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Teaching Methods

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Title: Teaching Methods


1
Teaching Methods
  • Zhong Caishun
  • hokmdj_at_163.com
  • 13699529035

2
  • What is the conceptual structure of a teaching
    method?
  • What are some of the major methods witnessed in
    the history of language teaching

3
Questions on teaching a language
4
Approach, method, technique
5
(No Transcript)
6
  • Changes in language teaching methods throughout
    history have reflected recognition of the changes
    in the kind of proficiency learners need.

7
Approaches and methods
  • Grammar translation Method
  • Direct method
  • Situational/oral
  • Audiolingual
  • The total physical response
  • The silent way
  • Suggestopedia
  • Community language learning
  • The natural approach
  • Communicative approach
  • Task-based language teaching
  • Competency-based instruction
  • Cooperative learning
  • Whole language approach
  • Multiple intelligence

8
Grammar translation method
  • Objectives
  • To be able to read literature written in the
    target language
  • To be able to translate from one language to
    another
  • To develop reading and writing skill

9
Principal Characteristics
  • Grammar Translation is a way of learning a
    language by firstly analyzing its grammar rules,
    and then applying this knowledge to the task of
    translating sentences and texts into and out of
    the target language.
  • Reading and writing are the major focus little
    or no systematic attention is paid to speaking
    and listening.
  • Vocabulary selection is based solely on the
    reading texts used, and words are taught through
    bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and
    memorization.
  • The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and
    language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted
    to translating sentences into and out of the
    target language, and it is this focus on the
    sentence that is a distinctive feature of this
    method.

Grammar Rules
Target Language
Translation
10
Principle Characteristics
  • Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to
    attain high standards in translation, because of
    "the high priority attached to meticulous
    standards of accuracy which, as well as having an
    intrinsic moral value, was a prerequisite for
    passing the increasing number of formal written
    examinations that grew up during the century"
    (Howatt 1984 132, cf. Jack C. Richards
    Theodore S. Rodgers, 1986,4).
  • Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by
    presentation and study of grammar rules, which
    are then practiced through translation exercises.
  • The student's native language is the medium of
    instruction. It is used to explain new items and
    to enable comparisons to be made between the
    foreign language and the student's native
    language.
  • ----Richards, J. C., Rodgers, T. S.
    (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language
    Teaching.Cambridge Cambridge University Press
    pp.3-4.

11
Application Typical Techniques
  • (1)  Translation of a Literary Passage
  • (2)  Reading Comprehension Questions
  • (3)  Antonyms/Synonyms
  • (4) Cognates
  • (5)  Deductive Application of Rule
  • (6)  Fill-in-the-blanks
  • (7)  Memorization
  • (8)  Use Words in Sentences
  • (9)  Composition
  •      

12
Shortcomings
  • Wrong idea of what language is
  • Lead to Less learners motivation or frustration
    for learners
  • "a tedious experience of memorizing endless lists
    of unusable grammar rules and vocabulary and
    attempting to produce perfect translations of
    stilted or literary prose."
  • ---from (Richards Rodgers
    1986 p.4).
  • "It is a method for which there is no theory.
    There is no literature that offers a rationale or
    justification for it or that attempts to relate
    it to issues in linguistics, psychology, or
    educational theory."(ibid.p.5)

13
Advantages of GTM
  • An effective way for application of grammar and
    sentence structure
  • Few demands on teachers
  • Least stressful for students

14
The Direct Method
15
Background
  • In the late 19th century in Europe, for economic
    development, the cross-language communication
    became more frequent. As a result, there was an
    increasing demand on foreign languages learning
    and oral communication became the main goal of
    foreign language teaching.
  • First introduced in France and Germany.
  • Berlitz (Maximilian D. Berlitz,1852-1921) used
    extensively in Rhode Island, USA, and opened the
    first language school.

16
Objectives
  • Learn how to communicate in the target language-
    learn to think in the target language.
  • Correct pronunciation
  • Emphasize listening and speaking.
  • Think in target languages. No native language. No
    translation.
  • Learning basic sentences, introducing daily life.

17
Rationale of DM
  • First language learning process
  • (1) No grammar
  • (2) No mother tongue
  • (3) No translation
  • (4) Postponement of printed word
  • (5) Postponement of written word

18
Rationale of DM
  • Linguistic theory
  • Strong theoretical base in linguistics and
    psychology.
  • Language is primarily spoken, not written.
  • The basic unit of a language is sentence.
  • Language is learned through communication.

