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Motivation and Emotion

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Title: Motivation and Emotion


1
Chapter 11
  • Motivation and Emotion

2
1. What are motives and motivation?
  • Motives are reasons or purposes for behavior.
  • Motivation includes influences that guide the
    starting, directing, and persistence of behavior
    as well as its intensity.

3
2A. How are intervening variables helpful in
explaining behavior?
  • an intervening variable  cannot be observed
    directly.
  • it helps to account for relationship between
    stimuli (signals, objects, and events, people).
    and responses.
  • IV's are used to explain why the same stimuli may
    result in different responses at different times.

4
2B. How are intervening variables helpful in
explaining behavior?
  • Motivation is an example of an intervening
    variable and helps explain why behavior changes
    over time.
  • For example, why unhealthy lifestyles don't
    change until a crisis develops

5
3A. What are 4 sources of motivation?
  • (a)biological - need for food, water, air, sex,
    oxygen, temperature control and regulation. 
  • (b) emotional - panic, anger, joy, love, and
    other emotions.

6
3B. What are 4 sources of motivation?
  • (c) cognitive - behavior influenced by what we
    think is possible and how we expect others to
    respond.
  • (d) social - effects of other people and cultural
    factors

7
4A. What are 4 theories to explain motivation?
  • (a) instinct - automatic, involuntary reflex
    behavior.
  • Released by certain stimuli.
  • Includes fixed action patterns.

8
  • (b) drive reduction - based on the idea of
    homeostasis or maintaining a balance and
    equilibrium of body systems.
  • Imbalance results in need or biological
    requirement for well-being.
  • Need results in drive or state of arousal 
    prompting action to meet the need or reduce the
    drive.
  • Primary drives are usually biologically-based.
  • Secondary drives are usually learned.

9
4B. What are 4 theories to explain motivation?
  • (c) arousal - general level of activation in body
    systems such as  heart, other muscles, and brain
    is increased
  • by biological drives such as hunger or thirst,
  • loud or bright stimuli,
  • surprising events
  • or stimulant drugs.
  • People are motivated by optimal arousal (increase
    if too low and decrease if too high).

10
  • (d) incentive - emphasizes external sources of
    motivation such as gaining positive outcomes and
    avoiding negative ones controlled  by external
    sources.

11
5. What is the difference between intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation?
  • Intrinsic motivation - desire to work hard and do
    well for internal satisfaction.
  • Working for satisfaction of the process itself. 

12
  • Extrinsic motivation  - desire to receive
    external rewards such as money or grades
  • and avoid negative  outcomes such as punishment.

13
6. What is need for achievement?
  • Specific motive to master tasks and do them well.
  • Mastery seems to result in intense satisfaction.

14
7A. What evidence is there for individual
differences in achievement motivation?
  • People with high need for achievement establish
    challenging, difficult and realistic  goals.
  • They pursue success and willing to take risks to
    succeed.
  • They are satisfied is they succeed and are not
    bothered by failure.
  • They emphasize performance and level of ability.
  • They desire feedback and often prefer to struggle
    rather than ask for help.

15
7B. What evidence is there for individual
differences in achievement motivation?
  • People with low need for achievement prefer
    success.
  • They experience relief at not failing rather than
    joy in achieving.
  • They do not seek or desire feedback
  • They respond to failure by quitting.

16
8A. How does achievement motivation develop?
  • Learned in early childhood, usually from parents.
  • Parenting strategies can result in high
    achievement if parents
  • (a) encourage children to attempt difficult and
    reachable goals,
  • (b) offer praise for success,
  • (c) encourage finding ways to succeed
  • (d) prompt children to go on to the next
    challenge.

17
8B. How does achievement motivation develop?
  • Cultural influences written material (print and
    electronic media) events and themes in stories
  • Heroes and heroines may work hard and overcome
    obstacles rather than loaf or try to win the
    lottery.
  • Influences after childhood -  effects of
    developing fantasies  about success in college
  • Imagine difficult and achievable goals effects
    of encouraging a long-term perspective.

18
9A. How do males and females differ in
achievement motivation?
  • Women who have high achievement motivation act in
    more varied ways  than do men who have high
    achievement motivation.
  • Some women dont establish challenging goals and
    give up when they experience failure.
  • Gender differences appear at an early age.

19
  • Explanation associated with how boys and girls
    think of themselves.
  • Girls are more likely than boys to attribute
    failure to lack of ability.

