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Title: IT Applications Theory Slideshows


1
IT Applications Theory Slideshows
IT Applications Theory Slideshows
Roles of hardware and software components
Roles of hardware and software components
Version 2
  • By Mark Kelly
  • mark_at_vceit.com
  • Vceit.com

By Mark Kelly McKinnon Secondary College Vceit.com
2
Information Systems
  • Information System components
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Procedures
  • People
  • Data
  • Usually systems are computers
  • May be specialised e.g. railway ticket machines

3
Hardware? Software?
  • Hardware is physical
  • E.g. a monitor
  • Can be touched, seen, picked up, kicked
  • Hardware needs software to operate
  • Software is programming instructions
  • E.g. Adobe Photoshop
  • Recorded as electronic binary signals
  • Controls hardwares behaviour

4
  • HARDWARE

5
Unofficial ICT Hardware Categories
  • Input
  • Output
  • Processing
  • Storage
  • Communication

6
Input Devices
  • Let users enter data into an information system.
  • Keyboard, keypad
  • Mouse, touchpad
  • Bar code reader
  • Touch screen
  • Data tablet
  • Scanner, camera
  • Voice recognition

7
Input Devices
  • Keyboard, keypad
  • QWERTY layout. Designed to be as inefficient as
    possible to stop fast typists jamming the early
    typewriters
  • Dvorak more efficient key layout puts most
    commonly used keys on the home row. Rare!

8
Input Devices
  • Mouse, trackball
  • Designed for GUI OS
  • Ball mouse superseded by optical
  • RSI concerns
  • Trackball stationary upside-down mouse
  • Touchpad
  • When mice are impractical
  • On laptops

9
Input Devices
  • Bar code reader
  • Reads bar codes converts them to numbers
  • Common in supermarkets, libraries, parts
    warehouses etc
  • Much faster and more accurate than hand-typing
    product codes

10
Input Devices
  • Touch screen
  • Touch sensitive
  • Tablet computers
  • iPhone
  • Railway ticket machines
  • Information kiosks
  • Bank ATMs
  • Easy for public to use
  • Can mimic any sort of interface buttons are only
    images

11
Input Devices
  • Data tablet
  • Far better than a mouse for art
  • Works like a pen
  • Pressure-sensitive

12
Input Devices
  • Scanner, digital camera
  • Digitises analogue documents or pictures
  • Scans page like a photocopier
  • Use OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to
    interpret and digitise printed text
  • Resolution determines how detailed the resulting
    digital image is.
  • 1200 dpi resolution 1200 dots per inch
    (2.54cm)

13
Voice recognition 1
  • Modern form of dictation
  • Requires complex programming to recognise voices
    accurately
  • Users need to train software to get used to their
    accent
  • Not useful in noisy environments, e.g. offices

14
Voice recognition 2
  • Not good for sensitive material would be
    overheard!
  • May be useful if hands-free data entry needed
  • May be quicker data entry for poor typists

15
Output devices 1
  • Display the results of processing.
  • Monitor
  • CRT
  • LCD, TFT
  • Plasma
  • Data projector

16
CRT monitor
  • Now extinct!

17
LCD monitors
  • LCD Liquid Crystal Display
  • Thin, saves desk space
  • Lighter than CRT
  • Less power consumption than CRT
  • Getting cheaper
  • Refresh rates getting better
  • Blacks often just grey
  • Colour richness not as good as CRT

18
Plasma
  • Very power-hungry
  • Cheap for very large displays (e.g. gt40 inches)
  • Better blacks than LCD
  • Faster refresh than LCD
  • Good for public notice boards

150 (375cm) plasma display
19
Data Projector
  • Very portable
  • Very large display
  • Struggles in brightly lit rooms
  • Colours are often dull
  • Excellent for group presentations
  • Lamps fail with age

20
Output devices 2
  • Printer
  • Laser
  • Inkjet
  • Thermal
  • Dot matrix, Impact
  • Speakers
  • Indicators, LEDs

