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Introduction to Public Relations

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Public Relations * Public Relations Dr. Hassan Sherif * * * * Public Relations Dr. Hassan Sherif * Public Relations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Public Relations


1
Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Public Relations

2
Definition BIPR
  • PR is the planned and sustained effort to
    establish and maintain goodwill and mutual
    understanding between an organization and its
    publics

3
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8
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9
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10
Example Corporate identity
  • Aim to distinguish and establish visual
    recognition by means of physical, visible
    identification
  • Logo
  • Typography
  • Color
  • Livery
  • Clothing

11
Application of corporate identity
  • All print advertising
  • Decoration of vehicles
  • Uniforms
  • Tableware
  • Serviettes
  • Mats
  • Coaster
  • Give aways
  • Business cards
  • Office stationary
  • How about slogans?

12
Example Crisis Management
  • Handling calamities especially regarding media
    relations (SAT TV)
  • Lauda Air, strikes, fires, takeovers, new
    legislation, scandals, deaths, resignation,
    recession.

13
Examples of Crises
  • Accidents
  • Food poisoning
  • Contamination of products at retail stores
  • Recall of a faulty product
  • Tampering, malfunction, design error.
  • Procedure
  • Media advertising News releases Display
    material.

14
Responding to a Crisis
  • Develop a plan and checklist for dealing with a
    crisis.
  • Deploy members of public relations staff as
    quickly as possible.
  • Return calls to media immediately.
  • Quickly gather the information you will need to
    communicate to the media.
  • Designate one person to be a spokesperson to the
    media.
  • Communicate with all employees immediately.
  • Provide updates on a regular basis.
  • Be available 24 hours a day to the media.
  • Confess when the organization has made an error.
  • Convey the steps the organization is taking to
    correct the crisis.
  • Empathize with any victims of the crisis.
  • Keep all publics informed of the progress.

15
Chapter 2
  • Public Relations vs
  • Marketing Advertising

16
PR VS Advertising
  • Advertisings emphasis is on selling
  • PR emphasis is on informing, educating, and
    creating understanding through knowledge

17
ButSometimes Advertising doesnt sell
  • Consumer protests and government scrutiny
  • Advertisers were asked how their products
    answered social needs and civil responsibilities
  • Rumors about particular companies spread like
    wildfire
  • General image problems were fanned by a
    continuous blaze of media criticism

18
PR Versus Advertising
  • FACTOR ADVERTISING PR
  • Emphasis Selling
    Understanding
  • Objective Inform Persuade
    Inform
  • Control Great
    Little
  • Credibility Lower
    Higher
  • Reach Achievable
    Undetermined
  • Frequency Schedulable
    Low
  • Cost Specific
    Unspecified
  • Flexibility High
    Low
  • Timing Specifiable
    Tentative
  • Form Independent
    Within
  • Finance Commission
    Fees

19
PR VS Marketing
  • Marketing is the management process responsible
    for identifying, anticipating and satisfying
    customer requirements profitably
  • PRs role in the marketing mix

20
Marketing vs. PR
Marketing
  • Sells service or product through pricing,
    promoting, distributing
  • Creates maintains a market for products
    services

versus
  • Sells the organization
  • Creates maintains a hospitable environment for
    the organization

Public Relations
21
Propaganda
  • The means of gaining support for an opinion or
    belief. These are emotional, intellectual and
    spiritual topics

Publicity
  • Publicity results from information being known.
  • It is uncontrollable might be good or bad.
  • It yields an image

22
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23
Chapter 3
  • Public Relations Department Organization

24
PR Departments
  • Need for an Internal department
  • Ad agency vs. PR consultancy
  • Skill in planning buying space and air time
  • Creative skills
  • PR people speak on behalf of the company

25
2. Size of PR Department
  • Size of the organization
  • The value placed on PR by management
  • Type of company / product

26
3. PR Staff
  • Manager / Director
  • Press Officer
  • House journal Officer
  • Print Designer
  • Photographer

27
4. Title of a PR Manager
  • Director of Public Affairs
  • Communications Manager
  • Advertising and PR Manager

28
5. Responsibilities of a PR Manager
  • To set objectives
  • To estimate budgets (activities, payroll
    expenses)
  • Devising action plans to reach the objectives

29
Line and Staff Organization Chart
30
Work Assignments
  • Writing and editing
  • Media relations and placement
  • Research
  • Counseling
  • Speaking
  • Producing communications

31
Job Description 1
32
Job Requirements
33
Qualities of a Good PR Practitioner
  • Ability to get on with all kinds of people.
  • Ability to communicate
  • Ability to organize and plan
  • Personal integrity in professional and private
    lives.
  • Creativity. (designing journals, writing scripts,
    seeking solutions to problems.
  • Access to information
  • Ability to research and evaluate.

