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Simplifying Rational Expressions

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12-3 Simplifying Rational Expressions Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Holt Algebra 1 For two fractions with the same numerator, the value of the fraction with ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Simplifying Rational Expressions


1
12-3
Simplifying Rational Expressions
Warm Up
Lesson Presentation
Lesson Quiz
Holt Algebra 1
2
  • Warm Up
  • Simplify each expression.
  • 1. 2.
  • Factor each expression.
  • 3. x2 5x 6 4. 4x2 64
  • (x 2)(x 3)
  • 5. 2x2 3x 1 6. 9x2 60x 100
  • (2x 1)(x 1)

4(x 4)(x 4)
(3x 10)2
3
Objectives
Simplify rational expressions. Identify excluded
values of rational expressions.
4
Vocabulary
rational expression
5
A rational expression is an algebraic expression
whose numerator and denominator are polynomials.
The value of the polynomial expression in the
denominator cannot be zero since division by zero
is undefined. This means that rational
expressions may have excluded values.
6
Example 1A Identifying Excluded Values
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
g 4 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
g 4
Solve for g by subtracting 4 from each side.
The excluded value is 4.
7
Example 1B Identifying Excluded Values
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
x2 15x 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
Factor.
x(x 15) 0
x 0 or x 15 0
Use the Zero Product Property.
x 15
Solve for x.
The excluded values are 0 and 15.
8
Example 1C Identifying Excluded Values
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
y2 5y 4 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
(y 4)(y 1) 0
Factor
y 4 0 or y 1 0
Use the Zero Product Property.
y 4 or y 1
Solve each equation for y.
The excluded values are 4 and 1.
9
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10
Check It Out! Example 1a
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
t 5 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
t 5
Solve for t by subtracting 5 from each side.
The excluded value is 5.
11
Check It Out! Example 1b
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
b2 5b 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
Factor.
b(b 5) 0
b 0 or b 5 0
Use the Zero Product Property.
b 5
Solve for b.
The excluded values are 0 and 5.
12
Check It Out! Example 1c
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
k2 7k 12 0
Set the denominator equal to 0.
(k 4)(k 3) 0
Factor
k 4 0 or k 3 0
Use the Zero Product Property.
k 4 or k 3
Solve each equation for k.
The excluded values are 4 and 3.
13
A rational expression is in its simplest form
when the numerator and denominator have no common
factors except 1. Remember that to simplify
fractions you can divide out common factors that
appear in both the numerator and the denominator.
You can do the same to simplify rational
expressions.
14
Example 2A Simplifying Rational Expressions
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
Factor 14.
Divide out common factors. Note that if r 0,
the expression is undefined.
Simplify. The excluded value is 0.
15
Example 2B Simplifying Rational Expressions
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
Factor 6n² 3n.
16
Example 2C Simplifying Rational Expressions
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
There are no common factors. Add 2 to both sides.
3p 2 0
3p 2
17
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18
Check It Out! Example 2a
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
Factor 15.
Divide out common factors. Note that if m 0,
the expression is undefined.
Simplify. The excluded value is 0.
19
Check It Out! Example 2b
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
Factor the numerator.
Divide out common factors. Note that the
expression is not undefined.
Simplify. There is no excluded value.
20
Check It Out! Example 2c
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Identify any excluded values.
The numerator and denominator have no common
factors. The excluded value is 2.
21
From now on in this chapter, you may assume that
the values of the variables that make the
denominator equal to 0 are excluded values. You
do not need to include excluded values in your
answers unless they are asked for.
22
Example 3 Simplifying Rational Expressions with
Trinomials
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
A.
B.
Factor the numerator and the denominator when
possible.
Divide out common factors.
Simplify.
23
Check It Out! Example 3
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
a.
b.
Factor the numerator and the denominator when
possible.
Divide out common factors.
Simplify.
24
Recall from Chapter 8 that opposite binomials can
help you factor polynomials. Recognizing opposite
binomials can also help you simplify rational
expressions.
25
Example 4 Simplifying Rational Expressions Using
Opposite Binomials
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
A.
B.
Factor.
Identify opposite binomials.
Rewrite one opposite binomial.
26
Example 4 Continued
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Divide out common factors.
Simplify.
27
Check It Out! Example 4
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
a.
b.
Factor.
Identify opposite binomials.
Rewrite one opposite binomial.
28
Check It Out! Example 4 Continued
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
Divide out common factors.
Simplify.
29
Check It Out! Example 4 Continued
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
c.
Factor.
Divide out common factors.
30
Example 5 Application
A theater at an amusement park is shaped like a
sphere. The sphere is held up with support rods.
and S 4?r2.)
Write the ratio of volume to surface area.
Divide out common factors.
31
Example 5 Continued
Use the Property of Exponents.
Multiply by the reciprocal of 4.
Divide out common factors.
Simplify.
32
Example 5 Continued
b. Use this ratio to find the ratio of the
theaters volume to its surface area when the
radius is 45 feet.
Write the ratio of volume to surface area.
Substitute 45 for r.
33
Check It Out! Example 5
Which barrel cactus has less of a chance to
survive in the desert, one with a radius of 6
inches or one with a radius of 3 inches? Explain.
The barrel cactus with a radius of 3 inches has
less of a chance to survive. Its
surface-area-to-volume ratio is greater than for
a cactus with a radius of 6 inches.
34
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35
Lesson Quiz Part I
Find any excluded values of each rational
expression.
0, 2
2.
1.
0
Simplify each rational expression, if possible.
3.
4.
5.
36
Lesson Quiz Part II
6. Calvino is building a rectangular tree house.
The length is 10 feet longer than the width. His
friend Fabio is also building a tree house, but
his is square. The sides of Fabios tree house
are equal to the width of Calvinos tree house.
a. What is the ratio of the area of Calvinos
tree house to the area of Fabios tree house?
b. Use this ratio to find the ratio of the areas
if the width of Calvinos tree house is 14 feet.
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