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Documenting Student Learning

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Title: Documenting Student Learning


1
Documenting Student Learning Specific Learning
Disabilities
  • SPED 420 - Week 3

2
Week 3 Objectives
  • By the end of class you should
  • Understand how to document student progress in
    the general education curriculum.
  • Understand relevant vocabulary related to SLD.
  • Be able to identify students who are at risk for
    SLD.
  • Understand the components of research-based
    reading programs.

3
Week 3 Agenda
  • Quiz 1
  • Documenting student performance - group activity
  • Specific Learning Disability eligibility
    determination
  • Report of the National Reading Panel video
  • Midterm meeting preparation

4
Week 3 Vocabulary
  • Response to Intervention
  • Severe discrepancy
  • IQ
  • Specific learning disability (SLD or LD)
  • Dyslexia (reading, decoding, spelling)
  • Dysgraphia (writing, handwriting)
  • Mnemonics (acronyms and acrostics)
  • Metacognition
  • Self-monitoring
  • Phonological Awareness
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Orthographic Awareness
  • Alphabetic Principle
  • Comprehensive Monitoring Strategies
  • Developmental arithmetic disorder
  • Nonverbal math disabilities
  • Dyscalculia (math concepts and computation)
  • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)

5
What should I do when a student is struggling in
my class?
  • Start a confidential file on a secure computer.
  • Describe the student in a one paragraph narrative
    that concludes w/ your concerns.
  • Identify the students current levels of
    functional performance in each of the following
    domains academic, social, emotional/behavioral -
    one paragraph overview from IST pre-referral.
  • Begin to create a database so that you can chart
    the students progress over time.
  • Identify and implement research-based
    instructional strategies.
  • Build a relationship with the parents.

6
How should I document student learning?
  • Use the academic categories from the IEP.
  • Create three means of collecting evidence 1) a
    portfolio system, 2) a spread sheet with graphing
    capabilities, and 3) a narrative that summarizes
    the students performance using quantitative and
    qualitative data.
  • REMEMBER - The purpose of this documentation is
    to inform your instructional strategies and chart
    student growth over time and across
    interventions.

7
Academic areas of focus
  • Listening comprehension
  • Oral expression
  • Basic reading skills (alphabetic principle,
    decoding, phonemic awareness, fluency, semantics)
  • Reading comprehension
  • Basic writing skills (handwriting, spelling,
    grammar)
  • Written expression
  • Math computation
  • Math reasoning
  • Problem solving

8
Basic Reading Skills
  • While Sara possesses strong listening
    comprehension and oral expression skills, she
    struggles with basic reading skills. For example,
    during a Pre-Primer Subject Word List screening
    using the Qualitative Reading Inventory- 4, Sara
    scored in the 60th percentile or frustration
    level. She was unable to automatically identify
    the words children, other, animal, place,
    every, thing, write, and live. Sara is
    often unable to read words containing complex
    letter patterns (e.g., -ought, -aught). She has
    difficulty decoding multi-syllabic words (i.e.,
    two and three syllable). When prompted she is
    able to use prefixes and suffixes to determine
    the meaning of unfamiliar words 50 of the time.

Sample Documentation
9
Using data to inform instruction
Saras Reading Performance
Intervention
10
Results of FBA

for

Ji
m
bo

Rucksack
i
n

m
ulti
p
le class
e
s


Jimbo?s Daily Schedule

750
-
81
0


Arrive at school
.
Breakfast

on

th
e
playgroun
d
.

810
-
90
0


Language Arts with Ms
.
Janis

900 -
94
0


Social Studies

940
-
102
0


Gym or Cu
r
rent Events



1020
-

110
0


Science

1100
-
113
0


Lunch

1130
-
115
0


Recess
s

1150
-
123
0


Math

1230
-
11
0


Specials (Music, Art)

110
-
14
0


Study Hall

140
-
22
0


Technology, Dram
a
,

Community
Projects



11
Document Student Performance
  • Peer edit the performance reports you completed
    last week. After you are all in agreement
    regarding the content, choose a common visual
    format to report the students progress (e.g.,
    bar graph). Each of you will construct a chart or
    graph for your specific academic areas and create
    at least one artifact to demonstrate the
    students work.