19
Rationale of DM
  • Learning theory
  • Emphasising vocabulary acquisition through
    exposure to its use in situations.
  • Meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target
    language through the use of demonstration and
    visual aids.
  • Direct communication as baby learning mother
    tongue.
  • Imitation repetition and practice
  • Association e.g. hand arm, shoulder, foot,
    leg
  • Grammar is taught inductively Ss are presented
    with examples.

20
Teaching model
  • Kellys 5 steps of teaching
  • Preparation review previous lesson.
  • Presentation introduce new lesson.
  • Association associate previous and new lessons.
  • Systematization systematize the new lesson in
    certain situation.
  • Application practice

21
Techniques
  • Reading loud
  • Question and answer exercise
  • Getting students to self-correct
  • Conversation practice
  • Fill-in-the-blank exercise
  • Dictation
  • Map drawing
  • Paragraph writing

22
Role of the teacher/ students
  • Teacher centered. Student role is less passive
    than in GTM.
  • T/S are partners.
  • Teacher is the only demonstrator. He/she never
    translates but demonstrates the meaning through
    the use of realia, pictures or pantomime.

23
ActivitiesBerlitz School(1)
  • Never translate demonstrate.
  • Never explain act.
  • Never make a speech ask questions.
  • Never imitate mistake correct.
  • Never speak with single words use sentences.
  • Never speak too much make Ss speak much.

24
Activities Berlitz School(2)
  • Never jump around follow your plan.
  • Never go too fast keep the pace of the Ss.
  • Never speak too slowly speak normally.
  • Never speak too quickly speak naturally.
  • Never speak too loudly speak naturally.
  • Never be impatient take it easy.

25
Advantage of DM
  • An effective way in creating learners to be
    competent in using the target communicatively.

26
Disadvantage of DM
  • Difficult to implement in public secondary school
    education
  • Time-wasting
  • Not all teachers were proficient enough in the
    foreign language

27
Oral-Situational Approach
  • Developed in Britain and popular between the
    1930s and 1960s

28
Main difference between DM and OSA
  • Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed
    vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasnt.

29
Main difference between ALM OSA
  • Oral-Situational Approach doesnt mention about
    reinforcement, ALM does.

30
Purpose
  • Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the
    way children acquire L1

31
Characteristic
  • ?Start from spoken language
  • ?Avoid errors
  • ?Teacher-centered
  • ?Focus on Listening and speaking
  • ?Chosen the vocabulary
  • ?The first method uses structural syllabus

32
Typical Procedure
  • ?Teacher gave a topic
  • ?Demonstrate with teaching aids
  • ?Key word changed

33
Advantages with using OSA
  • ?Bring the reality situation in the classroom
  • ?Scheduled progress

34
Disadvantages with using OSA
  • ?Turn students into parrots
  • ?Boring and mindless
  • ?Reduce the motivation

35
The Audiolingual Method
  • ?Founded during World War II for military
    purposes in USA
  • ?Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s

36
Audiolingual
  • Objective
  • Focus on students pronunciation, and train their
    ability of listening by dialogues and drills
  • Teaching model
  • Stimulus-response-reinforcement model (imitation,
    patterned drilling, substitution)
  • Language and Learning theory
  • Structuralism/Behaviorism
  • Role of the teacher and students
  • The controller and the controlled

37
An example
38
Teaching procedures
  • (1)hear a dialogue
  • (2)repeat the dialogue
  • (3)key words or structures changed
  • (4)practice substitutions in the pattern drills

39
Features
  • (1) Imitation
  • (2) repetition
  • (3) Positively reinforced
  • (4) Over learn
  • Emphasize in the Form, not the Meaning

40
Criticism
  • Disadvantages
  • It fails to address the context and function of
    language.
  • It banish all forms of language processing that
    help students sort out new language information
    in their own minds.
  • Turn Students into parrots
  • Boring and mindless
  • Reduce the motivation
  • advantages
  • Allows Students to communicate quickly
  • Students became good at pattern

41
Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966)
  • founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology
    at San José State University, California, USA

42
The Purpose
  • To have basic oral expression ability through
    using imperative sentences.

43
The Characteristic
  • (1)retention
  • (2)Direct commands
  • (3)No stress
  • (4)Listen first
  • Emphasize in the Meaning,
  • not the Form

