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Title: Training of

Adolescent Education Program
Training of
Nodal Teachers
Some Indicative Ground Rules are Listed below
  • Maintain confidentiality at all times. What is
    shared by the group remains strictly within it.
  • Punctuality and time management. Mutual support
    in maintaining timings for the training.

Ground Rules(contd.)
  • Compulsory attendance on all days.
  • Openness. It is important not to disclose others
    personal or private lives. It is acceptable to
    discuss general situations without using names.

Ground Rules(contd.)
  • No interruptions. It is better to raise hands so
    that the Resource Person can invite the
    individuals comment.
  • Ask questions one at a time and also give others
    a chance to talk.

Ground Rules(contd.)
  • Questions can also be asked by writing them down
    and putting them in the Question Box in the room.
  • Non-judgemental approach. Do not laugh at any
  • Respect each others feelings, opinions and

Objective of the Training Programme
  • This three-day training programme has been
    designed to
  • Provide the rationale and framework for the
    Adolescence Education Programme (AEP).
  • Build the knowledge base of Nodal Teachers
    (NTs) with accurate information on Growing Up,
    Adolescence, HIV/AIDS, Substance-Abuse, as well
    as the myths and misconceptions surrounding these

  • Train Nodal Teachers to transact training
    sessions by reinforcing skills essential for
    preventing HIV infections and Substance-Abuse.
  • Empower Nodal Teachers in dealing with issues of
  • Ensure that Nodal Teachers are equipped with
    adequate skills to conduct an in-school,
    skills-based Adolescence Education Programme
    (AEP) in the course of the academic year.

Group games
Role play
Situation analysis
Group guided discussion
Case studies
Setting the Context
  • Who are Adolescents?
  • Adolescents 10-19 years
  • Youth 15-24 years
  • Young people 10-24 years
  • Growth phases
  • Early adolescence 10-13 years
  • Mid adolescence 14-16 years
  • Late adolescence 17-19 years

Why focus on Adolescents?
  • Large human resource (22 population)
  • Caring, supportive environment will promote
    optimum development physical, emotional, mental.

Why focus on Adolescents?
  • Their behaviour has impact on national health
  • Adolescents are vulnerable to STIs, HIV/AIDS and
    various other forms of abuse
  • Health of girls has inter-generational effect.

Age structure of Indias population-2005
Comparative age structure of population-2005
Nigeria and USA
Indias demographic bonus
  • Window of Opportunity.
  • How can we make this a reality?

Adolescent concerns
  • Growing Up concerns
  • Developing an identity.
  • Managing Emotions.
  • Body image concerns
  • Building Relationships.
  • Resisting Peer-Pressure.

What are the issues related to Adolescent Health?
  • Issue Education
  • Enrollment figures have improved but dropout
    rates are high 68 from class 1 to X. (Source
    NSSO, 55th round, 2001).
  • Gender disparities persist - girls enrollment
    less than 50 at all stages
  • Young people not at school join the workforce at
    an early age nearly one out of three
    adolescents in 10-19 yrs is working. (Source
    Census 2001).

  • Issue Education(contd.)
  • Quality of education is poor-students are not
    equipped with skills to face life challenges
  • Please reflect on
  • How can we make education useful in handling
    day-to-day issues?

Issue Marriage
  • Despite laws prohibiting marriage before 18
    years, more than 50 of the females were married
    before this age. (Source Census 2001).
  • Nearly 20 of the 1.5 million girls who were
    married under the age of 15 years are already
    mothers. (Source Census 2001).
  • Choices are limited as to whether, when and whom
    to marry when and how many children to have.

Please reflect on
Issue Marriage(contd.)
  • How can you contribute to prevent early
  • What can we do to equip young people to have
    children by choice, not chance?

Issue Health
  • Adverse sex ratio 10-19 years 882/1000, 0-6
    years 927/1000. (Source Census 2001).
  • Malnutrition and anaemia - boys and girls below
    18 years consume less than the recommended number
    of calories and intake of proteins and iron.
  • Higher female mortality in the age group of 15-24

Issue Health
  • For rape victims in the age group of 14-18 years,
    a majority of the offenders are known to victims.
  • More than 70 girls suffer from severe or
    moderate anaemia (Source District Level Health
    Survey Reproductive and Child Health, 2004).
  • Please reflect on
  • How can we improve the nutritional status of

  • There are 2 3.1 million (2.47 million) people
    living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2006.
  • Number of AIDS cases in India is 1,24,995 as
    found in 2006 (Since inception i.e. 1986 to
    2006). (Source
  • 0.97 million (39.3) are women and 0.09 million
    (3.8) are children

Issue HIV/ AIDS(contd.)
  • India 2nd largest population of HIV positive
    persons infected. Over 35 of all reported HIV
    cases are in the age group of 15-24 years (NACO).
  • India has the second largest population of AIDS
    patients. Over 35 of all reported AIDS cases
    occurs among 15-24 year olds. Source NACO and
    UNICEF, 2001. Knowledge, attitudes and practices
    for young adults (15-24 years NACO. 2005. India
    Resolves to Defeat HIV/AIDS).

Issue HIV/ AIDS(contd.)
  • Lack of abstinence is a contributory cause.
  • Persons living with HIV/AIDS face stigma and
  • The estimated adult prevalence in the country is
    0.36 (0.27 - 0.47).

Issue Substance Abuse
  • Estimated number of drug abusers in India is
    around 3 million and that of drug dependents is
    0.5 - 0.6 million. (Source UNODC and Ministry of
    Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004)
  • Problem is more severe in the North-Eastern
    States of the Country.

Issue Substance Abuse(contd.)
  • Most drug users are in the age group 16-35 years.
  • Drug abuse rate is low in early Adolescence and
    high during late Adolescence.
  • Among current users in the age group of 12-18
    years, 21 were using alcohol, 3 cannabis and
    0.1 opiates (NHS-UNODC 2004).

