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Diapositiva 1

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Title: Diapositiva 1


1
Hydrogen and Renewable Energies
2
Background
  • Hydrogen
  • Is the most plentiful element in the universe
  • Is colourless, odourless, insipid, non-toxic and
    highly inflammable
  • Has the highest energy/weight ratio
  • Is not a source of energy but a form of storage.
    It is an energetic vector
  • Its combustion only produces H2O. It is a
    non-pollutant fuel
  • Does not exist in free form. It needs to be
    produced
  • Fossil fuels
  • Biomass
  • Electrolysis
  • Photoelectrochemistry
  • ..
  • If it is produced from renewable energies the
    cycle has zero-emissions

3
Sources and Uses of Hydrogen
4
Fuel Cell Technology Fuels and applications
5
Background
Hydrogen can be stored in
  • Gas state. The low density of H2 means that less
    energy per unit of volume is stored
  • Advantage ? LOW COST AND GREAT DEVELOPMENT AND
    RELIABILITY
  • Disadvantage ? LARGE VOLUMES AND HIGH PRESSURES
  • Liquid state. Its low boiling point (20K) means
    cryogenic recipients are required
  • Advantage ? HIGH DENSITY AND LESS WEIGHT
  • Disadvantage ? SAFETY PROBLEMS, HIGH CONSUMPTION
    OF ENERGY AND HIGH COST
  • Solid state (HYDRIDES). H2 reacts with different
    metals or intermetallic compounds forming
    HYDRIDES
  • Advantage ? MORE STORAGE PER UNIT OF VOLUME,
    REVERSIBLE REACTION, LOW PRESSURE AND SAFETY
  • Disadvantage ? RELATIVELY HIGH WEIGHT

6
Background
The applications can be
  • Stationary.
  • Housing
  • Transport.
  • Cars
  • Submarines
  • Boats
  • Aeroplanes...
  • Portable items.
  • PCs
  • Mobile phones, etc.
  • Isolated system.
  • Energy accumulation Integration of the RES in
    the network.

Source CENER
Source MTI Company
7
Activities in Europe
  • Studies have been carried out that analyse the
    feasibility of the integration of renewable
    energies with hydrogen
  • Several demonstration projects have been set up
    that enable the results of the preliminary
    studies to be put into practice
  • Numerous patents have been applied for and
    accepted
  • The European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology
    Platform has been created

8
H2 filling station for CUTE and Citycell buses (
Madrid, April 28th, 2003 )
9
H2 filling station for CUTE buses (Barcelona,
April 9th, 2003)
10
Hydrogen development strategie . Road Map.
11
Ceners position
  • Ceners activity is focused on the application of
    hydrogen as an energy accumulation system, with
    the objective of increasing and improving the
    penetration of renewable energies in the
    electrical system.
  • It considers electrolysis from renewable energies
    (in particular from wind energy) as a production
    system. Hydrogen produced in this way is what is
    known as green hydrogen.
  • The use of hydrogen can
  1. Increase the penetration of renewable energies
    into the electricity network.
  2. Make the renewable energies similar to
    conventional sources, which will enable a better
    management of them by the operator of the
    electrical system.
  3. Reduce the dependence on imported fossil fuels
    and increase the energy and environmental
    sustainability of the region.
  4. Provide innovation for energy storage systems.

12
Studies
  • CENER Government of Navarre, (SPAIN)
  • Objective To develop an integrated technological
    solution in which the hydrogen vector will act as
    a means for accumulating energy from wind energy
    in such a way that its re-conversion into
    electrical energy as required facilitates its
    integration into the electrical system.
  • The purpose behind this work consists of
    advancing and developing an industrial-scale
    technical solution, which is economically
    interesting, which could be commercialised within
    5 to 10 years.

13
Ceners position
  • Cener has two laboratories for research and
    experimentation in this field
  • Electrochemical Laboratory.
  • Laboratory for Integrating
  • Hydrogen and Renewable
  • Energies.

14
Hydrogen Storage
  • Efficiency of Hydrogen production 75
  • Efficiency of compression 96
  • Efficiency of recover energy systems
  • Turbines 30-32
  • Combustion 44
  • Fuel Cells 55
  • Hybrid Systems 75- 85
  • High temperature gas turbine
  • Suppliers of Hybrids systems
  • Siemens, Westinghouse, Fuel Cells EnergyMTU
  • Current power limit 200 KW

15
Hydrogen costs
  • Wind Farm scale 50 MW
  • Total Investment approx. 2,5- 3,0 M/ MW
  • Fuel cells 4.000 /KW
  • Hybrid systems 10.000 /kw
  • Operational life time 15-20 years
  • TIR of investment positivegt15 years