20
9B. How do males and females differ in
achievement motivation?
  • Gender differences seem to be influenced by how
    adults respond to the child's failure or success.
  • Suggestion to think failure is due to lack of
    effort or some situational factor, results in
    developing challenging goals and will persist
    more often when experiencing failure.

21
  • Gender role stereotypes are maintained by the
    prevailing culture.
  • For example, high-achieving women may be
    portrayed as unfeminine and threatening.

22
10A. How are jobs and motivation related?
  • Employers may be more interested in whether
    employees are motivated to do well on the job
    than in employees general level of achievement
    motivation.
  • Managers often structure jobs in a way to show
    how they think employees are motivated.
  • Managers who believe employees are lazy and
    untrustworthy may design jobs to be very
    structured and heavily supervised.
  • Poor motivation among workers often results from
    little or no control over the work environment.

23
10B. How are jobs and motivation related?
  • High motivation with more satisfaction and higher
    productivity tend to result if managers
  • (a) encourage workers to participate in decision
    making,
  • (b) give employees problems to solve without
    solving them for the employees,
  • (c) teach workers more than one skill,

24
Higher motivation and productivity if
  • (d) give individual responsibility,
  • (e) give public recognition, not just money as
    rewards,
  • (f) allow workers to set and achieve clear goals.

25
10C. How are jobs and motivation related?
  • Three characteristics of effective worker goals
  • (a) specific and concrete
  • (b) personally meaningful
  • (c) management supports goal setting, rewards
    goal achievement, and gives encouragement after
    failure.

26
11A. How does Maslow's motivational hierarchy
explain which motives guide a person's behavior?
  • Proposed 5 basic classes of need or motives
    arranged in a hierarchy. 
  • (a)biological - food, water, air, activity, and
    sleep
  • (b)safety - security and being safe and cared
    for
  • (c) belongingness and love - being part of a
    social group and giving and receiving affection

27
Maslows motivation hierarchy
  • (d) esteem - being respected as a useful and
    honorable person
  • (e) self-actualization - developing your personal
    potential and being the "best that you can be"
    In general, more basic needs are satisfied first.

28
11B. How does Maslow's motivational hierarchy
explain which motives guide a person's behavior?
  • Theory may be too simplistic.
  • For example, some people will starve themselves
    in order to achieve a higher level goal.

29
12A. How are motivational conflicts associated
with stress?
  • In general, conflict among motives  can be source
    of distress and discomfort.
  • Four types of conflict
  • (a) approach-approach - choosing between two
    desirable goals
  • (b) approach-avoidance when one activity has
    both positive and negative features

30
Motivational conflict
  • (c) avoidance-avoidance - choosing between two 
    undesirable events or outcomes
  • (d)multiple approach-avoidance - when you are
    faced with 2 or more alternatives or outcomes,
    each of which having both pleasant and unpleasant
    characteristics.
  • Last type is most difficult to resolve because of
    attributes of each options are difficult to
    compare.

31
12B. How are motivational conflicts associated
with stress?
  • Conflict is often associated with anxiety and
    other strong emotional states.
  • Emotions can be very motivating.
  • We often act in ways to gain happiness and
    pleasure as well as to avoid anxiety, anger, or
    sadness.

32
13A. What are aspects of defining and describing
emotion?
  • A) experiences rather than overt behaviors or
    specific thoughts
  • result is often mixed and contradictory
    difficult to assign labels.
  • B)have value or valence in the sense of positive
    or negative experience
  • can change motivation.
  • C) passions not actions
  • happen to a person or take them by surprise
  • not something you decide to experience.

33
13B. What are aspects of defining and describing
emotion?
  • D) influenced by interpretation emotions develop
    as a part of a situation
  • triggered by thinking self and experienced as
    happening to the self
  • E) accompanied by physical or bodily response
  • partly reflex and partly learned
  • internal or visceral responses are reflexive

34
  • F) vary in intensity
  • from quiet to furious
  • from mild to strong
  • importance shown in people who show low emotional
    intensity and who dont get upset or experience
    much emotional pleasure.