Issue Substance Abuse(contd.)
  • A Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicated that
    24 of 40,000 male drug users were in the age
    group of 12-18 years. (Source UNODC and Ministry
    of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004)
  • Please reflect on
  • How can we reduce the vulnerability of young
    people to Substance - Abuse?

Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE
  • Two Out of every three children were
  • Out of 69 children Physically-Abused in 13
    sample states, 54.86 were boys.
  • Over 50 children in all the 13 sample states
    were being subjected to one or the other form of

Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.)
  • Out of those children Physically-Abused in family
    situations, 88.6 were Physically-Abused by
  • 53.22 children reported having faced one or more
    forms of Sexual -Abuse.
  • Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi reported
    the highest percentage of Sexual-Abuse among both
    boys and girls.

Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.)
  • 21.90 child respondents reported facing severe
    forms of Sexual-Abuse and 50.76 other forms of
  • Out of the child respondents, 5.69 reported
    being sexually assaulted.
  • In matters of Sexual-Abuse, 50 abusers are
    persons known to the child or in a position of
    trust and responsibility.
  • Most children did not report the matter to anyone.

Vision for Healthy and Empowered Adolescents
  • Through information, education and services
    adolescents are empowered to
  • Make informed choices in their personal and
    public life promoting their creative and
    responsible behaviour.

Empowering adolescents
Provide opportunities for making informed choices
in real life situations.
Improve adolescent-friendly health services and
link with existing programmes.
Provide education and build life skills.
  • Create a safe and supportive environment.

Adolescence Education Programme (AEP)
Upscaled to
Adolescence Education as a component of National
Population Education Programme(NPEP)
Objectives of AEP
  • To develop essential value enhanced Life-Skills
    for coping and managing concerns of adolescence
    through co-curricular activities (CCA).
  • To provide accurate knowledge to students about
    process of growing up, HIV/AIDS and

Objectives of AEP
  • To develop healthy attitudes and responsible
    behaviour towards process of growing up, HIV/AIDS
    and Substance-Abuse.
  • To promote respect for the opposite sex and deal
    with gender stereotypes.

Process of Growing Up
  • Nutritional needs of Adolescents in general and
    Adolescent girls in particular.
  • Physical growth and development.

Process of Growing Up
  • Psychological development.
  • Adolescent Health Issues (AHI)
  • Gender sensitisation.

  • HIV/AIDS Causes and consequences.
  • Preventive measures.
  • Treatment Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

  • Individual and social responsibilities towards
    people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLWHA).
  • Services available for prevention of the spread
    of HIV, and of HIV infected persons and also of
    drug abusers.

Substance Abuse
  • Situations in which Adolescents are driven to
  • Commonly abused Substances.
  • Consequences of Substance-Abuse.

Substance Abuse
  • Preventive measures.
  • Treatment.
  • Rehabilitation of drug addicts.
  • Individual and Social-Responsibilities.

Co-Curricular Approaches
Interactive Activities
Teacher Counseling
Peer Education
Interventions for Co-curricular Activities
  • Advocacy
  • Capacity building of Teachers/Peer Educators
  • Student activities
  • Health services Counselling and referrals to
    Adolescent-Friendly Health Services

School-level Activities
  • Time Minimum of 16 hours per academic year
    (more than 16 hours, wherever feasible).
  • Training At least two Nodal Teachers and two
    Peer-Educators per school are trained along with
    a plan of action for schools to conduct
    activities by teachers.
  • Advocacy activities at the school and community
  • Conducting sessions by organising interactive

School-level Activities(contd.)
  • Using Question-Box activities and responding to
    questions raised by students.
  • Training Peer-Educators and students to reach out
    to children who have dropped out or were never
    enrolled in school.
  • Strengthening linkages with Adolescent/Youth-Frien
    dly Health Services.

Effective implementation of the programme is the
key to its success
Perspective Building on Life Skills Development
Life- Skills Definition
  • Life-skills are abilities for adaptive and
    positive behaviour that enable individuals to
    deal effectively with the demands and challenges
    of everyday life. Life-Skills are abilities that
    Facilitate the Physical, Mental and Emotional
    well-being of an individual. (WHO)

Self-awareness Empathy Critical thinking
Creative thinking Decision making Problem solving
Interpersonal relationships Effective communication Coping with emotions
Coping with stress Coping with stress Coping with stress
  • In particular, life skills are psychosocial
    competencies and interpersonal skills that help
    people make informed decisions, solve problems,
    think critically and creatively, communicate
    effectively, build healthy relationships,
    empathise with others and cope with managing
    their lives in a healthy and productive manner.
  • Life skills may be directed towards personal
    actions or actions toward others or may be
    applied to actions that alter the surrounding
    environment to make it conducive to health.

  • Self-awareness includes our recognition of
    self, of our character, of our Strengths and
    Weaknesses, Desires and Dislikes. Developing
    Self-Awareness can help us to recognise when we
    are stressed or feel under pressure. It is also
    often a prerequisite to Effective-Communication
    and Interpersonal - Relations, as well as
    developing empathy for others.

Critical- Thinking
  • Critical -Thinking is the ability to analyse
    information and experiences in an objective
    manner. Critical-Thinking can contribute to
    health by helping us to recognise and assess the
    factors that influence attitudes and behaviour,
    such as values, Peer-Pressure, and the media.

Problem- Solving
  • Problem solving enables us to deal constructively
    with problems in our lives. Significant problems
    that are left unresolved can cause mental stress
    and give rise to accompanying physical strain.

Creative Thinking
  • Creative-Thinking contributes to both
    Decision-Making and Problem-Solving by enabling
    us to explore available alternatives and the
    various consequences of our actions or
    non-action. It helps us to look beyond our direct
    experience, and even if no problem is identified,
    or no decision is to be made, Creative -Thinking
    can help us to respond adaptively and with
    flexibility to the situations of our daily lives.

