INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 494f1a-YmU5Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING

Description:

Chapter INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING & SELECTION : [Determining System Requirements] PRESENTED BY: WALTER O Angol, Consultant IT 3 Learning Objectives Describe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:24
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: JohnRu161
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING


1
INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING SELECTION
3
Chapter
  • Determining System Requirements

PRESENTED BY WALTER O Angol, Consultant IT
2
Learning Objectives
  • Describe options for designing and conducting
    interviews
  • Discuss planning an interview
  • Discuss using questionnaires to determine system
    requirements
  • Explain advantages and disadvantages of observing
    workers and analyzing business documents to
    determine requirements

3
Learning Objectives
  • Learn about Joint Application Design (JAD) and
    Prototyping
  • Discuss appropriate methods to elicit system
    requests
  • Examine requirements determination for Internet
    applications

4
The Information Systems Planning Process
  • The five step plan outlined here is sage advice
    for IS planning
  • Understand the vision objectives both
    organizational and relating to IT
  • Identify current system - what is/is not working
  • Establish measures to understand impact of
    changes
  • Identify specific opportunities, and
  • Buiild/exercise a prototype.

5
Performing Requirements Determination
  • Gather information on what the system should do
    from many sources
  • Users
  • Reports
  • Forms
  • Procedures

6
Performing Requirements Determination
  • Characteristics for gathering requirements
  • Impertinence
  • Question everything
  • Impartiality
  • Find the best organizational solution
  • Relaxation of constraints
  • Attention to detail
  • Reframing
  • View the organization in new ways

7
Deliverables and Outcomes
  • Types of deliverables
  • Information collected from users
  • Existing documents and files
  • Computer-based information
  • Understanding of organizational components
  • Business objective
  • Information needs
  • Rules of data processing
  • Key events

8
4.8
9
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
10
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Interviewing and Listening
  • Gather facts, opinions and speculations
  • Observe body language and emotions
  • Guidelines
  • Plan
  • Checklist
  • Appointment
  • Be neutral
  • Listen
  • Seek a diverse view

11
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Interviewing (Continued)
  • Interview Questions
  • Open-Ended
  • No prespecified answers
  • Close-Ended
  • Respondent is asked to choose from a set of
    specified responses

12
(No Transcript)
13
4.13
14
4.14
15
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Administering Questionnaires
  • More cost-effective than interviews
  • Choosing respondents
  • Should be representative of all users
  • Types of samples
  • Convenient
  • Random sample
  • Purposeful sample
  • Stratified sample

16
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Questionnaires
  • Design
  • Mostly closed-ended questions
  • Can be administered over the phone, in person or
    over the Internet or company intranet
  • Vs. Interviews
  • Interviews cost more but yield more information
  • Questionnaires are more cost-effective
  • See table 4-4 for a complete comparison

17
4.17
18
Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Directly Observing Users
  • Serves as a good method to supplement interviews
  • Often difficult to obtain unbiased data
  • People often work differently when being observed

19
Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents
  • Types of information to be discovered
  • Problems with existing system
  • Opportunity to meet new need
  • Organizational direction
  • Names of key individuals
  • Values of organization
  • Special information processing circumstances
  • Rules for processing data

20
(No Transcript)
21
Modern Methods for Determining Requirements
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Brings together key users, managers and systems
    analysts
  • Purpose collect system requirements
    simultaneously from key people
  • Conducted off-site
  • Prototyping
  • Repetitive process
  • Rudimentary version of system is built
  • Replaces or augments SDLC
  • Goal to develop concrete specifications for
    ultimate system

22
Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Participants
  • Session Leader
  • Users
  • Managers
  • Sponsor
  • Systems Analysts
  • Scribe
  • IS Staff

23
Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • End Result
  • Documentation detailing existing system
  • Features of proposed system

24
(No Transcript)
25
Prototyping
  • Quickly converts requirements to working version
    of system
  • Once the user sees requirements converted to
    system, will ask for modifications or will
    generate additional requests
  • Most useful when
  • User requests are not clear
  • Few users are involved in the system
  • Designs are complex and require concrete form
  • History of communication problems between
    analysts and users
  • Tools are readily available to build prototype

26
Prototyping
  • Drawbacks
  • Tendency to avoid formal documentation
  • Difficult to adapt to more general user audience
  • Sharing data with other systems is often not
    considered
  • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are
    often bypassed

27
(No Transcript)
28
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy
  • Two basic steps
  • Generate a comprehensive set of alternative
    design strategies
  • Select the one design strategy that is most
    likely to result in the desired information
    system
  • Process
  • Divide requirements into different sets of
    capabilities
  • Enumerate different potential implementation
    environments that could be used to deliver the
    different sets of capabilities
  • Propose different ways to source or acquire the
    various sets of capabilities for the different
    implementation environments

29
Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy
  • Deliverables
  • At least three substantially different system
    design strategies for building the replacement
    information system
  • A design strategy judged most likely to lead to
    the most desirable information system
  • A Baseline Project Plan (BPP) for turning the
    most likely design strategy into a working
    information system

30
Generating Alternative Design Strategies
  • Best to generate three alternatives
  • Low-end
  • Provides all required functionality users demand
    with a system that is minimally different from
    the current system
  • High-end
  • Solves problem in question and provides many
    extra features users desire
  • Midrange
  • Compromise of features of high-end alternative
    with frugality of low-end alternative

31
Drawing Bounds on Alternative Designs
  • Minimum Requirements
  • Mandatory features versus desired features
  • Forms of features
  • Data
  • Outputs
  • Analyses
  • User expectations on accessibility, response time
    and turnaround time
  • Constraints on System Development
  • Time
  • Financial
  • Legal
  • Dynamics of the problem

32
Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives
  • Outsourcing
  • The practice of turning over responsibility of
    some to all of an organizations information
    systems applications and operations to an outside
    firm
  • Can provide a cost-effective solution

33
Issues to Consider in Generating Alternatives
  • Sources of Software
  • Hardware manufacturers
  • Packaged software producers
  • Custom software producers
  • Enterprise solution software
  • In-house development

34
Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software
  • Cost
  • In-house versus purchased
  • Functionality
  • Mandatory, essential and desired features
  • Vendor Support
  • Installation
  • Training
  • Technical Support
  • Viability of Vendor

35
Criteria for Choosing Off-the-Shelf Software
  • Flexibility
  • Ease of customization
  • Documentation
  • User documentation
  • Technical documentation
  • Response Time
  • Ease of Installation

36
(No Transcript)
37
Validating Purchased Software Information
  • Information from vendor
  • Software evaluation period
  • Customer references from vendor
  • Independent software testing service
  • Trade publications

38
Hardware and Software Issues
  • Request for Proposal (RFP)
  • A document provided to vendors to ask them to
    propose hardware and system software that will
    meet the requirements of your new system

39
Implementation Issues
  • Technical and social aspects of implementation
    need to be addressed
  • Training
  • Disruption of work
About PowerShow.com