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Unit Seven

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Title: Unit Seven


1
Unit Seven
2
Teaching Objectives
  1. Enlarge vocabulary
  2. Talk about genetics and relevant information
  3. Learn a reading skill scanning
  4. Learn to write compositions with description and
    narration.

3
Sections
Section A Research into Population Genetics
Section B Genetic and Better Parenting
Section C Genetics and Environmental
Factors in Creating Genius
4
Section A
Research into Population Genetics
5
Table of Contents
1. Background Information
2. Warming-up Activities
3. Text Analysis
4. Vocabulary and Structure
5. Vocabulary Tests
6. Translation Writing
6
Background Information
Luca Cavalli-Sforza (1)
Cavalli-Sforza, born in Genoa, Italy,
was educated at the University of Pavia where he
gained his MD in 1944. After working on bacterial
genetics at Cambridge (1948-1950) and Milan
(1950-1957) he has held chairs in genetics at
Parma (1958-1962) and Pavia (1962-1970). In 1970
he was appointed professor of genetics at the
University of Stanford, California, a position he
held until his retirement in 1992.
7
Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2)
Cavalli-Sforza has specialized mainly in
the genetics of human populations, producing with
Walter Bodmer a comprehensive survey of the
subject in their Genetics, Evolution and Man
(1976). He has also done much to show how genetic
data from present human racial groups could be
used to reconstruct their past separations. This
reconstruction, based on the analysis of 58
genes, yields a bifurcated evolutionary tree with
Caucasian and African races in one branch and
Orientals, Oceanians, and Amerinds in the other.