Decision Making
  • Decision-Making helps us to deal constructively
    with decisions about our lives. This can have
    positive consequences for the health of young
    people when they actively make decisions about
    their own health practices by assessing different
    options and the effects of different decisions.

Other Life Skills
  • Interpersonal-Relationship Skills help us to
    relate to the people we interact with in positive
    ways. This means being able to make and sustain
    friendly relationships, which can be of great
    importance to our mental and social well-being.
    It means keeping good relations with family
    members, who are an important source of social
    support. It may also mean being able to end
    relationships constructively.
  • Effective-Communication means that we are able to
    express ourselves, both verbally and
    non-verbally, in ways that are appropriate to our
    cultures and situations. This means not just
    being able to express opinions and desires, as
    well as needs and fears. And it may mean being
    able to ask for advice and help in time of need.

  • Empathy is the ability to imagine what life is
    like for another person, even in a situation that
    we may not be familiar with. Empathy can help us
    to understand and accept others, who may be very
    different from ourselves. This can improve social
    interactions, for example, in situations of
    ethnic or cultural diversity.
  • Dealing with Emotions includes skills for
    increasing the internal locus of control for
    managing emotions, anger etc.
  • Coping with Stress means that we take action to
    reduce the sources of stress, for example, by
    making changes to our physical environment or
    lifestyle. It also means learning how to relax,
    so that tensions created by unavoidable stress do
    not give rise to health problems.

Framework of Life Skills for AEP
Thinking Skills
Self awareness Problem solving/decision making Critical thinking/creative thinking Planning and goal setting
Social Skills
Interpersonal relationships Effective Communication Cooperation teamwork Empathy building
Negotiation Skills
Managing feelings / emotions Resisting peer / family pressure Consensus building Advocacy skills
Critical Thinking
Creative Thinking
Interpersonal Relationship
Self Awareness
Effective Communication
Key Messages
  • The various Life-Skills work best in conjunction.
  • Many Life-Skills are required to manage a
    particular situation effectively.
  • One particular skill may be effectively utilised
    in diverse situations.
  • The appropriate combination of Life-Skills at a
    given moment is an art.

  • Adolescents learn their Life-Skills from
    Parents/Teachers/Significant others who act as
    role models.
  • Stories from PANCHATANTRA and JATAKA TALES are
    based largely on effective utilization of
    Life-Skills, e.g., The Thirsty Crow, The
    Clever Rabbit, etc.
  • Participants would need to recognize and enhance
    their own Life-Skills to become effective

Healthy Growing up Understanding Adolescence
  • Adolescence is the period between childhood and
  • Boys and girls between 10 and 19 years are called
  • Persons in the age group 15 24 years are called

  • Persons in the age group 10 24 years are called
    young people.
  • Puberty is the name given to the changes that
    occur in girls and boys as they grow up.

  • Health is the state of complete physical, mental
    and social well-being and not merely an absence
    of disease or infirmity. (WHO)

  • Physical well-being refers to the normal
    functions of the body and body organs within the
    limitation of gender, age and occupation.

  • Mental well-being refers not only to the absence
    of mental illness but also to the awareness of
    ones talents, abilities, emotions, strengths and

  • Social well-being refers to ones ability to
    interact with, and adjust to other members of
  • It also means being responsible towards
    oneself, ones family, community and country.

  • The spiritual component of health is now
    considered an important integral part of well

Physical Changes in Girls
  • Growth spurt occurs.
  • Skin becomes oily.
  • Ovulation occurs (may or may not).
  • Menstruation begins.
  • Waistline narrows

Physical Changes in Boys
  • Growth spurt occurs.
  • Muscles develop.
  • Skin becomes oily.
  • Shoulders broaden.

Physical Changes in Boys(contd.)
  • Voice deepens.
  • Underarm and chest hair appear.
  • Facial hair appears.
  • Sperm production begins.

Emotional and Social Changes
  • Preoccupation with body image.
  • Fantasy and idealism.
  • Mood changes.
  • Attention-seeking behaviour.

Emotional and Social Changes(contd.)
  • Need to establish own identity.
  • Inquisitiveness.
  • Increased energy levels.
  • Changes in dress code.

Emotional and Social Changes(contd.)
  • Concrete-Thinking, but confused at times.
  • Future-Oriented.
  • Increased self exploration and evaluation.
  • Conflicts with family over control.

Emotional and Social Changes(contd.)
  • Need for attachment to a peer group.
  • Peer group defines behavioural code.
  • Formation of new relationships.
  • Need for independence, self assertion and urge
    for expression

Key Messages
  • The quest for information about changes and its
    impact starts as early as class 3 or age 8.
    Questions across generations are similar.
  • Children are receiving information directly or
    indirectly. It is important to ensure that they
    receive right information, at the right time and
    from the right source.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • In the current context, lack of authentic and
    complete information will only make young people
    more vulnerable to high-risk behaviours such as
    exposure to HIV/AIDS and Substance-Abuse.

Key Message
Analysis of Advertisements for developing good
nutrition practices
  • Adolescents need to understand that there are
    certain food items which can be labeled as good
    and some as bad for their help.

Self Esteem Case studies
  • Case A
  • Ritu is a schoolgirl who, since childhood, has
    always felt ashamed of her dark complexion. Her
    mother makes her apply curd, milk and turmeric to
    lighten her skin, but nothing seems to have any
    effect. Her friends and her sister are fairer
    than her and she feels uneasy going out with
    them. Is it her fault that she is dark?

