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Eric Breckoff, M.B.A. David Barrish, M.P.A., CHA October 26, 2007


Eric Breckoff, M.B.A. David Barrish, M.P.A., CHA October 26, 2007 Session Objectives Cheese What is Cheese? Cheese is defined as a food product made from the pressed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Eric Breckoff, M.B.A. David Barrish, M.P.A., CHA October 26, 2007

Eric Breckoff, M.B.A.David Barrish, M.P.A.,
CHA October 26, 2007
  • Creating Memorable College Events

Session Objectives
Discuss the types and origins of different cheeses in relation to particular applications. Discuss wine recommendations to create a symbiotic table of food and wine. Combine this knowledge to create memorable college events.
  • Cheese

What is Cheese?
  • Cheese is defined as a food product made from the
    pressed curd of milk.
  • Cheese is thought of as a living food because of
    the friendly, living bacteria that are
    continually changing it.
  • It is believed that sheeps and goats milk were
    first used to make cheese, as these were probably
    the first domesticated animals appropriate for

  • Wines, sausages, dried foods, and cheeses are all
    the results of preservation practices known to
    ancient peoples, then refined, recorded, and
    evolved over time
  • The Bible includes numerous references to cheese
  • The Romans were the first to mass-produce cheese
    to be carried on long journeys and used by their
    armies as a convenient form of concentrated

  • During the Dark Ages, the tradition of cheese
    making were preserved and refined by religious
    houses and monasteries, as were the traditions of
    wine and spirit making.
  • Until the early to mid-1800s, cheese production
    continued on an individual home or cottage level

Cheese Making
  • The techniques used today to produce cheese have
    changed little since the times of the Romans and
    the medieval monasteries, but scientific
    discoveries have led to better control of the
    natural processes involved in cheese making.

Cheese Making
  • In the nineteenth century, scientists were able
    to identify the many bacteria present in the
    milk, the air, and the caves used for ripening.
  • By the turn of the century, pure cultures were
    made available and allowed for more uniform
    results from cheese maker to cheese maker when
    producing cheese within a single variety.

The Cheese-Making Process
  • The basic stages in the modern production are
  • Milk and its pretreatment, including
    homogenizing, pasteurizing, or heating
  • Acidification of milk, to change the pH level

  • The type of milk the cheese maker chooses is
    critical to the development of the cheese. Not
    only are there different milks, there are also
    various ways to collect, combine, and treat milk.
  • Parmigiano Reggiano, is traditionally made by
    combining the richer milk collected in the
    evening with the leaner milk of the next days
    first milking.

  • Originally cheeses were aged in caves, where
    conditions were perfect for ripening to take
  • Cheeses may be ripened in leaves, ashes, wax
    rinds, pr no rind at all.
  • Some are rubbed or washed.
  • In some cases, holes are made in the cheeses to
    allow gases produced by bacteria to escapes in
    others, the gases are confined Swiss cheese.

  • Special addition bacteria cultures or molds are
    introduced in many cheeses by injecting,
    spraying, or washing them.
  • Once these steps are done, the rest of the work
    is left to nature.

Cheese Classifications
  • There are several categories by which they can be
    referenced. Milk type, country of origin,
    region, handling, aging, and texture are some of
    the various classification strategies.
  • For the sake of discussion, broad groups of
    cheese that have been loosely categorized
    according to texture.

The basic cheese categories
  • Fresh
  • Rind-ripened
  • Semi-soft
  • Blue cheeses
  • Pasta filata
  • Hard
  • Very Hard

Soft Fresh Cheeses
  • Soft fresh cheeses are those cheeses that are
    un-ripened and generally have a fresh, clean,
    creamy flavor. Examples of soft fresh cheeses
    are cottage cheese, queso blanco, and cream
  • Ricotta cheese, made from recooking whey,
    actually began in Italy as a by-product of the
    cheese-making industry.
  • Mascarpone is a fresh cheese made by curdling
    heavy cream with acid.