8
Columbus (1)
Christopher Columbus, an Italian-born
master navigator (born in Genoa, Italy in 1451
and died at Valladolid, Spain in 1506) who sailed
in the service of Spain, is commonly described as
the discoverer of the New World America. His
four transatlantic voyages (1492-1493, 1493-1496,
1498-1500, and 1502-1504) opened the way for
European exploration, exploitation, and
colonization of the Americas.
9
Columbus (2)
Columbuss real greatness lies in the
fact that having found the West Indies making
major errors in his navigational computations and
location in doing so he was able to find his
way back to Europe and return to the Indies. It
is as a result of Columbuss discovery that the
New World became part of the European world.
10
The human genetic map (1)
Our bodies are comprised of trillions of
microscopic units called cells. Cells in turn are
built up from many specific types of molecules,
both large and small. The large molecules or
macromolecules include polysaccharides, nucleic
acids and proteins. Proteins are the workhorses
of our cells. There are about 40,000 different
types of proteins in our bodies. Each protein is
present in many, many copies.
11
The human genetic map (2)
An adult, for example, carries about
1021 (a billion trillion) hemoglobin molecules.
The flow of genetic information is from DNA to
RNA to Protein. Each protein is a linear polymer
of a specific sequence of 20 different amino
acids. DNA is also a linear polymer comprised of
4 types of nucleotides. The sequence of amino
acids in each protein is encoded by a segment of
DNA called a gene. Three consecutive nucleotides
in a gene encode a single amino acid in the
corresponding protein. The genetic code is
universal among all living things.
12
Basques (1)
The Basques are a people who live in a
small region (about the size of Rhode Island in
the United States) that straddles the border of
Spain and France from the sea in the west into
the Pyrenees in the east. This area is called
Euskal Herria (comprising seven provinces,
historically Araba, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, and
Navarra on the Spanish side Laburdi, Zuberoa,
and Behe-Nafarroa on the French side). There are
about 660,000, according to the 1991 census.
Fewer than 80,000 of these are on the French side
of the frontier which runs through the Basque
Country, the rest on the Spanish side. Basques
speak a language called euskara, but today only
about 25 of the population is fluent in that
tongue.
13
Basques (2)
Even so, the word for a Basque person,
euskaldun, means possessor of the Basque
language. The Basque population is distinguished
physically by a high incidence of Rh Negative
factor in the blood. No one knows exactly where
the Basques came from. Some say they lived in
that area since Cro-Magnon man first roamed
Europe. Estimates of how long they have lived
there vary from 10,000 to 75,000 years. Some say
they are descended from the original Iberians.
More fanciful theories exist, as well. One is
that the Basques are the descendents of the
survivors of Atlantis.
14
Warming-up Activities
Comprehension of the Text
1. What does the History and Geography of Human
Genes conclude? 2. Who created the first genetic
map of the world? 3. Where did the scientists
find the information to draw a global family
tree? 4. Why did people assume that Australias
native people were closely related to black
Africans? What do the discoveries made by the
scientists show?
15
Comprehension of the Text
5. What else does the genetic map of the world
show us about Africa? 6. How does the genetic
maps prove many guesses about the Khoisan people
wrong? 7. According to genetic information,are
European pure or mixed? 8. Apart from the human
origins, what else does genetic information
contribute to human being?
16
Reference for Comprehension Questions (1)
1.The book concludes that despite surface
features, the races are remarkably alike under
the skin. 2. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, a Stanford
professor, and his colleagues. 3. In human
blood, various proteins that serve as markers to
reveal a persons genetic makeup.
17
Reference for Comprehension Questions (2)
4. Because they share such superficial
characteristics as skin color and body shape. But
the discoveries indicate that Australians are