Self Esteem Case studies
  • Case B
  • Rahul is a 16-year-old boy and a student of
    standard X. His problem is that he is shy and not
    comfortable in making friends. All his friends
    call him a bookworm, and he feels that his only
    image amongst people is of a bookworm. This
    embarrasses him a lot he loses Self-Confidence
    and cant concentrate fully on his studies. He
    feels the lack of friend and has lost interest in
    everything. Such thoughts of inadequacy remain
    uppermost in his mind. He often wonders why this
    is happening to him.

Children learn what they live
If children live with praise, they learn to
appreciate. If children live with fairness,
they learn justice. If children live with
security, they learn to have faith.
If children live with criticism, they learn to
condemn. If children live with hostility, they
learn to fight. If children live with ridicule,
they learn to be shy.
Children learn what they live
If children live with approval, they learn to
like themselves. If children live with
acceptance and friendship, they learn to find
love in the world.
If children live with shame, they learn to feel
guilty. If children live with tolerance, they
learn to be patient. If children live with
encouragement, they learn confidence.
Key Messages
  • No matter what the disability, what the
    situation or personal issues are, each person is
    precious, has specific personal attributes, is
    valued, has equal rights and dignity and is as
    worthy of respect as any other person.
  • It is essential for all young people/adults to
    have a sense of appreciation and respect for self.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • Only when we respect ourselves, others will
    respect us.
  • Life is the first gift we receive. It is the most
    basic and fundamental gift.
  • We have to live our life to the best of our
    ability, develop it to its full potential,
    protect it from physical and moral danger, and
    from any physical abuse. Our body is like a
    temple and no body has right to violate it.

Sunita Case Study
  • 16-year-old Sunita studies in class XI. Of late,
    she gets angry and irritable over every small
    issue, tends to avoid family members and does not
    meet her friends. Unable to bear the stress any
    longer, she breaks down and tells her best friend
    that her neighbour has recently physically abused
    her. She fears that abuse may recur. She is hurt,
    depressed, anxious and fears that she may be put
    into a very embarrasing situation including

Consequences of Sunita's situation
  • Family problems.
  • Social and community problems.
  • Education problems.
  • Psychological problems.
  • Health problems.
  • Depression.
  • Problems for the baby.
  • Associated RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS, if any.
  • Effect on future pregnancies.
  • Complications of unwanted pregnancy.

My Value System - Key Messages
  • Boys and girls are socialised into different
    roles and often have different social beliefs.
  • Each person needs to be able to sort out and make
    clear what his or her personal values, beliefs
    and feelings are.
  • Our values are what we think is right and
  • It is important for a Facilitator to respect the
    beliefs and opinions of the participants and be
  • Peer-Pressure and social pressure may compel us
    into certain actions which are contrary to our
    belief system.

Giving Positive strokes
  • Giving Positive strokes elevates the level of
    happiness in an Individual. It Gives a feeling of
    well being which has positive manifestition for
    the individual for the family and the society.

Key Messages
  • Positive Strokes make one feel good about one
  • It also makes you feel good when you say nice
    things to others.
  • Feeling good makes you behave in a more positive
    manner in every day situations.

Johari Window Key Messages
  • As physical changes occur in Adolescents, they
    also experience changes in their feelings.
  • The best relationships result from both people
    contributing to the positive qualities. A good
    relationship requires mutual trust, commitment,
    give and take, maturity and adjustment.
  • Adolescents need to learn to regulate their
    feelings in a friendship.
  • It is important to communicate to adolescents
    that they are responsible for the decisions and
    actions they take.
  • A good friend should be trustworthy, reliable,
    empathetic, caring.

Understanding gender
  • Gender refers to the socially determined personal
    psychological characteristics associated with
    being male or female masculinity femininity
  • Gender stereotype is any biased generalization
    according to which people are wrongly assigned
    traits they do not possess also extends it to
    all spheres of activity.
  • Gender exploitation When the sex of the
    individual is reiterated used to promote
    products/ideas in a gender-irrelevant situation

Key Messages
  • Many myths and misconceptions about roles and
    responsibilities in the area of social
    interaction, gender etc. exists.
  • These are usually gender biased and result in
    unfair disadvantages to girls and women.

Key Messages
  • They are outdated and have to be corrected.
  • Gender related discrimination against girls and
    women are deep rooted in our culture and society.
  • We can and should all do our best to promote the
    idea of equity and equality.

Sexual Abuse
  • Raghav, a student of Class IX, constantly bunked
    his class and was always found in the primary
    block of the school. The disturbing part was his
    association with boys of classes VI or V, who
    were always scared of him and reported the same
    to the principal.

  • The school watchman frequently touches and pets
    girls, sometimes brushes their chest and does
    other such things that make them uncomfortable
    and angry.

Discussion Questions
  • Should any action be taken and if so what?
  • Suppose the abuser is a teacher, parent or the
    boss at work or senior school mate or a close
    relative what action if any, can be taken?

Key Messages
  • Several instances of Sexual-Abuse and
    Sexual-Harassment take place around us everyday.
  • This is one of the problems in our communities
    that have to be tackled by us.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs), Sexually
Transmitted Infections (STIs) HIV/AIDS
(No Transcript)
  • These are infections of the reproductive tract in
    both males and females.
  • All RTIs are not sexually transmitted.
  • Some may occur due to imbalance of the normal
    bacteria in the reproductive tract.
  • Agents of infection are bacteria, viruses or
  • STIs are RTIs transmitted during sexual activity.
  • Some of them have no cure.

Common STIs
  • Chlamydia. Chancroid.
  • Genital warts. Gonorrhoea.
  • Hepatitis B and C. Herpes simplex.
  • Syphilis
  • HIV which leads to AIDS.
  • The germs or virus that causes these diseases are
    all very small and cannot be seen with the naked
    eye. They can be diagnosed through medical
    examination and various laboratory procedures.