Soft Ripened Cheeses
  • Soft ripened cheeses are those that have
    typically been sprayed or dusted with a mold and
    allowed to ripen. Two most popular varieties are
    probably Brie and Camembert.
  • Soft ripened cheeses are available in varying
    degrees of richness. Single, double, and triple
    cream cheese have 50, 60, 70 percent butterfat,
  • Soft ripened cheeses can be served at room
    temperature as a dessert cheese or as an

Soft Ripened Cheeses
  • Soft ripened cheeses should be eaten only when
    properly ripened. An under-ripe cheese will run
    when cut, and a cheese ready for eating will
    bulge when cut and barely hold its shape.
  • Soft ripened cheeses will ripen only until they
    are cut into. After that they will begin to dry
    and deteriorate. An overripe cheese can be
    identified by an ammonia odor.
  • It still remains a matter of taste as to whether
    soft ripened cheeses should be eaten with the

Semi-Soft Cheeses
  • Semi-soft cheeses include a wide variety ranging
    from mild and buttery to very pungent and
  • These include Havarti, Edam, Gouda, Fontina,
    Port Salut.
  • They are allowed to ripen in several ways.

Rind-Ripened Cheeses
  • Wash-rind cheeses are periodically washed with
    brine, beer, cider, wine, brandy, or oils during
    the ripening period.
  • This remoistening encourages bacterial growth,
    sometimes known as smear. Popular examples of
    this type of cheese include Limburger, intensely
    pungent, Muenster, Saint Paulin, and Port-Salut.

Dry-Rind Cheeses
  • Dry-rind cheeses are those that are allowed to
    form a natural rind during ripening.
  • Havarti, another popular dry-rind cheese, has a
    buttery flavor that is often enhanced with herbs
    or spices such as dill, caraway, and basil.

Waxed-Rind Cheeses
  • Gouda and Edam are semi-soft cheeses that are
    sealed in wax prior to the aging process.
  • These cheeses, which get their names from two
    towns in Holland, have been made for eight
    hundred years.
  • Gouda is made form whole milk and tends to be
    softer and richer than Edam.

Blue-Veined Cheeses
  • Blue or blue-veined cheeses are thought to have
    been among some of the first cheeses produced.
  • In the modern production of blue cheeses, needles
    are used to form holes that allow gases to escape
    and oxygen to enter to support mold growth within
    the cheese.
  • Some of the most famous blue cheeses are the
    French Roquefort, Italian Gorgonzola, English
    Stilton, and American Maytag blue.

Blue-Veined Cheeses
  • Roquefort is made strictly from raw sheeps milk.
  • One of the things that makes Roquefort unique is
    the fact that the mold is not grown in a
    laboratory, as are molds for many other blue
  • Instead, Roquefort mold is developed naturally
    from rye bread.

Blue-Veined Cheeses
  • Gorgonzola is made from cows milk.
  • Gorgonzola is made with evening milk and the
    following days morning milk.
  • There are two varieties available sweet, which
    is aged three months, and naturale, which is
    aged further and has a fuller, more robust

Pasta Filata Cheeses
  • Pasta filata literally means spun curds or
    spun paste. During manufacture, the curds are
    dipped into hot water and then stretched or spun
    until the proper consistency and texture is
  • They are then kneaded and molded into the desired
  • Pasta filata cheeses are group of cheese that are
    related by the process used in their manufacture,
    rather than by their texture.
  • The textures of pasta filata cheeses run the
    gamut from soft to hard.

Pasta Filata Cheeses
  • The most common cheese of this category is
    mozzarella. There are two types of mozzarella
    available the traditional fresh style, which is
    available in a variety of shapes and sizes, and
    the newer American invention of low-moisture
    mozzarella, which has a longer shelf life than
    the fresh style.

Pasta Filata Cheeses
  • Provolone is another popular pasta filata cheese
    that is similarly handled but is made with a
    different culture. Once the curd is stretched
    and kneaded, it is rubbed with brine and tied
    into shape. It is then hung and left to dry in.
    Provolone is often smoked and/or aged additional
    character and firmer texture.