most distant from the Africans and most closely
resemble the southeast Asians. 5. It confirms
that Africa was the birthplace of humanity and
thus the starting point of the original human
movements. 6. Their genes show the Khoisan may be
a very ancient mix of west Asians and black
Africans, rather than being directly descended
from the primitive human ancestors.
18
Reference for Comprehension Questions (3)
7. All Europeans are thought to be a mixed
population, with 65 Asian and 35African
genes. 8. It is the latest raw material of the
medical industry.and in addition, it can be used
to weaken conventional notions of race that cause
racial prejudice.
19
Text analysis
Text main idea
As the most extensive survey to date
on how humans vary at the level of their genes,
the book The History and Geography of Human Genes
made two remarkable contributions to science
There is no scientific basis for the genetic
superiority of one race over any other one and
it creates the first genetic map of the world. In
the process of collecting information for the
book, however, scientists encountered great
difficulties. The ultimate goal of their work is
to remove racial prejudice.
20
Text Structure
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part I
Para 3-4 Illustrations of hard work in
collecting the information needed
Para 5-9 Remarkable discoveries of the
scientists
Para 10 The ultimate aim of the research
Para1-2 Two scientific aims achieved by the book
21
Main idea for Part I
The book The History and Geography of
Human Genes proves that the races are alike
under the skin and creates the first genetic map
of the world, the closest thing we have to a
global family tree.
22
Developing technique (1)
Induction (???)
  • Specific descriptions (Para. 2)
  • The book is much more than an argument against
    the latest racially biased theory.
  • The prime mover labored with his colleagues to
    create the first genetic map of the world.
  • The book features more than 500 maps
  • the authors trace the routes by which early
    humans migrated around the earth.
  • General statement Result the closet thing
  • we have to a global family tree.

23
Main idea for Part II
It took decades and pains for
scientists to collect the information needed to
draw the family tree.
24
Developing technique (2)
Exemplification (???)
A statement Collecting blood,, was not
always easy potential donors were often afraid
to cooperate, or raised religious concerns.
An example On one occasion, when
Cavalli-Sforza was taking blood samples from
children in a rural region of Africa, he was
confronted by an angry farmer waving an axe.
Recalls the scientist I remember him saying,
If you take the blood of the children, Ill take
yours. He was worried that we might want to do
some magic with the blood.
25
Main idea for Part III
The books four remarkable discoveries A
color map of genetic variation has Africa at one
end of the range and Australia at the other
Africa was the birthplace of humanity the
genetic maps show the origins of populations and
genetic information is also the latest raw
material of the medical industry.
26
Developing technique (3)
Exemplification (???)
Discovery 1 A color map of the worlds genetic
variation has Africa at one end of the range and
Australia at the other. (Para. 5) Discovery 2
The same map, in combination with human bones,
confirms that Africa was the birthplace of
humanity and thus the starting point of the
original human movements. (Para. 6) Discovery 3
The genetic maps also shed new light on the
origins of populations that have long puzzled
scientists. (Para. 7) Discovery 4 genetic
information is also the latest raw material of
the medical industry (Para. 9)
27
Main idea for Part IV
Apart from scientific purposes of the
research, its social objective is to weaken
conventional notions of race that cause racial
prejudice.
28
Developing technique (4)
Explanation (???)
In this part, paragraph 10, explanation
is used to provide a clear though brief
understanding of the social effect of the
research.
29
Vocabulary and Structure
words phrases
patterns
  • more than
  • nothing less than
  • be confined to
  • in combination with
  • to shed light on
  • not only, but as well
  • to date
  • feature
  • serve as
  • in effect
  • superficial
  • assume
  • resemble
  • confirm