Consequences of Untreated STIs
  • Infected persons can transmit STI to their
  • The reproductive organs of the infected person
    could get damaged, resulting in infertility or
  • A pregnant woman can transmit it to her baby,
    resulting in the infant suffering from congenital
    defects/malformations, deafness or blindness.

Consequences of Untreated STIs
  • There is increased vulnerability to HIV.
  • There are increased chances of cervical cancer.
  • Repeated abortions or even foetal death could
    take place.

Prevention Treatment of STIs
  • Improving knowledge of RTIs/STIs via adolescent
    health education.
  • Maintaining proper genital hygiene girls should
    also maintain good menstrual hygiene.
  • Practising abstinence

Prevention Treatment of STIs
  • Not neglecting any unusual discharge.
  • Seeking medical help immediately.
  • Avoiding quacks.

Key Messages
  • Both girls and boys should practise proper pubic
    hygiene to prevent RTIs.
  • Girls should follow proper menstrual hygiene to
    prevent RTIs.
  • It is important to remember that the symptoms of
    RTIs/STIs may go away after some time even
    without treatment, but the disease remains in the
    body and causes damage to the reproductive tract.
    Hence all RTIs/ must be treated adequately and

Key Messages
  • Qualified doctors are the only ones who can give
    a guarantee of care.
  • Self-medication and quacks do more harm than good
    and therefore should be avoided.
  • STIs increase vulnerability to infections such as
  • Abstinence is the best form of protection from

Lets discuss HIV / AIDS
  • HIV is
  • Human Immunodeficiency VirusHence,
    HIV is present only in humans.

Immune System
  • In healthy individuals, infections are kept at a
    distance through an array of defenders which
    constitute the immune system in the body.

Immune System
  • White blood cells are an important part of this
    defence, which fight and destroy the
    infection-causing bacteria and viruses.
  • HIV directly attacks, enters and stays inside
    these white blood cells. Slowly, the number of
    white blood cells in the body is reduced and the
    immune system is paralysed.

Modes of HIV Transmission
  • Infected blood blood transfusions with untested
  • Infected equipment needles / instruments /

Modes of HIV Transmission(contd.)
  • From an infected mother to her unborn child.
  • Unprotected sexual activity when one of the
    partners is infected with HIV. Hence, it is a STI.

HIV and Young People
  • Six young people are infected every minute with
    the HIV virus. Half of all new HIV infections
    worldwide are among young people aged 15-24
    years. Those affected are likely to die of AIDS
    before they turn 35.

HIV and Young People (contd.)
  • In some of the hardest-hit countries, adolescent
    girls are five to six times more likely to be HIV
    positive than their male counterparts due to
    various factors.

Factors that put young people at risk
  • Curiosity about sex.
  • Limited information on growing up and sexuality
  • Early marriages.
  • Experimentation with alcohol and drugs.

How one can tell if a person is HIV Positive?
  • A person living with HIV may NOT show any
    external signs of the infection, he/she may
    continue to be healthy but can infect others.

How one can tell if a person is HIV
  • The only way to find out if one has HIV is to
    have an HIV test.
  • This is done at a hospital or clinic and
    should involve being counselled about HIV
    infection. The test requires a person to give a
    sample of blood which is tested for the
    antibodies produced by the body to fight HIV.

Different types of tests used for HIV Detection
  • Rapid Test / Spot Test
  • ELISA Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Western Blot
  • PCR-DNA (Polymerase Chain Reaction -
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
  • The Elisa/Rapid/Spot Tests are screening tests
    that need to be confirmed by Western Blot Test.
    They detect antibodies of HIV. PCR-DNA detects
    the presence of the virus.

Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres (ICTCs)
  • A person can get tested for HIV at a general
    hospital or Integrated Counselling and Testing
    Centres (ICTC) or any medical centre that
    provides these facilities.

Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres
  • ICTCs provide pre- and post-HIV test counselling
    to understand the need for testing as well as the
    test results.
  • Counsellors are bound by confidentiality that
    means that whatever is disclosed should not be
    shared or discussed with others.

Progress of HIV in the body.
  • Entry of virus in the body through any of the
    four routes.
  • 6 Weeks 6 months.
  • appearance of antibodies
  • No symptoms 510 yrs.
  • Uncontrolled diarrhea and fever, Unexplained
    weight loss, general weakness, enlarged lymph
    nodes, skin infections opportunistic infections

HIV Infection
Window period
Silent Infection
AIDS results from HIV infection
  • Acquired Not genetically inherited but
    contracted from somebody.
  • Immune Deficiency Inadequacy of the bodys
    main defense mechanism to fight
    external disease producing organisms.
  • Syndrome Not just one disease or symptom,
    a group of diseases or symptoms present
    in the body.

Difference between HIV AIDS
  • HIV means that the person has been infected with
  • Being HIV does not mean that a person has AIDS.
  • AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection.

Difference between HIV AIDS (contd.)
  • A person is said to have AIDS when the immune
    system is completely destroyed potentially
    opportunistic infections invade the body.
  • An HIV person can appear healthy and carry out
    most day-to-day activities.

Signs Symptoms of AIDS
  • As the persons immune system starts getting
    weak, signs and symptoms of AIDS develop. These
    can be
  • Weight loss greater than 10 of previous body
  • Fever longer than one month.
  • Diarrhoea longer than one month.
  • Persistent severe fatigue.
  • Repeated infections.

Signs Symptoms of AIDS(contd.)
  • These symptoms can also occur in people who do
    not have HIV infection.
  • However, when several of these occur at the same
    time in the same person and are persistent, they
    may indicate the development of AIDS and need to
    be investigated.

  • There is a lot that young people/adults can do
    to protect themselves from HIV infection
  • Practice abstinence.
  • Learn the facts about growing up and HIV/AIDS.
  • Clarify doubts and fears.