Hard Cheeses
  • Cheddars, originating in England, and Swiss-style
    cheeses are among the most well known.
  • Cheddar derives its name from the process used in
    its manufacture. The cheddaring process
    involves turning and stacking the slabs of young
    cheese to extract more whey and give the cheese
    its characteristic texture.
  • The yellow color of some cheddars is achieved
    through the addition of annatto seed paste and
    had nothing to do with the flavor.

Hard Cheeses
  • Once the cheddaring process is complete, the
    cheeses are wrapped in cheesecloth dipped in wax
    allowed to ripen. Cheddars are categorized by
  • Current Cheddar is aged for thirty days, mild for
    one to three months, medium for three to six
    months, sharp for six to nine months, and extra
    sharp for nine months to five years.
  • Colby is another truly American cheese that was
    invented in the town of Colby, Wisconsin, in

Hard Cheeses
  • Monterey Jack is also an American original
    produced in the style of Cheddar.
  • The family of cheese generically referred to as
    Swiss are also hard cheeses. Are characterized
    by holes, sometimes called eyes, that range in
    size from tiny to the size of a quarter.
  • Some of the more well-known varieties of Swiss
    cheese include Gruyéer, Emmentaler, Beaufort, and

Very Hard Cheeses
  • In Italy, these cheeses are known as grainy
    cheeses, because of their granular texture. The
    most popular of these cheeses are Parmesan and
  • Very hard cheeses are most often grated or
    shaved, but they are also traditionally eaten in
    chunks broken off with a special knife.

Very Hard Cheeses
  • True Parmigiano-Reggiano require it is be aged a
    minimum of fourteen months, although most are
    aged for twenty-four months. Stratvechio, or
    extra aged, is ripened for as much as three
  • Romano cheeses-named for the city of Rome.
    Pecorino Romano is made with sheeps milk.
    Caprino Romano is very sharp goats milk version,
    and vacchino Romano is a mild version made from
    cows milk.

Presenting the Cheeses
  • Cheeses should be allowed to come to room
    temperature before they are served.
  • This process, known as aromatization, brings out
    the fullest flavor of the cheese, so that all its
    nuances can be enjoyed.

Caring for Cheeses
  • Storage and Handling
  • It is critical to maintain the highest standards
    in sanitations during handling activities.
    Cheese may be a potentially hazardous food, it
    handled improperly.
  • If cheeses become unnaturally moldy, it should be

Partners Accompaniments for cheeses
  • Three types of foods have a natural affinity for
    cheese wine or beer, bread and bread variations
    such as crackers, and fruits.
  • Wine, particularly tannic wine, offers a perfect
    counterpoint to the richness of cheese because
    the acidic quality of wine cuts through the
  • The sweet juiciness of many fruits also pair well
    with the earthy richness of cheeses. Classic
    examples include apples and Cheddar or pears and
    blue cheese.

Types of Wines
  • Still wine
  • Effervescent wine
  • Table wine
  • Aperitif wine
  • Dessert wine
  • Port
  • Fortified wine

  • Wine has been an integral part of the human
    experience for nearly 70 centuries.
  • Wine is the result of the fermentation of juice
    from grapes.
  • Fermentation is a natural process that acts to
    stabilize grape juice and allow it to be stored
    as wine for later consumption.
  • The alcohol in wine that is produced by
    fermentation also prevents the growth of
    pathogenic microorganisms.

The History of Wine
  • Wine was first consumed in the areas of Persia
    (modern day Iran) around 5000 to 6000 BC.
  • Though the exact nature of the wine is uncertain,
    it was probably made from dates or other tree
    fruits native to the region rather than grapes.
  • Around 3000 BC, winemaking from grapes began with
    the Egyptians and the Phoenicians producing wines
    from grapes.

The Twentieth Century
  • Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, wine production
    and consumption grew at an increasing pace.
  • In America producers began naming their wines
    after the grape varieties they were made of
    (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay) instead
    of following the common practice of using French
    geographic names, such as Burgundy or Chablis, to
    identify their wines.