12
Reading is the Primary Problem
  • 12.5 million children struggle with reading -
    this represents nearly 20 of all school age
    children (NCES, 2003).
  • 80 of all children identified as SLD have
    primarily deficits in reading.
  • 90 of children with SLD in reading have problems
    with decoding skills.
  • 74 of children who are poor readers in the third
    grade remain poor readers in the ninth grade.
  • Reading problems occur primarily at the single
    word level.
  • Approx 30 of children need explicit instruction
    in order to become proficient decoders.
  • Inaccurate decoding is the best predictor of
    poor reading comprehension.

13
Disability Categories in Washington
  • Developmentally Delayed (age 3 - 8)
  • Emotional Behavioral Disability
  • Speech or language impairment
  • Orthopedically impairment
  • Other Health impaired
  • Specific learning disability
  • Mental retardation
  • Multiple disabilities
  • Hearing impairment / Deafness
  • Visually impairment / blindness
  • Deaf / blindness
  • Autism
  • Traumatic brain injury

14
Who is eligible for special education under IDEA?
  • Students who demonstrate the characteristics
    of any of the previous categories IF their
    disability adversely effects educational
    performance and requires specialized instruction
  • Approximately 13 of school-age children are
    identified as having disabilities.
  • Half of the population with disabilities have SLD
  • (NCES, 2005).

15
Defining SLD
  • The definition of SLD is changing (IDEA 2004)
  • Sometimes called the invisible disability
  • Unexpected difficulty / low performance
  • Inefficient processing in the area of disability
  • a disorder in one or more of the basic
    psychological processes involved in understanding
    or in using language, spoken or written, which
    may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to
    listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
    mathematical computations.

16
Early Warning Signs of SLD
  • The following behaviors may indicate that a child
    has a specific learning disability
  • Slow to learn the connection between letters and
    sounds
  • Difficulty "sounding out" unknown words
  • Repeatedly misidentifying known words
  • Makes consistent reading and spelling errors
    including letter reversals (b/d), inversions
    (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and
    substitutions (house/home)
  • Transposes number sequences and confuses
    arithmetic signs (, -, x, /, )
  • Difficulty understanding or remembering what is
    read because so much time and effort is spent
    figuring each word

Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities
(1999). How children learn to read. Retrieved
September 2, 2006 from http//www.ldonline.org/art
icle/6253
17
NOT SLD if
  • The deficit is primarily the result of
  • Hearing, visual, or motor disability
  • MR (mental retardation)
  • SBD (serious behavioral disorder)
  • Environmental, cultural, economic disadvantage
  • LACK OF APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTION

18
SLD Determination
  • School districts have two means to determine if a
    student qualifies as having a learning
    disability
  • Severe discrepancy model (Classic)
  • Response to Intervention (IDEA 2004)

19
Mental Retardation
MR IQ cut points 50 - 70 mild
35 - 50 moderate
20 - 35 severe
Below 20 profound
20
(No Transcript)
21
Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • IDEA 2004 regulations state
  • The criteria adopted by the State to determine
    the childs eligibility as SLD must permit the
    use of a process based on the childs response to
    scientific, research-based intervention Section
    300.307 (a) (2)

22
Defining RTI
  • an assessment and intervention process for
    systematically monitoring student progress and
    making decisions about the need for instructional
    modifications or increasingly intensified
    services using progress monitoring data.
  • The National Research Center on Learning
    Disabilities (NRCLD, 2006)

23
Seven Core Principles of RTI
  • Use all available resources to teach students
  • Use scientific, research-based instruction
  • Monitor classroom performance
  • Conduct universal screening / benchmarking
  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Make data-based decisions
  • Monitor progress frequently

24
Three-Tier Model of School Supports
Academic
Behavioral
Intensive Interventions
Intensive Interventions
Individual students Targeted assessment-based Prog
ress monitoring 1x per week
Individual students Targeted assessment-based Prog
ress monitoring 1x per week
Strategic Interventions
Strategic Interventions
Some at-risk students High efficiency Progress
monitoring 2x per month
Some at-risk students High efficiency Progress
monitoring 2x per month
Core Interventions
Core Interventions
All students Preventative / proactive Students
benchmarked 3x per year on core academic skills
All students Preventative / proactive Students
benchmarked 3x per year on social/behavior
skills
25
Key Terms
  • Fidelity - the extent to which the instruction is
    implemented as planned.
  • Universal screening (Tier I) - benchmarking of
    academic, social skills, and behavior (fall,
    winter, spring).
  • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) - a means to
    measure student development over time.