16
Peripheral maritime regions
In most cases, peripheral maritime regions have
some particularities derived from their situation
and/or commercial activities
  1. Weak networks or even disconnection of networks
    (islands and remote communities)
  2. High renewable resources in the sea (offshore
    wind farms) that require more costly transport
    networks
  3. High seasonal energy consumption (Mediterranean
    coast)
  4. Management of demand in ports

Hydrogen, as a means of energy storage, can
minimise or solve these problems in the next
future
17
Demonstration projects
  • Utsira Project (IEA)
  • Norwegian and German companies (Enercon),
    Norwegian government
  • Objectives
  • To demonstrate an autonomous energy system
  • To integrate developed, novelty hydrogen
    technologies with renewable energies

18
Demonstration projects
  • Hydrogen Generation from Stand-Alone Wind-Powered
    Electrolysis Systems (IEA, Task 11)
  • Energy Research Unit, Rutherford Appleton
    Laboratory (UK), Casaccia Research Centre
    (Italy), Institute for Technical Thermodynamics
    (Germany), Department of Engineering, University
    of Leicester (UK)
  • Objectives
  • To improve the control of the aerogenerator to
    improve the quality of the energy
  • To examine the tolerance of an electrolyser in a
    fluctuating supply
  • To design and construct a small-scale isolated
    system of hydrogen (lt 10 kW)
  • To assess the economic costs

19
Demonstration projects
  • Cluster Pilot Project for the Integration of RES
    into European Energy Sectors using Hydrogen
    (RES2H2) (IEA)
  • Spain, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Greece
    and Cyprus
  • Objectives
  • Clean production of hydrogen using wind energy
  • To solve the problem of storing excess energy
  • To obtain water from the renewable-H2 system

20
Other demonstration projects
  • PROIDRI (CNR ITAE-UNICT DIEES, Italy).
  • Objective Development of integrated systems of
    renewables with hydrogen
  • Development of a prototype of the system
  • To improve the characteristics of the
    electrolysers
  • Study of the losses associated with converters
    and adaptors
  • HIDROTEC (Corporación Tecnalia).
  • Objective Introduction of a demonstration plant
    with multiple applications to assess the various
    options of sustainable energy solutions based on
    hydrogen
  • Scenes selected for simulation
  • Hydrogen filling station for transport
  • Hydrogen storage to increase the availability of
    high power wind farms
  • Autonomous isolated systems

21
Demonstration projects
  • Hydrogen and Renewables Integration Project
    (HaRI)
  • CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems
    Technology) at Loughborough University
  • Objectives
  • To investigate energy storage methods generated
    by renewable sources
  • Hydrogen Demo Project in UK PURE-Promoting Unst
    Renewable Energy
  • Shetland Council
  • Objectives
  • To demonstrate the feasibility of systems based
    on renewables and hydrogen
  • Sustainable use of energy resources that are
    found in the isolated communities

22
Other demonstration projects
  • AEROPILA, BESEL
  • Objective Installation of an isolated system
    based on renewable energies and hydrogen for
    stationary and transport applications
  • Pilot plant (operating since 2004).

23
Studies
  • RenewIslands
  • Objective To increase the penetration into the
    market of new energy systems combining fuel cell
    technology, renewable energies and hydrogen in
    islands and remote regions in Europe and
    third-world countries.
  • Tesis NTNU, Norway (C.J. Greiner)
  • Objective Analysis of the production of hydrogen
    from wind energy from an economic and
    environmental point of view.
  • Renewable-H2
  • Objective To assess the European activities in
    H2 and renewables and the bodies involved, to set
    up interaction with national programmes and H2
    networks, to identify opportunities for
    integrating renewables in the hydrogen economy
    and to assess the possibility of setting up an
    Excellence Centre.

24
Studies
  • Altman M., Richert, F., Hydrogen production at
    offshore wind farms. Offshore Wind Energy Special
    Topic Conference, Belgium, Dec 2001.
  • Making the most of maritime wind resources (North
    Sea). Offshore platforms for producing hydrogen
    through the electrolysis of desalinated water.
  • Eliminate the electrical connections to land.
  • H2 has diverse applications (H2 common industry,
    fuel, energy vector).

25
Conclusions
  • Conclusions
  • Hydrogen is beginning to look like one of the
    large-scale energy accumulation systems. It will
    enable us to increase the penetration of
    renewable energies into the energy market, the
    quality of the energy and the stabilisation of
    the network.
  • If the production of hydrogen is though
    electrolysis based on renewables, the cycle has
    zero emissions.
  • It can serve as a support in the case of regions
    with a high energy dependence or with weak
    networks.
  • In Europe, demonstration projects are being
    developed with the aim of showing the feasibility
    of the H2-RES system.

26
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