  • In Europe, the lesser known regions of southern
    France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Hungary, and even
    the former countries of the Eastern Block are now
    making wines that are on par with those of some
    of the best traditional growing regions.
  • In the United States, New York, Washington,
    Oregon, Virginia, and Texas are now recognized
    wine producers.
  • Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina,
    Hungary, and South Africa have also become known
    for producing wines of excellent value.

Grapes Used for Winemaking
  • Grapes are the preferred fruit for wine
  • Grape juice has all the attributes necessary for
    fermenting the juice.
  • The outside of the grape berry is covered with a
    waxy layer that contains naturally occurring
  • The great majority of wine produced in the world
    is from grapes.

Vitis vinifera
  • There are many indigenous species of grapes
    worldwide, but the overwhelming majority of wine
    produced is from the species Vitis vinifera.
  • This species is native to Asia Minor.
  • Within the species Vitis vinifera there are over
    5,000 named cultivars only a fraction are grown
  • Grapevines can be propagated by using cuttings to
    form a separate vine that is a clone of the
    original vine.

  • Terroir is the French term to describe all the
    environmental factors that nature imparts to a
    given vineyard.
  • Terroir is a holistic philosophy and relates to
    all the properties of the soil, topography, and
    all the climatic conditions.
  • The concept of terroir is not only having the
    proper environment to grow grapes but also
    matching the variety and vineyard management to
    suit the terroir.

Major Grape Varieties
  • Although there are thousands of varieties of
    Vitis vinifera that are grown for winemaking,
    only a few make up the vast majority of

  • Barbera produces intensely colored, tart wines
    with moderate tannins.
  • It is native to the Piedmont region of Italy.
  • The grapes tendency to hold on to its acid in
    warm climates made it popular as a blender in
    wines from warm areas.
  • Interest in growing premium Italian varietals
    have led to increased plantings in the coastal
    growing regions in California.

Cabernet Franc
  • From the Bordeaux and Loire regions of France.
  • Has small berries and loose to compact clusters.
    Related to Cabernet Sauvignon, it typically
    produces wines with less complexity and lighter
    tannins and color than its relative does.
  • It is most often used for blending with Cabernet
    Sauvignon and Merlot in a Bordeaux-style blend.

Cabernet Sauvignon
  • The classic variety of Bordeaux, it is one of the
    most popular varieties grown worldwide.
  • It is a late season ripener with loose clusters
    and thick-skinned berries that make it resistant
    to rot.
  • It is known for its excellent color and tannins
    combined with complex flavor.
  • In 1997 DNA research determined that Cabernet
    Sauvignon is a cross between Cabernet Franc and
    Sauvignon Blanc.
  • While 100 percent of Cabernet Sauvignons are
    often made with great success, blending with
    other Bordeaux varieties makes a more balanced
    and complex wine.

  • One of the best known white varieties, Chardonnay
    comes from the Burgundy and Chablis regions of
  • It is a mid-season ripener allowing it to be
    grown in cool regions.
  • A versatile variety can be made in a number of
  • Chardonnays popularity resulted in extensive
    planting in California throughout the 1980s and

Chenin Blanc
  • Chenin Blanc is native to the Loire Valley of
  • It is a prodigious producer and adapts well to a
    number of different soils and climates.
  • It is popular throughout the world, although in
    most areas outside of France it is considered a
    simple grape and used for making inexpensive
  • Usually made into a clean, crisp, wine with a
    minimum of oak aging, it can be made in either
    sweet or dry styles.

  • Gewürztraminer is a white grape, but unlike other
    white varieties, it turns a deep russet color at
    ripeness instead of staying green or yellow.
  • Cool growing conditions help to bring out the
    distinct floral-spicy aroma for which the variety
    is famous.
  • Gewürztraminer makes a delicious dry wine
    however, it is best known for it sweeter styles
    including late harvest dessert wines.

  • Grenache is the most popular grape in the
    Southern Rhône Valley, where it is the mainstay
    of the Rhône blend Châteauneuf du Pape.
  • It has ripe, fruity, plum-like flavors with
    moderate tanninsqualities that make it useful
    for blending with Syrah, which can be more
  • It thrives under warm growing conditions and can
    support a large cropload on fertile soils.
  • In cooler areas with a lighter crop, it produces
    much better wine.