21
Laser Printers 1
  • Black and white or colour
  • Expensive to buy, cheaper to run than inkjet
  • Fast printing
  • Prints whole page at a time, not line by line
    like inkjet

22
Laser Printers 2
  • Very high resolution (dots per inch)
  • Print is waterproof (unlike inkjet)
  • Same mechanicals as a photocopier

23
Inkjet Printers
  • Cheap to buy, very expensive to replace ink
  • Line-by-line printing

24
Thermal Printers
  • Low power requirements
  • Low to medium resolution
  • Can be battery powered - good for portable
    printing e.g. parking tickets
  • Uses heat-sensitive paper, usually on a roll

25
Thermal Printers
  • Not good for archive documents paper blackens
    over time
  • Often used for bar coding boxes, Point Of Sale
    (POS) terminals

26
Dot matrix printers
  • Alias impact printer
  • In the print head are pins arranged in a matrix
  • They shoot out to hit an inked ribbon which is
    pushed against the paper leaving dots on it
  • Noisy! Slow!
  • Low resolution! Expensive ribbons
  • but

27
Dot matrix printers
  • The only printer type that strikes the paper
  • Only they can produce duplicates with
    pressure-sensitive paper
  • E.g. supermarket receipts - two or three copies
    (white customer copy, yellow shop copy) in only
    one print operation

28
Other output devices
  • Speakers
  • Can use sound to give system alerts information
  • Needed for playing audiovisual multimedia
  • Screen-recorded tutorials use voice-overs
  • Indicators, LEDs
  • Caps Lock, NumLock, hard disk activity, power
    on light etc
  • Watches, digital clocks
  • Car instrumentation

29
Processing Hardware
  • Converts data to information
  • CPU
  • RISC, CISC
  • Multicore
  • GPU

30
CPU
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Most are CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
  • Lots of inbuilt commands
  • Some are RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
  • Fewer inbuilt commands, simpler design
  • Smaller size, less power, less heat

31
CPU
  • Many now have 2 or more cores equivalent of
    multiple CPUs for extra processing power
  • Speed measured in hertz (cycles per second)
  • The more the hertz, the more work gets done in a
    fixed time
  • Usually measured in gigahertz
  • 2 to 4 GHz common nowadays

32
CPU
  • Speed also can be measured in FLOPS
  • Floating Point Operations per Second
  • Benchmarks standardised tests to measure CPU
    and whole-system performance.

33
GPU
  • Graphics Processor Unit
  • A video cards processor much more powerful
    than a CPU (300)
  • Needs power to shift huge quantities of data to
    the monitor

34
GPU
  • Needs power to process complex video data
    (especially for gaming)
  • Now being used to help the CPU do processing
  • See nVidias Tesla a GPU PC! 120 times more
    powerful than a normal PC.

35
Storage hardware
  • Stores retrieves data and software.
  • Hard disk
  • Solid state disk
  • Flash RAM, RAM, ROM
  • CD, DVD
  • Tape, floppy disk

36
Hard Disk Drive
  • HDD
  • Magnetic storage
  • Multiple aluminium platters stacked on a spindle
  • Average HDD platters 3½ (inches)
  • Laptop platters 2½
  • MP3 players 1

37
Hard Disks
  • Read/write heads move across top and bottom of
    each platter
  • Spin at 5,400, 7,000 or 10,000 rpm
  • Head floats on a cushion of air a couple of
    molecules distance from the platter

A hard disk drive head resting on the disk
platter.
38
HDD
  • Very fast storage retrieval
  • Very large capacity - 1.5 Terabytes
  • 1,500 gigabytes
  • Very cheap per megabyte
  • Must be handled gently
  • Draw quite a lot of current, reducing battery life