44
Typical Procedure in a TPR Course
  • (1)input
  • (2)comprehension
  • (3)express

45
Advantages with using TPR
  • ?Fun.
  • ?Memorable.
  • ?Good for kinesthetic learners.
  • ?No matter the class size.
  • gtgtgt

46
Advantages with using TPR
  • ?Work well with mixed-ability classes.
  • ?No requirement for many preparation or
    materials.
  • ?Effective with young learners.
  • ?Involves both left and right-brained learning

47
Disadvantages with using TPR
  • ?Students feel shy
  • ?Less useful for upper levels
  • ?overuse TPR

48
The silent way
49
Background
  • In the 1960s, both Behaviorism (psychological
    foundation) and Structuralism (linguistic
    foundation) were attacked by linguists and
    psychologists.
  • Behaviorism was followed by Cognitive Psychology.
  • Structuralism was followed by Transformational-gen
    erative linguistics.

50
Theoretical foundation
  • Transformational generative grammar
  • Language learning is not the outcome of
    habit formation (Behaviorism). It is the process
    of creative rule formation or discovery.
  • Theory internalized grammar of a language
    Competence enables one to create and understand
    totally new sentences.
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Human is creative, so mimicry, memorization,
    repetition and parrot learning (Behaviorism) do
    not lead to real learning

51
Features of SW
  • All four skills are worked on from the beginning.
    In addition. Form and meaning are both important.
  • It assigns an active role to the learner.
  • The teacher goes from familiar to unfamiliar. For
    example, he starts with L2 sounds which are
    similar to L1 sounds.

52
Features of SW
  • The teacher speaks very little, only when needed.
    His silence motivates the learners to participate
    more and be active.
  • The teacher is not the model. His gestures work.
    Students self criteria for correctness are
    emphasized. The student takes the responsibility
    of learning.
  • Students actions show if they have learned.
  • Students help each other.
  • The teacher uses gestures and L1 to help them
    learn.
  • Students familiar knowledge (old context) helps
    them learn the unfamiliar (new context). The
    teachers interference is very little.

53
Features of SW
  • Meaning is achieved through perceptions (senses),
    not translation.
  • Group cooperation is the norm.
  • Little praise and punishment.
  • Errors are important. They are the road signs.
  • Self correction over teachers correction.
  • Students listen to each other.
  • Learning rates are different. Perfection is not
    the target.
  • The teacher frees his time by his silence.
  • Students are attentive.
  • Meaningful practice is preferred to repetition.
  • Logical presentation of language elements from
    familiar to unfamiliar.

54
Features of SW
  • Autonomy is gained by exploring and making
    choices.
  • Feedback from students informs the teacher.
  • No homeworksleeping practice
  • Syllabus is structure based.
  • Structures are not presented in a linear way.
  • Skills (speaking, reading and writing) reinforce
    one another.

55
Suggestopedia
  • The name is from the words suggestion and
    pedagogy.
  • Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian
    psychologist Georgi Lozanov

56
Attention and memory studies
  • (Adapted from Richards Rodgers 2001 Approaches
    Methods in Language Teaching Cambridge)

57
Purpose
  • Desuggest the psychological barriers to learn
    vocabulary and conversation

58
Characteristics
  • ?Present text with music
  • ?Practiced breathing
  • ?Comfortable
  • ?Choose target language name
  • ?Colorful posters on the wall
  • ?Liberate instead of teach

59
Elements to Suggestopedia
  • ?Authority people remember best and are most
    influenced by information coming from an
    authoritative source
  • ?Infantilization authority is also used to
    suggest a teacher-student relation like that of
    parent to child. In the child's role the learner
    takes part in role playing, games, songs, and
    gymnastic exercises that help "the older student
    regain the self-confidence, spontaneity, and
    receptivity of the child."
  • ?Double-planedness The learner learns not only
    from effect of direct instruction but from the
    environment in which the instruction takes place
    (e.g. classroom decoration, music, shape of
    charts, teacher's personality)
  • ?Intonation, Rhythm and concert
    pseudo-passiveness
  • Both intonation and rhythm are coordinated with a
    musical background. The musical background helps
    to induce a relaxed attitude, which Lozanov
    refers to as concert pseudo-passiveness
  • The type of music is critical to learning
    success Lozanov recommends a series of slow
    movements (sixty beats a minute) in 4/4 time for
    Baroque concerto (strung together into a
    half-hour concert)
  • The body relaxed, the mind became alert