  • Merlot is from the Bordeaux region where it is
    sometimes made into a wine by itself, but more
    often is blended with Cabernet Sauvignon.
  • It has similar flavors to Cabernet but has a
    softer mouth feel and gets ripe earlier in the
  • Merlots have become popular because the good
    flavors and the lighter body make it more
    approachable with novice wine drinkers.
  • Its consumer acceptance has made it one of the
    most widely planted grapes in California. Its
    success has led to overplanting.

Muscat Blanc
  • Also called Muscat Canelli, it is a member of the
    Muscat family of grapes.
  • There are more than 200 different varieties of
    Muscat with varying skin color and flavor.
  • It has a distinct Muscat aroma that is
    described as intensely fruity and floral.
  • It can be made in a variety of styles from a
    light-bodied and dry table wine to a fortified
    dessert wine.

Petite Sirah
  • Called Durif in France, it is descended from a
    cross between Syrah and Peloursin.
  • Petite Sirah has found a great deal of popularity
    in California.
  • It makes a deeply colored, full-bodied wine with
    lots of fruity aromas.
  • While it makes an excellent varietal wine, it is
    often blended with other reds, particularly

Pinot Blanc
  • Known as Pinot Bianco in Italy and Weissburgunder
    in Germany and Austria, it is a green-skinned
    clone of Pinot Gris.
  • Pinot Blanc does best in cool areas and has
    flavors that are similar to Chardonnay, but more
    delicate in nature.
  • In Europe, it is generally used to make crisp,
    light-bodied wines with a minimum of oak aging.
  • In California, a riper style is produced with
    more body and often more oak.

Pinot Gris/Pinot Grigio
  • This is known as Pinot Gris in France and Pinot
    Grigio in Italy.
  • The parent of Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris itself is
    mutated from the red variety Pinot Noir.
  • Although it produces a white wine, the clusters
    have a light pinkish/brown color.
  • It is an early season ripener and is popular in
    cool regions with short growing seasons.
  • It is currently one of the fastest growing
    varieties in America in terms of consumption, due
    to imports as well as new plantings.

Pinot Noir
  • The primary grape of Burgundy, it has a
    reputation for producing excellent, long-aging
  • It also has a reputation for being both difficult
    to grow and make into wine.
  • Pinot Noir has many clones, from those that are
    suited to sparkling wine production to Burgundy
    clones for table wine.
  • It ripens early and does best in cool conditions.
  • It is a delicate wine and must be treated very
    gently at the winery so that the balance and
    flavor is not lost.

  • Called White Riesling or Johannisberg Riesling in
    the United States, it is the most famous variety
    grown in Germany.
  • Riesling is similar in character to
  • In cool areas, the fruity qualities and tart acid
    that the grape is known for are preserved.
  • It can be made in a number of styles from dry,
    tart table wines to sweet dessert wines.
  • In the 1970s it was the most expensive grape
    grown in California however, it fell out of
    favor as the public started to drink more dry

  • Sangiovese is the classic grape of the Tuscany
    region and is the major variety in Chianti wines.
  • The varietys thin-skinned berries leave it
    vulnerable to rain and high temperatures at
    ripeness, and it can sometimes have light color.
  • It produces tart wines with medium body and
    cherry flavors.
  • Sangioveses do well on their own or blended with
    other red varieties such as Merlot or Cabernet

Sauvignon Blanc
  • Sauvignon Blanc, also known as Fumé Blanc, grows
    vigorous vines that produce tight clusters of
    thin-skinned berries.
  • The thin skins make it very susceptible to rot.
  • It has a distinct varietal aroma that runs a
    spectrum that includes vegetative, grassy,
    gooseberry, and melon.
  • When grown under cool conditions, the varietal
    character can become very intense.
  • The classic white variety of the Graves district
    in France, it has also found acclaim in New
    Zealand and California.