34
6. Specialist Tasks of PR Manager
  • To establish and maintain a correct image of the
    organization and of its policies, products,
    services and personnel
  • To monitor outside opinion and convey this
    intelligence to management
  • To advise management on communication problems,
    solutions and techniques
  • To inform publics about policies, activities,
    products, services and personnel so that maximum
    knowledge and understanding is won

35
7. Cooperation between PR Management
  • A competent professional practitioner so as to
    gain respect
  • Set up internal lines of communications. Win the
    confidence of the staff
  • Create external lines of communications and be
    regarded as a reliable source of information
  • Must keep top management well briefed for
    interviews, speeches and public occasions
  • Management must keep PR fully informed of its
    actions

36
8. PR Activities
  • Writing and distributing news releases,
    photographs and feature articles to the press.
  • Organizing press conferences, receptions and
    facility visits.
  • Maintaining a media information service
  • Arranging press, radio and television interviews
    for management.
  • Briefing photographers and maintaining a picture
    library.
  • Editing producing staff magazines organizing
    other forms of internal communication.

37
PR Activities
  • Editing and producing external journals aimed at
    distributors and customers.
  • Producing educational literature, company
    histories, annual reports, induction literature
    for new staff.
  • Commissioning audio visual aids (presentations,
    videos ..etc.,). (PG).
  • Commissioning and maintaining forms of corporate
    identity such as logos, color schemes,
    typography, livery of vehicles, clothing.
  • Organizing site tours.

38
PR Activities
  • Attendance at appropriate meetings of the board,
    production, marketing and sales.
  • Attendance at sales and distributors conferences.
  • Representation of the company at trade
    association meetings.
  • Liaison with PR consultancy if one is employed.
  • Training PR staff.
  • Commissioning opinion surveys.
  • Liaison with advertising agency.

39
PR Activities
  • Official opening of new premises, arrangements
    for VIPs, guests and Press.
  • Liaison with politicians and civil servants.
  • Arranging visits by royalty, MPs, VIPs and
    foreign visitors.
  • Celebrating centenaries.
  • Organizing feed back by press cuttings, radio,
    and TV transcripts.
  • Analysis of feed back and evaluation of the
    results.

40
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41
Planning PR Programs
  • Chapter 4

42
Reasons for Planning
  • To set targets for PR operations against which
    results can be assessed
  • To estimate the required budget
  • To select priorities regarding the timing and
    number of operations
  • To decide the feasibility of carrying out the
    declared objectives (staff, equipment and budget)

43
Public Relations Process
44
PR Planning Model
  1. Appreciation of the situation
  2. Definition of objectives
  3. Definition of publics
  4. Selection of media and techniques
  5. Planning of a budget
  6. Assessment of results

45
Appreciation of the situation
  • Logical planning Where are we now? What image do
    our publics have?
  • The PR transfer process
  • Hostility to sympathy
  • Prejudice to acceptance
  • Apathy to interest
  • Ignorance to knowledge

46
Appreciation of the situation
  • A necessary compromise Can you be 100
    successful?
  • Investigating the situation through research
    (secondary and primary data)
  • Opinion polls questionnaire, relevant sample,
    measure change in attitudes and degree of
    understanding
  • Problem solving How to act to correct the
    situation

47
Methods of Appreciating the Situation
  • Opinion, attitude or image surveys
  • Press cuttings, monitored broadcast strips
  • Sales figure trends
  • State of competition
  • Share price, dividends and balance sheet
  • Industrial relations (strikes, wage settlements)
  • Customer complaints
  • Frontline feedback
  • Prices and effect of price changes
  • External market forces
  • Attitudes of opinion leaders

48
Definitions of Objectives
  • To change the image
  • To improve the caliber of job applicants
  • To tell the little known story of the company
  • To introduce the company in new export markets
  • To prepare the stock market for a new share issue

49
Definitions of Objectives
  • To improve community relations following public
    criticism
  • To educate consumers about the product
  • To regain public confidence after a disaster
  • To strengthen the company against risk of a
    takeover
  • To establish a new corporate identity

50
Definitions of Objectives
  • To make known the chairpersons participation in
    public life
  • To support a sponsorship scheme
  • To inform politicians about companys activities
  • To make known the companys research activities

51
Range of PR Media
  • The Press
  • Audio Visuals
  • Radio
  • Television
  • Exhibitions
  • Printed Material
  • Sponsored Books
  • Direct Mail
  • Spoken Word
  • Sponsorships
  • House Journals
  • Other forms Zepplins, postage stamps.

