.S. energy
    policy over the last 50 years?

Generic Types of Energy Policy
  • Fiscal
  • Taxes
  • Subsidies
  • Grants
  • Government purchases
  • Land use
  • Laws
  • Regulation, mandates, permits
  • Market structures
  • Political support
  • Education
  • Inaction
  • Others?

Energy Basics
  • Energy is the ability to do work
  • Work is applying a force through a distance
  • Kinetic energy versus potential energy
  • KE energy of motion
  • PE energy of location
  • Power is the rate of work per unit time

Energy Units
  • Small units
  • Calorie, ft-lb, joule (J)
  • Moderate physical activity, small electrical
  • Medium units
  • Kwh, kcal, Btu
  • Food, home heating/cooling
  • Large units
  • Quad, Mtoe (mega-tonne oil equivalent), Mbbl
    (millions of barrels)
  • National and world usage

Energy Units (cont)
  • 1 Quad 1015 Btu (quad quadrillion)
  • 1 Btu 1055 J
  • 1 calorie 4.2 J
  • 1 Mtoe 6.46 Mbbl 3.981013 Btu
  • 1 bbl 42 gallons
  • 1 kWh 3,410 Btu

Energy Types
  • Chemical position of atoms in molecules
  • Nuclear position of protons and neutrons in
  • Mechanical energy
  • Heat depends kinetic energy of atoms or
  • Efficiency (energy output)/(energy input)
  • How efficient is an automobile, a coal-fired
    power plant, .?

Energy Sources
  • Fossil fuels coal, oil, natural gas
  • Nuclear uranium
  • Renewable solar, hydro, wind, biomass,
    geothermal, and tidal
  • What are the origins of these sources of energy?
  • What is really meant by the term renewable?
  • What is meant by the term fuel cycle?
  • What is meant by the term fuel supply chain?

Fossil Fuels
  • Within each type of fossil fuel, there are many
    types, which have implications for their
    environmental impact and energy content
  • There is an extensive, capital-intensive energy
    infrastructure that explores, drills, converts
    and transports fossil fuels from source to
  • Three major groups
  • Coal, oil, and natural gas
  • Three major uses
  • Transportation, heating, and electricity
  • Which use(s) is(are) increasing?

Fossil Fuels (cont)
  • What are the unit of measures of coal, oil, and
    natural gas?
  • How much of these fuels are consumed on a daily
  • In the world?
  • In the U.S.?
  • In NJ?
  • Where are these resources located?
  • What are the political implications of the
    location of these resources?
  • How are they transported?

  • Nuclear reactors use enriched uranium to heat
    water into steam to generate electricity
  • BWR
  • PWR
  • MWt vs MWe
  • Questions
  • How many nuclear reactors are there in the U.S.?
  • Which countries are developing nuclear power
  • What are the safety and proliferation risks of
    nuclear power?
  • What are the nuclear production trends in the
  • What is the nuclear fuel cycle?

Renewables Sources of Energy
  • Hydro, wind, biomass, solar, geothermal, tidal
  • Questions
  • Which resource is the least costly?
  • Which resource has the most potential?
  • What are the environmental consequences of these
    renewable resources?

Energy Conservation
  • What is meant by energy conservation?
  • Is energy conservation an energy resource?
  • How much savings could this resource provide?
  • Why isnt more conservation taking place?
  • What is meant by the term market barrier?

Basic Physics Laws of Thermodynamics
  • Law 1 energy is neither created nor destroyed,
    but only converted from one form to another
    (conservation of energy)
  • Law 2 during energy conversion, some of it is
    dissipated into a lower-grade form of energy (law
    of entropy)
  • What, if any, are the policy implications of
    these two laws?