  • The dominant grape used in Rioja wines of Spain
    and widely planted in Argentina, Tempranillo has
    vigorous vines that ripen early in the season and
    produce thick-skinned berries.
  • It makes an intense wine with excellent color and
    tannins, and its aroma typically has notes of
    strawberries and plums with earthy overtones.
  • It is also grown in Portugal where it is known as
    Tinta Roriz.

  • From the Rhône region, this distinctive grape is
    difficult to grow and has low yielding vines.
  • It makes a relatively low acid wine with very
    intense tropical and floral fragrances.
  • Sometimes it is blended with other varieties to
    add structure and tone down the strong aromas.
  • It is becoming increasingly popular in
    California, but is still not widely planted.

  • Native to Europe, Zinfandel is best known in
  • Recent DNA analysis has determined it to be the
    Croatian variety Crljenak Kastelanski.
  • In Croatia only twenty vines were found to be
    still in production.
  • It has large, thin-skinned clusters that have a
    tendency to become overripe in hot weather,
    resulting in a high alcohol wine that has a
    raisiny character.
  • It makes a full-bodied wine with blackberry and
    pepper flavors and light tannins.

Sparkling Wine
  • Sparkling wine is defined as wine with bubbles or
  • It was developed in the Champagne region of
    France in the 1700s, and was the result of two
    seventeenth-century winemaking inventions the
    cork and the wine bottle.

Dryness vs. Sweetness
  • Extra-brut
  • Brut
  • Extra-dry
  • Sec
  • Semi-sec
  • Doux

Dessert and Fortified Wines
  • There are multitudes of unique dessert and
    fortified wines that are produced throughout the
  • Dessert wines are made with appreciable sugar and
    often have higher alcohol to stabilize the wine
    and prevent it from fermenting in the bottle.

Dessert and Fortified Wines (continued)
  • Dessert wines are an excellent dessert in
    themselves as a digestive after a meal, or they
    can be a complement to a sweet dessert course.
  • We examine the production methods used in some of
    the most common types of dessert wines
    late-harvest, Port, and Sherry.

Late-Harvest Wines
  • Late-harvest wines are made from grapes picked at
    a much higher sugar level than those for table
  • They achieve this higher level of sugar
    concentration due to the fruit partially
    dehydrating on the vine.
  • This high sugar means that the yeast will have a
    difficult time fermenting due to the combined
    inhibitory effects of alcohol and sugar
  • When the fermentation eventually stops without
    finishing, a microbial stable, sweet wine is

Late-Harvest Wines (continued)
  • This dehydration is increased by an infection of
    a mold that is usually considered a vineyard
    pest, Botrytis cinerea or noble rot.
  • This mold is a common problem in vineyards and is
    normally discouraged by applying sulfur dust.
  • Under the right conditions, it has the ability to
    make some of the worlds best wines.

Late-Harvest Wines (continued)
  • The Botrytis begins its infection when ripe
    grapes are exposed to high humidity.
  • When wet weather is followed by dry warm weather,
    the berries dehydrate to reach the high sugar
    levels needed.
  • Two excellent examples of this are the
    Trockenbeerenauslese, or TBA, of Germany and the
    Sauternes wines of France.

Late-Harvest Wines (continued)
  • Late-harvest grapes, because of the high solids
    and sugar, are notoriously difficult to press and
  • The unique weather conditions that are required,
    combined with the difficulty of their production,
    make late-harvest wines both rare and expensive.
  • Late harvest wines can also be made without the
    growth of Botrytis cinerea.

Late-Harvest Wines (continued)
  • Wines that are made from frozen grapes are called
    Eiswein or ice wine.
  • As the water in the berries freezes, the
    remaining juice is concentrated.
  • The pressing is done slowly, and as the juice is
    removed from the grapes, some of the water in the
    berries remains behind as ice.
  • Thin-skinned varieties like Zinfandel will
    shrivel up in hot weather and concentrate without
    the presence of mold.

Port-Style Wines
  • Port wines are full-bodied red wines with about
    10 percent sugar and 20 percent alcohol
  • They are native to the gorge of the Douro River
    in northern Portugal.
  • Historically in this region brandy was added to
    red wine to stabilize it for export.