52
PR Vehicles
  • News Releases
  • Single-page news stories sent to media who might
    print or broadcast the content.
  • Feature Articles
  • Larger manuscripts composed and edited for a
    particular medium.
  • Captioned Photos
  • Photographs with content identified and explained
    below the picture.
  • Press Conferences
  • Meetings and presentations to invited reporters
    and editors.
  • Special Events
  • Sponsorship of events, teams, or programs of
    public value.

53
Chapter 5
  • Publics Of Public Relations

54
Publics Defined
  • Groups of people, internally and externally,
    with whom an organization communicates.
  • Activities are aimed at subdivisions of the
    general public.
  • Unlike mass media advertising (do you agree with
    that?).

55
Key Publics of a Typical Corporation
56
Reasons for defining Publics
  1. To identify all groups of people relative to a PR
    program
  2. To establish priorities within the scope of the
    budget
  3. To select media and techniques
  4. To prepare the message in acceptable and
    effective form

57
Results of Not Defining Publics
  1. Efforts and funds will be scattered
    indiscriminately in the attempt to reach too many
    publics
  2. The same message would be issued irrespective of
    its suitability to reach too many publics
  3. Work would not be timed to make the most cost
    effective use of working hours, material and
    equipment
  4. Objectives would not be achieved
  5. Dissatisfaction with the results

58
Publics of a National Tourist Board
  1. Government officials
  2. Distributors (travel agents, convention
    organizers)
  3. Transport operators
  4. Banks, credit cards travelers cheques
    operators
  5. Hotel owners/operators (Chain or independent)
  6. Motoring organization
  7. Visitors
  8. Opinion leaders (travel writers teachers)
  9. Media

59
  • Consider these behavioral possibilities.
  • The public perceives big business to have concern
    primarily for investor and senior management
    stakeholders, though it should have more concern
    for other stakeholders.

60
  • Consider these behavioral possibilities.
  • If employees are not part of the team, they can
    sabotage production, contribute to quality
    control problems, or conduct a negative
    word-of-mouth campaign against the firm.

61
  • If special-interest groups are not listened to
    and their concerns addressed, they can take legal
    action that stops production or expansion.
  • If the media is not treated as a partner, then
    the first time the company has a product crisis
    the media will be more willing to look for
    irresponsible behavior rather than to explain the
    company's perspective.

62
1. The Community
  • A good neighbor policy.
  • Safety, dirt, noise, pollution, strikes, smells,
    car parking

63
2. Potential Employees
  • Exist in other organizations
  • Recruited from schools, colleges and universities
    or overseas.
  • Helps them understand what is the nature of the
    organization
  • Should regard it as a potentially good employer

64
3. Suppliers
  • Services
  • Raw materials, components, packaging and
    professional services

65
4. Financial Publics
  • Banks
  • Lending institutions
  • Investors
  • Investment analysts
  • Insurance companies
  • The financial community, investors, stockbrokers,
    and the financial press is another important
    audience for publicly-held companies.
  • a)         Financial relations experts must have
    a basic understanding of business law, economics,
    corporate finance, and investment practices.
  • b)        They must understand how corporate and
    external activities affect stock prices and
    changes in the company's bond rating.

66
5. Distributors
  • Wholesalers (Tour operators)
  • Retailers (Travel agencies)
  • Airlines
  • Transporters (Transport companies)
  • Discount stores

67
6. Consumers
  • End users
  • Consumers are a large external public. They are
    reached directly through advertising and sales
    and indirectly through media publicity.
  • Industrial/trade buyers

68
Why has dealing with consumers become so
important for public relations?
Consumers
Advertising Noise
Competition
Savvy Consumers
Knowledgeable Consumers
69
PR Customer Service
  • Investigate complaints made against the firm
  • Provide a central location for customers who seek
    redress
  • Monitor difficulties customers have with products
  • Influence organizations to improve service

70
JFKs Consumer Bill of Rights
Right to Choose
Right to Be Heard
Right to Safety
Right to Be Informed
71
Chrysler CorporationsCustomers Bill of Rights
Every customer has the following rights
Long-term Protection
Quality
Service with a Smile
Satisfaction
Safe Vehicles
Grievance Opportunities
72
7. Opinion Leaders
  • People whose expressed opinions may harm or help
    the organization.
  • Parents
  • Politicians
  • Religious leaders

73
8. Trade Unions
  • Exert a powerful influence on trade, commercial,
    industrial and political life.