  • Resist peer pressure to engage in sexual
  • Avoid substances such as alcohol and drugs, which
    cloud ones judgement and make one prone to risky

  • Sterilise any instruments that pierce the skin,
    such as needles and syringes.
  • Test all blood being used before transfusion it
    should be certified HIV free.

  • Pregnant women should get themselves tested
    treatment that will prevent mother to child
    transmission is now available in all government
    medical hospitals if necessary, seek treatment.
  • As adolescents abstinence till marriage.
  • As adults faithfulness to ones partner.

Key Messages
  • Everyone is vulnerable especially young people.
    Global data shows that 50 of all new infections
    occur in the 1524 year age group and 35 of all
    reported new infections in India are in the 1529
    year age group.
  • Young people are at the centre of the epidemic.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • Learn to protect yourself, and dispel myths about
    HIV. Remember, HIV is preventable.
  • A person living with HIV may not show any
    external signs of the infection, he/she may
    continue to be healthy but can infect others.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • The only way to find out if a person has HIV is
    to have an HIV test. This is done at a hospital
    or clinic and should involve being counselled
    about HIV infection. The test requires the person
    to give a sample of blood, which is tested for
    the antibodies produced by the body to fight HIV.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • For every person with AIDS, there are many more
    who are infected with HIV but have no visible
  • There is an important distinction between
    infection with HIV and AIDS (the late stage of
    the infection).Being HIV does not mean that the
    person has AIDS.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • Even if the HIV tests are negative, the person
    should take preventive measures in the future.
  • It has been difficult to develop a cure or
    vaccine, because the HIV virus hides inside the
    very cells that are supposed to attack such

Assessing the Risk of HIV TransmissionKey
  • How HIV is not transmitted
  • The virus can live only inside a living human
    body and survives for just a few minutes outside
    it.. Therefore, it is not an air-borne disease.
  • HIV cannot be transmitted through saliva, tears,
    vomit, faeces and urine, although very small
    amounts of the virus have been found in these
    fluids. HIV has not been found in sweat

  • How HIV is not transmitted(contd.)
  • HIV cannot pass through unbroken skin and is not
    spread through casual contact such as touching
    someone with HIV, or something they have used
    sharing food or drink, using the same utensils
    or using the same toilet seats or washing water.

  • How HIV is not transmitted(contd.)
  • Nursing or caring for someone with HIV is not
    risky if sensible precautions are followed, such
    as the safe disposal of sharp needles and keeping
    cuts covered.
  • HIV is not transmitted by mosquitoes or other
    blood-sucking insects because the virus cannot
    survive in their bodies.

Attitudes AIDS Creating Empathy
  • Individuals living with HIV/AIDS need just as
    much of our support and understanding as those
    with any other life threatening illness.
  • Persons living with HIV/AIDS need to be respected
    and treated with dignity.
  • It is possible for them to lead a reasonably
    normal and healthy life.

Attitudes AIDS Creating Empathy
  • They have a right to education, accurate
    information, friendly health services, along with
    support and understanding from the community.
  • They need the following
  • Love support from family friends.
  • Prompt treatment of opportunistic infections.
  • Healthy life style.
  • A nutritious diet, sufficient rest exercise.

Preventing Substance AbuseKnow The Facts
  • A drug is a chemical substance that changes the
    way our body works. When a pharmaceutical
    preparation or naturally occurring substance is
    used primarily to bring about a change in some
    existing process or state, it can be called a

Substance Abuse
  • Substance abuse is The use of illicit drugs or
    the abuse of prescription or over-the-counter
    drugs for purposes other than those for which
    they are indicated or in a manner or in
    quantities other than directed.

Substance Dependence
  • Substance dependence is defined as compulsively
    seeking to use a substance, regardless of the
    potentially negative social, psychological and
    physical consequences.
  • Substance abuse leads to substance dependence
    with the development of tolerance and withdrawal.

Substance Dependence(contd.)
  • Tolerance is defined as a need for increased
    amount of substance to achieve intoxication or
    the desired effect.
  • Withdrawal symptoms occur when the user who is
    dependent on a substance stops using it. They
    range from mild tremors to convulsions, severe
    agitation and sometimes death. Withdrawal
    symptoms vary depending upon the substance
    abused, the duration of the use of substance and
    the quantity abused.

Signs symptoms
  • Feeling that one needs the substance on a regular
    basis to have fun, relax or deal with ones
  • Giving up familiar activities such as sports,
    homework or hobbies.
  • Sudden changes in work or school attendance
    quality of work or marks.

Signs symptoms(contd.)
  • Doing things that a person normally wouldnt do
    to obtain the substance, such as frequent
    borrowing of money or stealing items from
    employer, home or school.
  • Taking uncharacteristic risks, such as driving
    under the influence
  • Anger outbursts, acting irresponsibly and overall
    attitude change.

Signs symptoms(contd.)
  • Deterioration of physical appearance and
  • No longer spending time with friends who dont
    use substances and/or associating with known
  • Engaging in secretive or suspicious behaviours
    such as frequent trips to the toilet, keeping
    room and things locked, always going out of the
    house at particular hours, excessive resistance
    in giving an account of movements, etc.

Signs symptoms(contd.)
  • Feel the need to use greater amounts of the
    substance of choice to achieve the same effects.
  • Talking about the substance all the time and
    pressuring others to use.
  • Feeling exhausted, depressed, hopeless, or

Substances of Abuse
  • Cannabinoids (e.g., hashish, charas and
  • Stimulants (e.g., amphetamines and cocaine,
    nicotine, tobacco).
  • Depressants (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates,
    methaquolone etc.)

Substances of Abuse(contd.)
  • Narcotics (opioids and morphine derivatives,
    e.g., heroin, opium).
  • Hallucinogens (e.g., LSD and mescaline).
  • Other compounds (e.g., steroids and inhalants).

Gateway Drugs
  • The commonly abused substances among adolescents
    are tobacco and alcohol, which act as gateway to
    the use of other drugs.