30
1. to date ????
words phrases
????
???????,????,?????????????????????????????????????
????
Considerable evidence shows that, to date, those
who have been successful through
industrialization and urbanization have not been
an independent, dynamic and progressive force in
Latin America.
31
2. feature n. ?? v. ????
????
1) ????????????????????? 2) ?????????????????????
1) Information on employment is a central feature
of this training course. 2) A really good salary
features highest on her list of what she wants
from a job.
32
3. serve as ??,??
?????????????????????????
????
The judge said that the fine would serve as a
warning to other motorists who drove without due
care and attention.
33
4. in effect ???
?????????,???????????
????
What the management is saying, in effect, is that
they are going to stop recruiting new stuff.
34
5. superficial a. ???,??
????
1)??????,?????????,????????????? 2)??????????????
1)Thankfully, the majority of injuries are
superficial and, with a little care, heal
quickly. 2) I only have a superficial knowledge
of the subject.
35
6. assume v.??,??
?????????,????????????????
????
If you are rude to other people, your child will
assume that this kind of behavior is acceptable?
36
7. resemble v. ?(?????)?
bear resemblance to ??
???????????,????????????????????,??????????
????
It was not possible to change direction suddenly,
yet the damage to education was obvious as campus
sometimes resemble market-places rather than
institutions of higher learning?
37
8. confirm v. ??,??
????
???????????,?????????????????????????????,????????
????,???????
British Gas has confirmed that a gas escape from
a fractured main was the likely cause of an
explosion which demolished an Edinburgh tenement,
killing two people?
38
1. more than??,??
patterns
??????????,?????????
????
She more than suffered from the disease, she was
penniless.
39
2. nothing less than ???,??
???????????,???????
????
The setting up this plant in three months is
nothing less than a miracle.
40
3. be confined to ????
????????????????,?????????
????
Disasters of this sort were confined to neither
traditionally flooded land nor the winter month.
41
4. in combination with???
????
??????????????,????????????
The artist used photographs in combination with
solid objects to produce this strange effect.
42
5. to shed light on ???
??,???????????????????????????????
????
In addition, the research is expected to shed
light on the social consequences of citied
changing economic role.
43
6. not just but as well ??,??
???????????????,?????????
????
The government radio not just reported the
demonstration, but announced it in advance as
well.
44
Vocabulary Tests
Test I
Test II
45
Test I (1)
Choose the best answer to each question.
1. On turning the corner, we saw the road ____
steeply. A) descending B) departing C)
depressing D) decreasing 2. The teacher
told the students in her conversation class to
____ their talk to the topic. A) concern B)
condense C) concentrate D) confine
46
Test I (2)
3. Many examples and extra grammatical
information are among the special ____ of this
dictionary. A) traits B) marks C)
marks D) features 4. When I ____ her with the
evidence, the girl admitted that she was wrong.
A) conveyed B) displayed C) confronted D)
consulted
47
Test I (3)
5. Millions of peasants have ____ to the cities.
A) migrated B) accelerated
C) illustrated D) integrated 6. That is our
____ proposal, and no other changes will be
considered. A) thorough B) complete
C) ultimate D) extreme
48
Test I (4)
7. To understand the ____ of a situation, we have
to know something about that kind of situation.
A) implications B) references C)
relations D) findings 8. They have ____ what I
suspected long ago. A) assured B)
ensured C) convinced D) confirmed
49
Test I (5)
9. A friendship may be ____, casual, situational
or deep and lasting. A) identical B)
original C) superficial D)
critical 10. They are trying to ____ the waste
discharged by the factory for profit. A)
expose B) exhibit C) exhaust D) exploit
50
Test II (1)
Fill in the blanks with the phrases or
expressions given below. Change the form where
necessary. confine to sail for do with
adapt to descend from lie in struggle for
stand as serve as use for
1. What has that girl _____ the urgent papers?
2. It is difficult to _____ oneself _____
sudden changes of temperature. 3. This ring has
_____ my grandmother. 4. The two men have been
_____ the leadership of the party since last year.
51
Test II (2)
confine to sail for do with adapt to
descend from lie in struggle for stand as
serve as use for
5. There is a boat _____ England in the morning,
if you are anxious to leave at once. 6. If he
cannot agree with the party, he can choose to
_____ an Independent, and still hope to be
elected. 7. He then _____ three years _____ a
police officer.
52
Test II (3)
confine to sail for do with adapt to
descend from lie in struggle for stand as
serve as use for
8. The house _____ a little valley behind the
trees. 9. The firms plan were _____ only _____
the chairmen and the directors. 10. Dont _____
the silver spoon _____ opening the tin.
53
Key to Testing
Keys to test I
1. A 2. D 3. D 4. C
5. A 6. C 7. A 8. D
9. C 10. D
Keys to test II
1. done with 2.
adaptto 3. descended from
4. struggling for 5. sailing for
6. stand as 7. serve as
8. lies in 9.
confined to 10. useas
54
Translation (1)
1. In fact, there is no scientific basis for
theories pushing the genetic superiority of any
one population over another.
??????
?????
???,?????????????????????????????????
55
Translation (2)
2. And to ensure the populations were pure, the
study was confined to groups that were in their
present locations as of 1492, before the first
major movements from Europe beganin effect, a
genetic photo of the world when Columbus sailed
for America.
????
1492???
?????????,????????????????????1492??????????,???
?????????????????????????????????????????????
56
Translation (3)
3. In addition to telling us about our origins,
genetic information is also the latest raw
material of the medical industry, which hopes to
use human DNA to build specialized proteins that
may have some value as disease-fighting drugs.
???????????
????
???????????,????????????????????????????????(DNA)?
??????,?????????????????
57
Translation (4)
4. Activists for native populations fear that the
scientists could exploit these peoples genetic
material taken from blood samples could be used
for commercial purposes without adequate payment
made to the groups that provide the .
???????
??????
????????????????????????????????????????????????,
???DNA??????????
58
Writing
2003. 9 ?????????
The Day My Classmate Fell Ill 1.
??????????(???)???? 2. ?????????????/??? 3.
??????????????????
59
Sample Writing (1)
One day, my classmate Zhang Hua fell ill.
The previous day, he had come back from town in
the rain and got his clothes soaked. As a result,
he had a sore throat and coughed a lot. His face
looked red and obviously he was running a fever
too. He said that he was feeling very weak. He
had been laying in bed and eaten nothing all day.
We were all very worried about him.
60
Sample Writing (2)
All the roommates tried out best to help
him. One hurried to the clinic to fetch a doctor.
Another stayed with him in the bedroom, trying to
comfort him, I went to the canteen to get him
something to rat, after taking the medicine given
by the doctor, Zhang Hua went to sleep. A few
hours later, he woke up and said he felt much
better. Seeing this, we were much relieved.
61
Sample Writing (3)
This incident again strengthened my belief
that a friend in need is a friend indeed. Every
one in society may meet with some troubles at one
time or another in our life. Sometimes, the
trouble we are in is too much for one person
alone to overcome. We need others help. As
friends, we should always be ready to offer
others a helping hand. Only when a person helps
you in time of difficulty, can he be considered
a good friend.
62
Section B
  • Genetic and Better Parenting