74
9. The Media
  • The direct route to the public
  • It has control on what the public see and hear in
    their vehicles
  • Editors seek a good story searching for news.
  • In external relations the first concern is
    usually with the press because it can have
    tremendous influence over public opinion.

75
Ten Principles of Good Media Relations
  • Reporters are never off duty.
  • You ARE the organization.
  • Treat reporters as individuals.
  • Treat journalists professionally.
  • Dont try to buy a journalist.
  • Become a trusted source.
  • Inform journalists even when youre not
    selling.
  • Dont expect news viewpoint agreement.
  • Read the paper.
  • Never lie.

76
Value of Media Publicity
How does publicity affect the following
Introducing a new product
Revitalizing an old product
Explaining a complicated product
Working with little or no budget
Enhancing your reputation
Responding to crisis's
77
10. Employees
  • The most important internal audience in internal
    communication is employees. Companies rely on a
    combination of downward, upward, and horizontal
    communication to foster employee relations.
  • Pride in their organization
  • High morale
  • Job security

78
Secrets of Effective Employee Relations
  • 1.   Security How secure is the company and my
    job within it?
  • 2.   Respect Am I recognized as a person who
    does something worth doing?
  • 3.   Participation How much do I have to say
    about the processes of which I am a part?
  • 4.   Consideration Is there an opportunity for
    me to express my ideas?
  • 5.   Recognition What rewards are given for good
    and faithful service?
  • 6.   Opportunity Is there a chance to advance?

79
Effectiveness of Internal PR
  • Candid Management
  • Recognition by management of the value and
    importance of employee communication
  • A skilled, experienced communication manager who
    is backed up by modern technical resources
    (budget, production)

80
Internal Techniques
  • House journals
  • Notice boards
  • Videotapes and closed circuit TV
  • Radio station
  • Phone in news service and ideas

81
Bulletin Boards
Another Way of Communicating With Employees
Change Them Weekly
Motivate People
NEWS! NEWS! NEWS!
82
Internal Techniques
  • Ideas box
  • PA broadcasts
  • Shop floor talks
  • Works councils and committees
  • Video/slide presentations
  • Induction literature

83
Internal Techniques
  • Staff conferences and area meetings
  • Visits by management
  • Staff visits
  • Staff events
  • Exhibitions and displays
  • Clubs and societies

84
Explaining Company Policy
  • Level of job security
  • Prospects for advancement

85
Explaining the Annual Report and Accounts
  • Financial results
  • Cost configuration
  • Profit sharing
  • Dividends
  • Cost of labor

86
Integrating Staff Following an Acquisition
  • Who is better
  • Who is to stay and who is to go
  • A new mission statement
  • New job organization and assignment

87
Explaining New Technology
  • Automation, robotization, computerization
  • Redundancies
  • Advantages

88
Safety
  • Physical safety (special clothing, goggles,
    correct handling of materials)
  • Do we have to repeat these instructions? Why?

89
News About Staff
  • Retired
  • Best
  • Nominations
  • Left
  • Right
  • Birth, wedding..etc.

90
Management Structure
  • Organization charts
  • Reassignments

91
Shares
  • Stock market activities
  • Issuance of new stock
  • Why is a private company going public
  • Issuance of shares to employees
  • performance

92
Employee Benefits
  • Pensions
  • Christmas
  • Incentive schemes
  • Sales contests
  • Educational awards
  • Training

93
Legislation
  • Passing out of new laws by the government.
  • How do these affect the organization and its
    operations.

94
Timely and valuable communications that gain and
maintain shareholder support
11. Investor Relations
Material Information Any fact that would be
important to an investor making an investment
decision
95
Examples of Material Information
  • Proposed mergers or acquisitions
  • Changed dividend policy
  • Determination of earnings
  • Acquisition or loss of significant business
    contract
  • Major management changes
  • Significant change in capital investment plans

96
Examples of Material Information
  • Purchase or sale of a major asset
  • Incurring a major debt or selling a significant
    amount of equity annuities
  • Pending significant legislation
  • A major discovery or innovation
  • Marketing a new product

97
Investor Relations Activities
Annual Reports
  • Company description
  • Letter to shareholders
  • Financial review
  • Explanation/analysis
  • Management/marketing discussions
  • Graphics
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