39
Solid State Disk
  • SSD
  • Permanent storage in Flash RAM
  • No moving parts rugged portable
  • Draw less current than HDD longer battery life
  • Speed can be better than HDD
  • Expensive (AU)
  • 128G SSD 650 (2010) 235 (2011)
  • 1000G HDD 77 (2011)
  • Small capacity compared to HDD

40
USB Flash Drives
  • NAND memory
  • Normal RAM (Random Access Memory) loses its
    memory contents when power is turned off
  • Normal ROM (Read Only Memory) has its contents
    burnt at the factory and they cannot be changed
    later

41
USB Flash Drives
  • Flash RAM can be rewritten like RAM but its
    contents are retained when power is lost.
  • Completely replaced floppy disks
  • Limited life 1 million read/write cycles
  • 10 year data retention

42
USB Flash drives
  • Small, light, rugged (sealed, no moving parts)
  • Cheap ones can be rather slow
  • Typical capacity from 64M to 64G.
  • Easily lost or left behind - possible security
    issues
  • Some USB Flash drives can be encrypted

43
CD, DVD
  • Compact Disk capacity about 700M
  • Digital Versatile Disk about 4.7G (4700M)
  • Come in writeable and rewriteable forms
  • Writeable (CD-R, DVD-R) can be burnt (written to)
    once only contents become permanent
  • Rewriteable (CD-RW, DVD-RW) can be erased and
    re-burnt several times.

44
CD, DVD
  • Aluminium layer embedded in a 5¼ polycarbonate
    plastic disc
  • Laser burns data digitally as pits
  • Data also read by laser beam
  • Continuous, spiral data track extends from
    innermost to the outermost track, covering the
    entire disc surface

45
CD, DVD
  • Sensitive to scratches, heat
  • Immune to magnetic effects
  • Not perpetual storage as originally believed.
  • Disks degrade over time, become unreadable
  • Gold disks seem to last longer

The laser lens in a CD drive
46
DVD
  • DVD media come in 3 types
  • DVD-R
  • DVDR
  • DVD-RAM
  • Also come in single/double layer versions
  • Most burners can write all 3 formats
  • Most players can play all 3 formats

47
Blu-ray
  • Uses blue laser rather than red
  • Narrower beam can write more data in the same
    space
  • Compare writing with a thick red crayon and a
    sharp blue pencil

48
CD vs DVD
Disc Type Base speed (Mbit/s) Max speed (Mbit/s) X factor
CD 1.17 65 56x
DVD 10.55 211 20x
Blu-Ray 36.00 432 12x
49
Tape Floppy Disk
  • Magnetic storage data can be damaged by
    magnetic fields data can fade over time until it
    becomes unreadable
  • Read/write head rubs on the media surface
    eventually wear off the magnetic coating

50
Tape Floppy Disk
  • DAT (Digital Audio Tape) commonly used for backup
    in corporate networks
  • Floppy disks slow, low capacity, unreliable,
    expensive. EXTINCT.

51
Communication hardware
  • Sends and receives data within and between
    systems
  • Modem
  • Dialup (analogue)
  • ADSL
  • Cable internet

52
Communication hardware
  • Cabling
  • CAT6
  • Fibre optic
  • (Coaxial extinct except for broadband)
  • USB, Firewire
  • Wireless
  • 802.11 wifi radio
  • Microwave (corporate level only)
  • Infrared (extinct in PCs)

53
Communication hardware
  • Switches, hubs
  • Repeaters, bridges
  • Routers
  • Wireless Access Points
  • File Servers
  • Network Interface Cards
  • More details in the Networks-Hardware PPT.