26
Interventions
  • Strategic interventions (Tier II)
  • Short-term (9 - 12 weeks) interventions provided
    to small groups of students (3 - 6) where
    remedial instruction occurs in a core academic,
    social skills, or behavioral area (e.g., phonemic
    awareness).
  • Three to four sessions per week
  • 30 - 60 min. per session.
  • Progress monitoring biweekly (minimum)
  • Intensive interventions (Tier III) -
  • Small group (3 or less) or individual instruction
  • May be for 12 weeks or more
  • Up to two 30 min sessions daily
  • Weekly progress monitoring (minimum)

27
RTI is a Problem Solving Process
  • RTI is a flexible service delivery model
  • Define the problem
  • Analyze the cause - this requires a conceptual
    shift from the problem occurring in the student
    to a need for improvement educational
    environment What can we as educators do
    differently?
  • Develop a plan
  • Implement the plan
  • Evaluate the plan

28
What This Means to You
  • Document concerns as soon as possible
  • Discuss your concerns with people who know the
    student
  • Follow the problem solving process
  • Clearly articulate each aspect of the process in
    your pre-referral
  • Build time into your daily schedule to provide
    Tier II supports to students (not an add on)

29
Report of the National Reading Panel - Video
  • As you watch the video, think about the types of
    research-based instruction you will use with the
    student in your case study.

30
HRC Reading software Demo
  • What strategies from the NRP report do you see in
    this software? What might you use in your class?

31
What Students Need to Learn to Read
  • 1. Phonological Awareness Sensitivity to the
    sound structure (rather than the meaning) of
    speech
  • 2. Phonemic Awareness The ability to deal
    explicitly and segmentally with sound units
    smaller than the syllable (i.e., phonemes)
  • 3. Alphabetic Principle The insight that
    written words are composed of letters of the
    alphabet that are intentionally and
    conventionally related to segments of spoken
    words
  • 4. Orthographic Awareness Sensitivity to the
    structure of the writing system (spelling
    patterns, orthographic rules, inflectional and
    derivational morphology, etymology)
  • 5. Comprehensive Monitoring Strategies
    Strategies that help students attend to and
    remember what they read
  • Foorman, B., Fletcher, J., Francis, D.
    (1997). A scientific approach to reading
    instruction. Retrieved September 02, 2006 from
    http//www.ldonline.org/article/6251

32
Effective Reading Instruction
  • Students learn to read in a certain order
  • First they must recognize that words are
    comprised from different sounds
  • Second they must associate sounds with written
    words
  • Finally they must decode words and read groups of
    words.
  • Students who struggle with reading need systemic,
    explicit instruction regarding the relationships
    of letters, words and sounds. (These
    relationships are the main tool proficient
    readers use to decode unfamiliar words.)
  • Each child will need a different amount of
    practice to become a fluent reader.
  • Phonics instruction should be based on individual
    student needs and taught as part of a
    comprehensive, literature-based reading program.

33
Children have opportunities to expand their use
and appreciation of oral language
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Kindergarten and first-grade language instruction
    should focus on listening, speaking, and
    understanding while including
  • Discussions that focus on a variety of topics,
    including problem solving
  • Activities that help children understand the
    world around them (relevant learning activities)
  • Songs, chants, and poems that are fun to sing
    and say
  • Concept development and vocabulary-building
    lessons
  • Games and other activities that involve talking,
    listening and following directions