35
14A. What are aspects of how emotion is related
to the autonomic nervous system?
  • autonomic nervous system is part of the
    peripheral nervous system carries information
    between the brain and organs and muscles, with
    the exception of the striated muscles
  • modulates changes in ongoing activities of
    organs, both exciting and relaxing
  • coordinates organ functioning to meet needs of
    whole organism and prepares the body to respond

36
14B. What are aspects of how emotion is related
to the autonomic nervous system?
  • two divisions of the ANS are the sympathetic and
    parasympathetic
  • sympathetic prepares vigorous activity and
    produces increased heart rate and blood pressure,
    rapid or irregular breathing, dilated pupils,
    perspiration, dry mouth, increased blood sugar,
    goose bumps, trembling

37
  • parasympathetic system influences protection,
    nourishment, and growth
  • increases digestive activity and movement in the
    intestinal tract.
  • contributes to relaxation and growth

38
15A. What are aspects of how lie detectors or
polygraph machines detect lying?
  • polygraph consists of instruments that record 
    several types of physiological activity
  • to detect lying, record physiological activity
    controlled by the sympathetic nervous system,
    including heart rate, respiration, and skin
    resistance
  • based on idea that emotional responses accompany
    lying, such as feeling guilty and fearing
    exposure

39
15B. What are aspects of how lie detectors or
polygraph machines detect lying?
  • ask relevant and control questions
  • expect stronger emotional response  to relevant
    questions
  • no evidence that polygraph responses predict
    behavior
  • accurate, reliable results are hard to get.

40
16A. How does the James-Lange theory explain
emotion?
  • Based on idea we feel emotions because of
    specific physiological responses.
  • For example, we feel afraid because we run.
  • Sequence of events perception of stimulus
    affects cerebral cortex, reflex response in
    muscle, skin, viscera/smooth muscles, conscious
    experience of emotion.

41
16B. How does the James-Lange theory explain
emotion?
  • Belief that reflexive physical response precedes
    emotional experience.
  • Conscious experience comes later.
  • May be one reason why we have difficulty knowing
    true feelings.
  • We may interpret feelings from physical responses

42
17A. How does the Cannon-Bard theory explain
emotion?
  • Experience of emotion originates in brain/CNS.
  • Subconscious experience in the brain results in
    simultaneous stimulation of ANS and the cerebral
    (conscious) cortex.
  • Interpretation of emotion results from signals
    from inside the brain.

43
17B. How does the Cannon-Bard theory explain
emotion?
  • Evidence for C-B theory emotion occurs by
    activating specific parts of the CNS
  • different parts of the CNS may be activated for
    different emotions (pain and pleasure centers)
    and different aspects of total emotional
    experience.

44
18A. How does the Schachter-Singer theory explain
emotion?
  • Related to idea of how interpretation affects
    emotional experience.
  • Reflects a combination of James-Lange and
    Cannon-Bard.
  • Agrees with J-L that emotional experience results
    from perceiving physiological response feedback.
  • Agrees with C-B that physiological response alone
    is not different enough to reflect subtle
    emotional experience.

45
18B. How does the Schachter-Singer theory explain
emotion?
  • Proposes that emotions result from both
    physiological response feedback and cognitive
    appraisal.
  • Cognitive interpretation has two influences
  • (a) perception of stimulus and
  • (b) identification of ANS response.

46
19A. What is transfer of excitation?
  • Physiological  arousal can be attributed to
    emotion and can intensify  emotional experience
    regardless of arousal source.
  • Transferred excitation when arousal from
    experience carries over to another independent or
    unrelated situation. 
  • Based on idea that we remain aroused longer than
    we think (increased blood pressure and
    respiration at subconscious level).
  • Transfer occurs when overt arousal symptoms have
    subsided and sympathetic nervous system is still
    active.

47
19B. What is transfer of excitation?
  • Example if activated by exercise and feel calm,
    is easy to attribute arousal to emotion such as
    attraction.
  • Transfer especially likely when excitement from a
    non-emotional source is similar to arousal
    associated with a particular emotion.
  • Arousal from one emotion then intensifies the
    second emotion.
  • For example, arousal from fear or anger can
    enhance sexual feelings.

48
20A. What conclusions can be made concerning the
relationship between emotion and autonomic
nervous system responses?
  • Both physical or ANS response and cognitive
    interpretation of responses influence emotional
    experience.
  • There seems to be direct experience of emotion in
    the CNS, aside from ANS arousal.
  • Emotion is likely in both heart (ANS) and head
    (cerebral cortex or CNS).

49
20B. What conclusions can be made concerning the
relationship between emotion and autonomic
nervous system responses?
  • No resolution of which emotional component, if
    either is primary or more important.

50
21A. What are aspects of how we communicate
emotion?
  • Innate expression of emotion refers to idea that
    how we express emotion is influenced by heredity.
  • Darwin believed facial expressions to be
    universal and biologically determined.
  • Two types of evidence support Darwins ideas
  • (a) from infants who show unlearned facial
    expression of emotion, including blind babies and
    those with normal vision.
  • (b) for basic emotions, people of all cultures
    show similar facial responses to similar
    emotional stimuli.