Port-Style Wines (continued)
  • After a time the practice of adding the brandy in
    the middle of fermentation was developed.
  • This had the effect of killing the yeast while
    the must was still quite sweet.
  • Because a deeply red wine with lots of tannins is
    desired for Port, and the time of the
    fermentation is limited, winemaking practices are
    designed to maximize extraction from the skins.

Sherry-Style Wines
  • Sherry originated in Spain, and like Port, it is
    produced in a variety of styles.
  • The Spanish have a saying that there is a Sherry
    for every occasion.
  • This reflects the wide range of sherries from
    light and dry table wines to the more common rich
    and sweet dessert wines.

Sherry-Style Wines (continued)
  • The defining characteristic of Sherry is that it
    is purposely oxidized, making it high in
  • This gives Sherry wines their distinctive roasted
    nut aroma.
  • Sherry was once the most popular wine in America
    however, in recent years its consumption has
    declined significantly.

Sherry-Style Wines (continued)
  • The flavor of sherry is produced during the aging
    process, so a fairly neutral wine is desired as a
    base for Sherry.
  • Sherry production starts by fermenting the base
    wine to dryness and an alcohol content of about
    15½ percent.
  • After vinification, the wines are graded by
    color, taste, and body to determine which type of
    Sherry they will be used to make.

Sherry-Style Wines (continued)
  • The lighter wines are inoculated with flor yeast
    and called fino or manzanilla.
  • The more full-bodied wines are fortified with
    brandy to 20 percent alcohol and called oloroso.
  • The wines are then placed in partially full
    barrels to expose the wine to oxygen.

Sherry-Style Wines (continued)
  • The traditional method of aging Sherry is done in
    a fractional barrel system called a solera.
  • Soleras are set up in 5 to 12 tiers of barrels.
  • Once a year, one-quarter of the wine on the
    bottom level is removed for bottling.
  • It replaced by one-quarter of the wine in the
    next highest tier.
  • This process goes on until one-quarter of the
    wine in the top tiers is moved to the next level
    to make room for the wine from the new vintage.

Wine and Food
  • When done properly, the marriage of wine and food
    is a mutually beneficial relationship.
  • In analytical tasting, wines are tasted by
    themselves so that one can concentrate on their
    flavors and aromas.
  • In the study of food and wine pairing, the
    opposite is trueindividual foods and wines are
    matched together so that their flavors complement
    each other.

Wine and Food (continued)
  • A few basic principles will aid consumers and
    wine servers alike in selecting what type of wine
    is best suited to accompany a meal.
  • Wine can serve to freshen the pallet a sip of
    wine between bites of food will help to cleanse
    the aftertaste of the food out of the mouth and
    make your senses ready to fully appreciate
    another mouthful.

Basic Guidelines for Pairing Wine and Cheeses
  • Rich cheeses are complemented by full-bodied
  • Light-bodied cheeses are complemented by
    light-bodied wines.
  • Fresh cheeses accentuate the perception of acid
    and are best paired with wines that are slightly
    sweeter than the cheese.

Basic Guidelines for Pairing Wine and Cheeses
  • Complex cheeses with intricate flavors go best
    with simple wines conversely, wines with complex
    flavors go best with simple cheeses.
  • Salt in cheese decreases the perception of
    bitterness and astringency in wine.

Preserving Open Bottles of Wine
  • A critical factor to consider is preserving the
    opened bottles of wine.
  • Once a bottle of wine is opened, it begins a
    steady, often rapid decline due to the action of
  • In some cases, the whole bottle is poured
    relatively quickly and this is not of major

Preserving Open Bottles of Wine
  • Vacuum systems are available for both home and
    restaurants that pump the air out of the bottle.
  • Commercial versions of these vacuum pump systems
    are more efficient at removing oxygen from the
  • The stoppers are placed into the tops of the
    opened bottles of wine and the bottle is held up
    to the electric pump.
  • In a matter of seconds, the pump removes the air
    from the bottle and creates a vacuum seal capable
    of preserving the wine.

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