Texas Education Agency (1996). 12 Components of
Research-Based Reading Programs. Retrieved
September 2, 2006 from http//www.readingrockets.o
rg/articles/242
34
Children have opportunities to expand their use
and appreciation of printed language
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Activities that help children to understand that
    print represents spoken language
  • Activities that highlight the meanings, uses, and
    production of print found in classroom signs,
    labels, notes, posters, calendars, and directions
  • Activities that teach print conventions, such as
    directionality
  • Activities in which children practice how to
    handle a book-how to turn pages, how to find the
    tops and bottoms of pages, and how to tell the
    front and back covers (be explicit!)
  • Lessons in word awareness that help children
    become conscious of individual words, for
    example, their boundaries, their appearance and
    their length
  • Activities in which children practice with
    predictable and patterned language stories

35
Children have opportunities to learn decoding
strategies
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Instruction should introduce "irregular" words in
    a reasonable sequence and use these words in the
    program's reading materials. Effective decoding
    instruction is explicit and systematic and can
    include the following
  • Practice in decoding and identifying words that
    contain letter-sound relationships
  • Practice activities that involve word families
    and rhyming patterns
  • Practice activities that involve blending
    together the components of sounded-out words
  • "Word play" activities in which children change
    beginning, middle, or ending letters of related
    words, thus changing the words they decode and
    spell
  • Introduction of phonetically "irregular" words in
    practice activities and stories

36
Children have opportunities to write and relate
their writing to spelling and reading
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Increasing children's awareness of spelling
    patterns hastens their progress in both reading
    and writing. In the early grades, spelling
    instruction must be coordinated with the program
    of reading instruction
  • Activities that are related to the words that
    children are reading and writing
  • Proofreading activities
  • An emphasis on pride in correct spelling
  • Lessons that help children attend to spelling
    conventions in a systematic way
  • Activities that surround children in words and
    make reading and writing purpose-filled

37
Children have opportunities to read and
comprehend a wide assortment of books and other
texts
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • As children develop effective decoding strategies
    and become fluent readers, they must read books
    and other texts that are less controlled in their
    vocabulary and sentence structure. They learn to
    use word order (syntax) and context to interpret
    words and understand their meanings
  • Classrooms that ensure wide reading provide the
    following
  • Daily time for self-selected reading
  • Access to books children want to read in their
    classrooms and school libraries
  • Access to books that can be taken home to be
    read independently or to family members

38
Children have opportunities to develop and
comprehend new vocabulary through wide reading
and direct vocabulary instruction
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Activities that promote the acquisition of
    vocabulary include the following
  • Wide reading of a variety of genres, both
    narrative and expository
  • Instruction that provides explicit information
    both about the meanings of words and about how
    they are used in the stories the children are
    reading
  • Activities that involve children in analyzing
    context to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar
    words in a reading passage
  • Discussions of new words that occur during the
    course of the day, for example in books that have
    been read aloud by the teacher, in content area
    studies and in textbooks
  • Activities that encourage children both to use
    words they are learning in their own writing, and
    to keep records of interesting and related words

39
Children have opportunities to learn and apply
comprehension strategies as they reflect upon and
think critically about what they read
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Comprehension strategy instruction can include
    the following
  • Activities that help children learn to preview
    selections, anticipate content, and make
    connections between what they will read and what
    they already know
  • Instruction that provides options when
    understanding breaks down (for example,
    rereading, asking for expert help, and looking up
    words)
  • Guidance in helping children compare characters,
    events, and themes of different stories
  • Activities that encourage discussion about what
    is being read and how ideas can be linked (for
    example, to draw conclusions and make
    predictions)
  • Activities that help children extend their
    reading experiences though the reading of more
    difficult texts with the teacher

40
Children have opportunities to understand and
manipulate the building blocks of spoken language
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Children's phonemic awareness, their
    understanding that spoken words can be divided
    into separate sounds, is one of the best
    predictors of their success in learning to read.
    Instruction that promotes children's
    understanding and use of the building blocks of
    spoken language includes the following
  • Language games that teach children to identify
    rhyming words and to create rhymes on their own
  • Activities that help children understand that
    spoken sentences are made up of groups of
    separate words, that words are made up of
    syllables, and that words can be broken down into
    separate sounds
  • Auditory activities in which children manipulate
    the sounds of words, separate or segment the
    sounds of words, blend sounds, delete sounds, or
    substitute new sounds for those deleted