54
Stuff in the box
  • Case protects internal components. Needs good
    ventilation to prevent overheating
  • Tower
  • Desktop
  • Laptop, notebook
  • Power supply unit (PSU)
  • Supplies voltage to the devices inside the case
  • Fan to cool the case

PSU
55
Stuff in the box
  • The case (chassis)
  • Motherboard
  • Power supply
  • Memory
  • Graphics card
  • Expansion slots
  • Ports

56
Motherboard
  • Motherboard the main circuit board to which all
    the system components connect
  • Slots for
  • Memory
  • CPU
  • Expansion cards

57
  • Computers startup data stored in BIOS (Basic
    Input Output System) Flash RAM chips
  • Hard disk type
  • Amount of RAM
  • Operating preferences
  • Security password
  • etc

58
Memory
  • RAM Random Access Memory
  • holds running programs, current calculations,
    user preferences etc
  • Average RAM now 1 to 4 gigabytes
  • Comes in chips on a little circuit board
  • Dynamic memory contents continuously leaking, so
    must be refreshed many times per second

59
Memory
  • ROM Read Only Memory
  • contains control software that is burnt in the
    factory and never changes (e.g. a hard disks
    controller software)
  • ROM variants
  • PROM (Programmable ROM)
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM)

60
Graphics Card
  • A.K.A. video card
  • Sometimes built into motherboard
  • Creates screen image data
  • Has its own processor GPU more powerful than
    the main CPU

61
Graphics Card
  • Has a private data pipeline to the CPU for
    greater speed
  • Expensive, powerful
  • Outputs
  • VGA (analogue)
  • DVI (digital)
  • HDMI

62
Graphics card
  • Some cards have 2 VGA or DVI sockets to run two
    monitors
  • The operating system splits the display across
    both monitors

63
Expansion Cards
  • Plug into the computers bus (data highway) and
    become part of the system
  • Allow new or better components to be added
  • Graphics
  • Sound card
  • Network card
  • Specialist circuitry to control exotic
    peripherals (external equipment plugged into the
    system)

64
Slots
GENERAL PURPOSE Oldest ISA and EISA Newer
PCI Newest PCI Express
VIDEO CARDS Older AGP
65
Ports where things plug in
  • Also may find
  • PC Card (PCMCIA)
  • SD card slot
  • ESATA (high speed hard disk port)
  • HDMI (digitial video audio)
  • DVI video
  • Firewire

66
Ports
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports now replace many
    older single-purpose ports such as
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Modem (serial port)
  • Printer
  • Especially on notebooks/netbooks where space for
    ports is very limited
  • Low-powered USB devices can be powered by the
    port no power adaptor needed!

67
  • SOFTWARE

68
Software categories
  • System software
  • Operating system
  • Network operating system
  • Application software
  • Utilities

69
System Software
  • Operating system (OS)
  • Provides services to allow software to run
  • Allocates memory to programs
  • Controls multitasking
  • Controls hard disks and storage

70
OS
  • Commands the graphics card
  • Manages printing
  • Enables security
  • Negotiates with external hardware
  • Supports network and internet connectivity
  • Microsoft Windows
  • Linux
  • Mac OS
  • 70

71
System Software
  • Network Operating system (NOS)
  • Runs on a file server
  • Controls a network just as an OS controls a
    computer
  • Manages logins and security
  • Issues privileges to users (e.g. home directory,
    printer access)
  • 71

72
NOS
  • Issues IP addresses for internet access
  • Caches downloads
  • Manages printers
  • Does backups
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008
  • Novell Netware (extinct)
  • 72

73
Application Software
  • Lets users get work done
  • Designed to run on a particular OS
  • Needs to be ported if its to run on other OSs.
  • Examples
  • Microsoft Office Word, Excel, Powerpoint etc
  • Filemaker Pro database
  • Adobe Photoshop
  • 73

74
Utilities
  • Specialised software that extends the
    functionality of a system
  • Usually are single-purpose tools, e.g.
  • Windows Defrag
  • Notepad
  • Nero DVD burner
  • DivX, MP3 player
  • Calculator
  • Character map
  • XN View picture viewer and processor (74)

75
IT APPLICATIONS SLIDESHOWS
  • By Mark Kelly
  • mark_at_vceit.com
  • vceit.com

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