63
Table of Contents
1. Reading comprehension
2. Vocabulary study
3. Vocabulary tests
64
Reading comprehension
Task I
Task I
65
Task I (1)
Directions Before you read the passage closely,
scan to find the answers to the following
questions in three minutes.
  • What is the authors attitude towards the opinion
    that great geniuses spring up out of nowhere.
  • What are the two kinds of parent style that
    parents take up towards their children.

66
Task I (2)
3. In order to find out the influence parents
have on their children, one study was conducted
to follow four groups of children what are the
four groups? 4. How much time does a father in
Holland spend in conversation with his children?
And what about a father in the United States? 5.
What seems to be of more importance to childrens
development according to the author the biology
of genius or the environmental factors such as
better parenting and educational techniques.
67
Task II (1)
Directions choose the best answer to each of the
following questions.
1. Its a misconception that geniuses are A .
influenced by their environment B. born
C. products of good parents 2. If you look
into great peoples childhood, youll find that
they A . demonstrated unusual talents B.
showed great curiosity about knowledge C.
receive early parental stimulation.
68
Task II (2)
3. Which group of children will suffer great
parental pressure? A . Children whose parents are
stimulating but not supportive B. Children whose
parents are supportive but not stimulating C.
Children whose parents are neither stimulating
nor supportive 4. Children who are both happy and
quick-witted are those whose parents A. offer
neither support nor support B. are both helpful
and steering C. are demanding and severe
69
Task II (3)
5. Through the conversation with parents,
children A . dont feel lonely anymore. B. pick
up styles of thought. C. acquire adult language
quickly. 6. Children usually have a head start
over their peers when their parents often A.
spend time telling spooky stories. B. teach them
how to take advantage over others. C. how
beneficial conversations with them.
70
Task II (4)
7. Parents who are both supportive and
stimulating A . can definitely create
prodigies. B. do nor necessarily produce
geniuses. C. can be guaranteed to have a gifted
child. 8. Which statement is true according to
the text? A. To be a genius, a child needs to be
very lucky in his genetics. B. Biological
differences dont count when it comes to
producing smart children. C. its more
significant for parents to study how to
cultivate childrens creative thoughts.
71
Reference for Comprehension Questions(1)
  • Key to Task I
  • The author holds a doubtful attitude towards the
    popular myth. (refer to para.1 )
  • Two kinds of parent style---- the supportive and
    the stimulating. (refer to para.4 )
  • Four groups of children one with supportive
    parent, one with stimulating parents, one whose
    parents combined both qualities and a final group
    who offered neither. (refer to para.6 )

72
Reference for Comprehension Questions(2)
Key to Task I 4. 11 seconds a day in Holland and
less than a minute a day in the United States
(refer to para.10 ) 5. The environmental factors
such as better parenting and educational
techniques. (refer to para.15 )
Key to Task II 1.B 2.C 3.A
4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.C
73
Vocabulary study
words phrases
patterns
  • supervise
  • identify
  • steer
  • fare
  • guarantee
  1. spring up
  2. out of nowhere
  3. go out of ones way
  4. have a head start
  5. in question
  6. in a (good) position to do