41
Children have opportunities to learn about and
manipulate the building blocks of written language
Principles of Research-based Reading Instruction
  • Children must become expert users of the building
    blocks of written language. Knowledge of letters
    (graphonemes) leads to success with learning to
    read.
  • This includes the use, purpose, and function of
    letters.
  • How can we do this?
  • Alphabetic knowledge activities in which children
    learn the names of letters and learn to identify
    them rapidly and accurately
  • A variety of writing activities in which
    children learn to print the letters that they are
    learning to identify
  • Writing activities in which children have the
    opportunity to experiment with and manipulate
    letters to make words and messages

42
Specific Math Disabilities
  • Dyscalculia - severe difficulty learning
    mathematical concepts and computation
  • Developmental arithmetic disorder - significant
    difficulties learning arithmetic despite average
    cognitive function
  • Nonverbal math disabilities - average verbal and
    reading skills but extreme difficulty with math
    concomitant with social immaturity,
    disorientation, deficits in visual, motor, and
    self-help skills, problems estimating distance
    and time.

43
Teaching Students with SLD in Math
  • Help students develop a conceptual understanding
    through direct instruction, application, and
    authentic problem solving.
  • Present concepts in multiple ways.
  • Utilize concrete? representational ? abstract
    instructional process.
  • Teach mathematical language explicitly - the same
    way you teach reading.
  • Include written number symbols at all stages so
    that students make the connection between
    conceptual and abstract connections.

44
The Instruction Continuum
  • Concrete
  • Use dramatization, role-play, three dimensional
    objects so that students physically experience
    visualize the concept.
  • Use manipulatives to demonstrate model the
    concept.
  • Representational
  • Use two-dimensional pictures and drawings to
    demonstrate the same concept.
  • Have students construct their own drawings and
    pictures to demonstrate their understanding of
    the concept.
  • Abstract
  • Remove manipulatives so that students use numbers
    only.
  • Students demonstrate memorization and fluency

45
Consider the Structure of the Lesson
  • Different concepts require different lesson
    structures.
  • Compare and contrast lesson- fractions, weight,
    measurement standards.
  • Example vs.. nonexample lesson - shapes (e.g.,
    polygon).
  • Step by step lesson - mathematical operations
    (e.g., multiplication, division, etc.).

46
Teach Mathematics as a Language
  • Evaluate the students current vocabulary
    knowledge.
  • Preteach if necessary before teaching new
    concepts.
  • Use consistent terminology (e.g., times or
    multiplied by).
  • Avoid language that is above the students
    cognitive level until they have mastered the
    concept.
  • Provide students with activities that allow them
    to use terms orally.
  • Provide opportunities for students to explain
    their ideas, reasoning, and comment on other
    students thoughts (e.g., discussion, journals,
    dialogue boxes).

47
Make Math Real
  • Invite guest speakers to discuss how they apply
    math concepts related to the lesson in their
    jobs.
  • Use authentic problems (e.g., shopping).
  • Use student interests when developing problems.
  • Problem solving software.
  • Video Vignettes.

48
Explicit Instruction
  • Advanced organizers
  • Provide prerequisite knowledge
  • Clearly state objectives
  • Provide rationale for learning the concept
  • Modeling (I do)
  • Step by step instructions using multiple
    modalities
  • Verbalize your thinking as you solve the problem
  • Ask students to contribute
  • Guided Practice (We do)
  • Students complete the task with assistance from
    teacher and peers.
  • Independent Practice (You do)
  • Should align closely with modeling
  • Set high mastery criteria (e.g., 90)

49
Effective Math Instruction
  • Teach individual concepts explicitly
  • Have students demonstrate mastery before
    proceeding to the next concept
  • Teach math skills in context with real world
    applications
  • Use manipulatives
  • Graphic organizers
  • Model a think aloud problem solving approach
  • Teach procedures and strategies by modeling,
    guiding, and independent practice.
  • Allow students additional time to complete
    assignments to mastery
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