Harmful effects of smoking cigarettes
  • Diminished or extinguished sense of smell and
  • Smokers cough.
  • Gastric ulcers.
  • Chronic bronchitis.
  • Increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Premature and more abundant face wrinkles.
  • Heart disease.
  • Stroke.
  • Cancer of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, oesophagus,
    lungs, pancreas, cervix, uterus, and bladder.

Harmful effects of smoking cigarettes
Cigarette smoking is perhaps the most devastating
preventable cause of disease and premature death.
Smoking is particularly dangerous for teens
because their bodies are still developing and
changing and the 4,000 chemicals (including 200
known poisons) in cigarette smoke can adversely
affect this process.
Harmful Effects of Alcohol Abuse
  • Long-term effects
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Vitamin deficiencies.
  • Stomach ailments.
  • Skin problems.
  • Liver damage.
  • Heart and central nervous system damage
  • Memory loss.
  • Short-term effects
  • Distorted vision, hearing, and coordination.
  • Altered perceptions and emotions.
  • Impaired judgement.
  • Bad breath.
  • Hangovers.

Harmful Effects of Other Substancesof Abuse
Cannabinoids Frequent respiratory infection, impaired memory and learning, increased heart rate etc.
Stimulants Rapid or irregular heart beat, reduced appetite, weight loss, panic, paranoia, aggressiveness, damage to respiratory areas etc.
Depressants Fatigue, confusion, impaired coordination, respiratory depression and arrest, death etc.
Harmful Effects of Other Substancesof
Narcotics Nausea, unconsciousness, coma, death, etc.
Hallucinogens Persisting perception disorder, sleeplessness, etc.
Inhalants Unconsciousness, cramps, weight loss, memory impairment, damage to cardiovascular and nervous system etc.
Psycho-social Complications ofSubstance
Financial Spending money on substance instead of essential needs exhausting savings borrowing money, etc
Occupational Inefficiency due to decreased performance unpunctuality fights, quarrels, thefts absenteeism accidents at work place suspension, etc.
Familial Arguments over substance use neglect of family obligations quarrels and physical violence divorce ostracism by family, etc.
Psycho-social Complications ofSubstance
Social Peer alienation arguments, fights decreased social reputation, etc.
Legal Violation of rules thefts and petty crimes arrests and court cases.
Why are Adolescents Vulnerable?
  • Personal Factors
  • False beliefs and perceptions about the benefits
    of Substance-Abuse.
  • Lack of knowledge of consequences.
  • Feeling of enhanced Self-Efficacy.
  • Personality factors, e.g., depression, low
  • False sense of psychological well-being.

Why are Adolescents Vulnerable?
  • Behavioural factors
  • Adolescents
  • Tend to be heavier and more frequent users of
    Substances than adults.
  • Often use more than one Substance.
  • With poorer academic achievement are
    statistically at higher risk for Substance Abuse.

Why are Adolescents Vulnerable?
  • Behavioural factors(contd.)
  • Adolescents
  • Tend to engage in more high-risk behaviours than
  • Often lack well-developed self-control and may
    behave more impulsively than adults.
  • Experiment out of curiosity.

Why are Adolescents Vulnerable?
  • Environmental factors
  • Attitudes and values of parents and peers in
    support of Substance -Abuse.
  • Parental, sibling and peer use of Substances.
  • Advertising and media glamorisation of
  • Easy accessibility of Substances.

Why are Adolescents Vulnerable?
  • Environmental factors(contd.)
  • Social and cultural norms accepting
  • Factors such as low socio-economic status are
    statistically related to the tendency to use
  • Physiological factors
  • Developing brains and bodies are more sensitive
    to drugs.

Protective Factors
Individual High Self-Esteem high intelligence optimistic about future coping skills belief in self, expectations, norms and values.
Family Strong parent and youth attachment consistent discipline and supervision no family history of Substance-Abuse.
Peer Group Non-Substance Abusers have conventional values and shared interests.
Protective Factors(contd.)
School Connectedness quality school with opportunity to succeed.
Community Society Health, support and recreational facilities safe neighbourhood connectedness to culture, religion, etc.
Treatment and Rehabilitation
  • Interventions are multimodal and planned.
  • Treatment goals
  • Achieve and maintain abstinence from the drug.
  • Relieve him/her of adverse health and
    psycho-social consequences of substance use.
  • Prevent relapse into the habit.
  • Adequate support and participation of family
    members is a must to help recovery and maintain a
    drug free lifestyle.

Common Myths about Drug Intake
There is no harm in trying drugs just once. Almost all drug addicts start by trying just once. Drugs alter the metabolism of our brain and body. Once the drug is taken, the user is always at risk to increase the drug intake, which becomes a part of his/her habit.
Alcohol promotes good sleep. People dependent on alcohol cannot sleep well without it. Those who do not use alcohol regularly may have disturbed sleep after alcohol consumption.
Common Myths about Drug Intake
Will - power alone can help a drug addict stop taking drugs. A person dependent on Substances is suffering from a disease, not just from a failure of will-power. He or she requires medical and psychiatric treatment.
Alcohol helps people to forget their problems. This has become a truth because regular and heavy alcohol users often use this excuse for their drinking. Very often the opposite is found to be true people bring up forgotten problems only when they are intoxicated. Alcohol only adds on other problems.
Common Myths about Drug Intake
Most addicts get their first dose of drugs from a peddler or a pusher Most of the addicts get their first dose of drugs from a friend or close associate.
Common Myths about Drug Intake
Beer is not hard liquor and can be consumed safely. Beer is an alcoholic beverage, although it contains less alcohol than hard liquor like whisky or rum. Beer contains 4 to 8 alcohol. One 285 ml bottle of beer is equal to a peg of whisky thus, drinking six such bottles of beer in an evening, is equivalent to consuming six pegs of whisky.
Influence of advertising media on drinking
  • What attracts you in these ads.?
  • What message seems to run through all the
  • What influence will such ads. for alcohol
    cigarettes have on you other people?
  • Do these ads. fail to tell us the negative
    aspects? If so what are they?
  • How do you feel about the ads? Is it right to
    have such ads?