74
1. supervise v. ??, ??
words phrases
????,??????????????
????
The teachers take it in turn to supervise the
children at playtime.
75
2. identify v. ????
??????,???????????????.
????
After years of research scientists have
identified the virus that causes the disease.
76
3. steer v. ??, ??,??
?????????????
????
He has successfully steered the company onto a
new course.
77
4. fare v. ??
??????????????????????
????
Low-paid workers will fare well under this
government.
78
5. guarantee v. ??
????
???????????????????
All of our food is guaranteed free of artificial
preservatives.
79
1. spring up ??,??,????
patterns
????
??????????????????????
Low-paid workers will fare well under this
government.
80
2. out of nowhere ?????
????????????,????????????????,???????
????
The thought swam into her mind out of nowhere
and she realized it was a great relief to have
this as an excuse.
81
3. go out of ones way ????(???)
???????????????
????
Jennifer went out of her way to help him to feel
comfortable in his new job.
82
4. have a head start ??????
??????????,????????????
????
Electronics is a very competitive business and
Japan has a head start over us.
83
5. in question ????,?????
????
??????????????,?????
He was surprised to see the woman in question
walked into the shop.
84
6. in a (good) position to do ???(???)
??????????????????
????
When I have read the whole report I shall be in a
better position to comment.
85
Vocabulary Tests
Test I
Test II
86
Test I (1)
Complete the following sentences with the words
given below. Change the form when necessary. myth
genius model tutor negative advantage
alert outlook approach potential
1. In the long term the economic _____ is
bleak. 2. The educational system was a/an _____
for those of many other countries. 3.Ive never
seen him in my life is a/an sentence.
87
Test I (2)
myth genius model tutor negative
advantage alert outlook approach potential
4. Despite the twin _____ of wealth and beauty,
she did not have a happy life. 5. From the age
of three, she showed signs of _____ for
music. 6. The children enjoyed the stories about
the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman _____.
88
Test I (3)
myth genius model tutor negative
advantage alert outlook approach
potential
7. Since our research so far has not produced any
answers to this problem, we need to adopt a
different _____ of it. 8. During her illness she
continued her school work with home _____ and
returned in June to take her exams.
89
Test I (4)
myth genius model tutor negative
advantage alert outlook approach
potential
9. Keep _____ or youll miss the plane when they
fly by. 10.the region has enormous _____ for
economic development but a lot of investment is
needed to achieve this.
90
Test II (1)
Fill in the blanks with the phrases or
expressions given below. Change the form where
necessary. look into result in pick up
involve in pass on spring up grow up
think about get out of ones way pick out
1. Jane is _____ so fast that I think shes going
to be a tall woman. 2. He tried to _____ the
job _____ to me, but I soon got rid of it. 3.
You ought to spend more time _____ your work.
91
Test II (2)
look into result in pick up involve in
pass on spring upgrow up think about get
out of ones way pick out
4. He usually _____ a book before deciding
whether to read it. 5. He can only have _____
such excellent English by living in the country
for some years. 6. The fire _____ damage to
their property. 7. Try to _____ me _____ in
this old school photograph.
92
Test II (3)
look into result in pick up involve in
pass on spring upgrow up think about get
out of ones way pick out
8. The four men were all _____ organizing and
carrying out the murder. 9. It was good of you
to _____ to meet us at the station. 10. The boy
_____ out of the chair as soon as he heard the
doorbell ring.
93
Key to tests
Key to test I.
1. outlook 2. model 3.
negative 4. advantages 5. genius
6. myths 7. approach
8. tutors 9. alert 10.
potential
Key to test II.
1. growingup 2. passon 3. thinking
about 4. looks into 5. picked up
6. resulted in 7. picked out 8.
involved in 9. go out of your way
10. sprang up
94
Section C
Genetics and Environmental Factors in Creating
Genius

95
Reading Comprehension (1)
Read the following statements carefully, and
decide whether they are true (T) or false (F)
according to the text.
  • Dr. Robert Plomin holds that geniuses are
    produced by the environment in which they live.
  • 2. Parents should not worry too much about
    whether to take their kids to a ball game or to a
    museum as kids themselves can decide, says the
    president of SRCD.

96
Reading comprehension (2)
  • 3. The result of which gene determines a
    persons intelligence has been confirmed.
  • So far, its been believed that environmental
    influence is less important than genetic makeup.
  • Dr. Polmins discovery of the first gene which
    plays a part in determining intelligence has
    solved the IQ mystery.

97
Reading comprehension (3)
6. A computer-controlled brain-scanning device
contributes to Bentows understanding of why the
society has fewer mathematically talented
girls. 7. According to Bentow, the left side of
the brain is most involved in language while the
right side is the strongest at thinking about the
location of objects. 8. The text comes to a
conclusion that outstanding mental abilities are
largely the result of genetics.
98
Reference to Comprehension Questions
1. F 2. T 3. F
4. F 5. F 6. T 7. T
8. F
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