60
Typical Procedure
  • ?Deciphering
  • ?Concert session
  • ?Elaboration
  • ?Production

61
Advantages with using Suggestopedia
  • ?Increase oral proficiency
  • ?Lower classroom anxiety

62
Disadvantages with using Suggestopedia
  • ?Unavailable of music and comfortable chair
  • ?No advanced comprehension technique

63
Community Language Learning
  • Developed by Charles Curran and his associates in
    1970s

64
Comparison
65
Psychological Requirements for Successful Learning
  • ?S stands for security
  • ?A stands for attention and aggression
  • ?R stands for retention and reflection
  • ?D represents discrimination

66
Purpose
  • The teacher can successfully transfer his or her
    knowledge and proficiency in the L2 to the
    students Specific purposes are not mentioned.

67
Characteristics
  • ?Client-Counselor and Learner-Knower
    relationships
  • ?Humanistic Techniques
  • ?Code Alternation

68
Advantages with using CLL
  • ?Remove the feeling of distance and insecure
  • ?Counselor allows the learner to decide the topic

69
Disadvantages with using CLL
  • ?Teacher may become too indirective
  • ?Confidence based on an inductive strategy for
    learning

70
Typical Procedure
  • ?Translation
  • ?Group Work
  • ?Recording
  • ?Transcription
  • ?Analysis
  • ?Reflection and observation

71
Main Steps of Procedure of CLL
  • ?Investment
  • ?Reflection

72
The Comprehension-based Approach(Natural
Approach)
  • The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy
    Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977. It
    came to have a wide influence in language
    teaching in the United States and around the
    world.

73
Features of NA
  • Listening comprehension is very important
  • Begin by listening to meaningful speech
  • Speak when ready
  • One step beyond their level of competence
  • Error correction
  • Appropriate input for the learners
  • Adopt freely from various method sources

74
The NA v.s. The DM
  • The DM emphasize on
  • 1.Teach monologue
  • 2.Direct repetition
  • 3.Formal Q/A
  • 4.Accurate production
  • The NA emphasize on
  • 1.Exposure / input
  • 2.Optimizing emotional preparedness
  • 3.A prolonged period of hearing

75
Objectives of NA
  • To be able to function adequately in the target
    situation.
  • To be able to convey their requests and idea

76
Teacher and Student Roles
  • Teacher Roles
  • The primary source
  • Create a classroom atmosphere
  • Choose a rich mix of classroom activities
  • Student Roles
  • Participator responder

77
The Communicative Approach
78
Hymes view of communicative competence (1979)
  • formally possible (grammatically acceptable)
  • understandable to human beings
  • in line with social norms
  • in fact done
  • Do people actually use language this way?


79
Canale and Swains Four dimensions of
communicative competence (1980)
  • Grammatical competence
  • Sociolinguistic competence
  • Discourse competence
  • Strategic competence

(Richards Rodgers, 198671)
80
Hedges five main components of communicative
competence (2000)
  • Linguistic competence
  • Pragmatic competence
  • Discourse competence
  • Strategic competence
  • Fluency

81
Theory of Learning
  • the communication principle Activities that
    involve real communication promote learning.
  • the task principle Activities in which language
    is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote
    learning (Johnson 1982).
  • the meaningfulness principle Language that is
    meaningful to the learner supports the learning
    process.

(P20)
82
Features of CA
  • Communicative intent
  • The use of authentic materials
  • Activities are often carried out

83
Major Classroom Activities
Activities Classification Functions
Pre-communicative activities Structural activities Primary focus on linguistic forms
Pre-communicative activities Quasi-communicative activities Focus on forms plus meanings
Communicative activities Functional communication activities Focus on meanings plus forms
Communicative activities Social interaction activities Primary focus on meanings
84
Teacher and Student Roles
  • Teacher roles
  • (1) To facilitate communication
  • (2) To be a co-communicator
  • Student roles
  • Communicator

85
Advantages of the CA
  • (1) Students will be more motivated
  • (2) Students have opportunities to express
  • (3) Student security is enhanced
  •      

86
Disadvantages of the CA
  • No environment of ESL
  • Difficulty in evaluating students performance
  • Ignore the training of reading and writing

87
Typical techniques
  • Authentic materials
  • Scrambled sentences
  • Language games
  • Picture strip story
  • Role play

88
  • Task-based language teaching
  • Competency-based instruction
  • Cooperative learning
  • Whole language approach
  • Multiple intelligence
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