Key Messages
  • Commonly Abused Substances among Adolescents are
    tobacco and alcohol, which act as gateways to the
    use of other drugs.
  • Substance dependence involves tolerance,
    withdrawal and disruption of psychological,
    occupational and social functioning.
  • There are severe financial, occupational,
    familial, social and legal consequences of
    Substance dependence.

Key Messages(contd.)
  • Factors which make Adolescents vulnerable to
    serious Substance-Abuse are poor Self-Esteem,
    family history of Substance-Abuse, low
    achievement at school, family instability,
    history of abuse and aggressive / impulsive
  • No one starts taking Substances with the aim of
    getting addicted. However, these Substances have
    such brain-altering properties that, after a
    point of time, a person loses control and becomes
    addicted to them.

Lets know-Peer Pressure Key Messages
  • Peer pressure is a part of life.
  • Peer pressure can be negative or positive. Acting
    under the influence of negative peer pressure can
    often have detrimental consequences for ones
  • Peer pressure may compel us into certain actions
    which are contrary to our personal values.
    Therefore it is important to choose friends or
    peers who share our values and beliefs.
  • Positive peer pressure can be used for bringing
    about desirable change.

  • It is important for adolescents to communicate in
    an assertive manner.
  • This can help them to stand firm and resist
    external attempts to mould thoughts and
  • Assertive communication leads to greater
    selfconfidence and control and evokes respect
    from other.
  • Passive behaviour leads to feelings of
    helplessness, anxiety, disappointment and a
    violation of your rights.
  • An aggressive style can lead to feelings of
    anger, frustration you win at the expense of

Ways to say No
Peer pressure (situations young people may encounter) Strategies that can be adopted Possible answers
Would you like to come to the cinema? Polite refusal. No, thanks,
How about a drink? Give reason. I dont like alcohol it tastes horrible.
Here, smoke this cigarette with me. Come on!... We always do fun - things together. Just try it. Broken record. No thanks.... No thanks.... No thanks.
Peer pressure (situations young people may encounter) Strategies that can be adopted Possible answers
Hey, do you want to try some alcohol it will give you a high it really makes you feel good. Walk away. Say No and walk away while you are saying it.
Do you want to watch some adult movies tonight? Cold shoulder. (NB Not the best strategy to use with close friends). Keep going as if you did not hear the person.
Will you come with me for a night-show movie? Aren't we grown up? Give an alternative. Id rather stay home why dont you come join my family with me for dinner. We can watch the movie on T.V. it is a really nice movie
Come on, just spend some time alone with me. Reverse the pressure (change the topic). What did I just tell you? Werent you listening?
There is nothing harmful in this, do it for my sake. I do so much for you, wont you do this one thing just for me? Owning your feeling. I am not comfortable doing this, it makes me unhappy. Would you like me to do something that made me unhappy?
Explicit high-risk situations such as smoking, drinking etc. Avoid the situation. If you know of people or situations where youre likely to be pressurized into doing things you dont want to, stay away from them, such as parties where you know these things will definitely happen.
Explicit high-risk situations such as smoking, drinking etc. Strength in numbers. Associate with people who support your decision not to drink, not to use drugs, or watch adult movies, etc.
Coping with stressKey Messages
  • Everyone experiences stressful situations in
  • There are healthy and harmful ways to deal with
  • Sharing feelings with a trusted person is
  • If feelings are not expressed or shared, then
    pressure builds up inside the person and the
    effects can be harmful.

Coping with stressKey Messages(contd.)
  • It is essential to
  • Analyse how stress affects our lives.
  • Find ways to control levels of stress.
  • Learn to relax.
  • Not indulge in self pity.
  • Learn to accept failures and find alternatives.
  • Focus on strengths the positive components of
    life and self.

Anger Reducing Technique-Get RID of Anger
  • R Recognise your anger signals and accept that
  • you are angry.
  • I - Identify a positive way to analyse the
  • D - Do something constructive to calm down.
  • Count to 10.
  • Take a deep breath.
  • Ask for time to calm down.
  • Leave the scene.

  • Talk about your feelings with someone not
  • Listen to music.
  • Exercise or do some physical activity.
  • Write and then destroy a letter to the person.
  • Explain how angry you are.
  • Help someone else.
  • Watch a funny movie.
  • Spend time on your favorite hobby.
  • Do something creative.

Tips on Facilitation
Facilitation vs Teaching
Facilitation Teaching
Paradoxes are appreciated There is no place for paradoxes
The experiences of the participants are valued. The experiences of learners are most valued for introduction of the topic
Empathy is the key. No scope for Empathy.
The Facilitator is one with the participants. The Teacher is a superior being.
More teaching is achieved by teaching less. To teach more, the quantum of teaching has to increase
Facilitation vs Teaching
Facilitation Teaching
The child as participant is respected and encouraged. No scope for such a thing
Learning takes place in circles and straight lines. Learning is unidirectional
The Facilitator discovers himself/ herself as much as the participants. Participants persona is not important
Contents undergo adjustment and even change with the spontaneity of the moment. Contents are rigid and cannot be changed.
Facilitation vs Teaching
Facilitation Teaching
Learning is behaviour centered. Learning brings in behavioural changes.
Less work accomplishes more. To accomplish more, more input is needed.
The Facilitator states his/her assumptions and lets the participants The course of action is fixed.
Dos and Donts of Good Facilitation
  • Dos
  • Position yourself to face the entire group.
  • Smile at indivi
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