51
21B. What are aspects of how we communicate
emotion?
  • Communicative value of emotional expressions
    depends on context
  • Social referencing refers to uncertain situations
    in which other individuals provide a reference or
    guide that decreases uncertainty as how to
    respond.
  • Infants depend on adults  emotional expressions,
    such as in the visual cliff.

52
21C. What are aspects of how we communicate
emotion?
  • Communication through emotional facial expression
    may explain why some behaviors are considered
    biologically "wired-in"  such as in babies' fear
    of strangers.
  • Emotional culture includes rules governing which
    emotional are acceptable in which situations and
    which emotions  expressions are not acceptable.

53
  • These classifications vary from culture to
    culture, across time in a single culture, and
    within an individuals lifetime.

54
22A. What are explanations of how we express
emotion?
  • Relationship between the brain hemispheres may be
    important in suppressing emotion.
  • Communication between brain hemispheres may
    influence this ability.
  • Evidence from infants infants do not inhibit
    emotional expression and also have less
    well-developed functional connections between the
    hemispheres.

55
  • Until age 19 or 20, corpus callosum is not fully
    myelinated or covered with fatty sheath that
    speeds neural activity.
  • Differences in hemispheric communication may be
    partly responsible for differences in ability to
    suppress emotional expression.

56
22B. What are explanations of how we express
emotion?
  • Possibly suppression of negative emotion related
    to stopping communication between right
    hemisphere where negative emotions are generated
    and verbal areas in left hemisphere.
  • People who suppress emotion ANS response may
    experience disconnection from ability to report
    emotions.
  • The ANS activity increases but the person reports
    little or no emotion.

57
23A. How are psychological disorders related to
the emotion of fear?
  • Panic Disorder experience of intense fear in
    situation where there is nothing to be afraid of.
  • 3 components
  • (a) panic attack - physical symptoms, including
    heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, body
    temperature.
  • (b) chronic anxiety about whether an attack will
    occur involves emotions and thoughts.
  • (c) avoidance behaviors aimed at preventing
    future attacks.

58
23B. How are psychological disorders related to
the emotion of fear?
  • Proposal panic disorder patients have
    hyper-sensitive brainstem mechanisms regulating
    ANS response contributing to fear
  • other information from PETT scans before panic
    attacks, increased abnormal symmetry of blood
    flow (more to right hemisphere)
  • during panic attack, brain activity similar to
    that of people with anxiety anticipating painful
    experience.
  • Appearance of unexplained physiological arousal
    may set the stage for panic.

59
23C. How are psychological disorders related to
the emotion of fear?
  • Cognitive interpretation of symptoms can
    determine whether an attack develops.
  • Research shows that people who experience the
    illusion of control are less likely to experience
    full panic attack.
  • Conclusion process of interpreting and coping
    with symptoms gives cognitive aspects  important
    role in controlling panic disorders.

60
Chapter 13
  • Health, Stress and Coping

61
1A. What is stress?
  • Definition - process of adjusting to or dealing
    with situations that disrupt or threaten your
    physical or psychological well-being and
    functioning.
  • In general, involves relationships between people
    and the environment.

62
  • Specifically involves relationship between
    stressors, stress responses, and mediating
    factors.

63
Stress components
  • Stressors events or situations that we respond 
    or react to.
  • Stress responses physical, psychological, and
    behavioral responses to stressors.
  • Mediating factors  circumstances and personal
    characteristics
  • specifically, predictability, control, social
    support, and coping strategies.

64
2A. What are 6 major psychosocial stressors and
examples of each?
  • (a)frustration - obstacle standing between you
    and your goals
  • being unable to earn a decent living, failing to
    establish a close and loving relationship.

65
  • (b)pressure - require you to do too much in too
    little time
  • preparing a dinner for 20 on one day's notice
  • writing 2 complete essay question responses in 10
    minutes.

66
  • (c)boredom or under-stimulation - opposite of
    pressure
  • lecture or activity not interesting to you
  • solitary confinement
  • guard duty in a remote location
  • lack of interest in what is going on around you.

67
2B. What are 6 major psychosocial stressors and
examples of each?
  • (d) trauma - shocking physical or psychological
    or emotional experience examples - rape,
    military combat, severe storm, fire, torture.

68
  • (e) conflict - having to make a choice between
  • two attractive options,
  • two unattractive options,
  • one attractive and one unattractive option
  • several options each with both attractive and
    unattractive characteristics,

69
  • (f)change
  • examples divorce, unemployment, and illness.

70
3. How is stress commonly measured?
  • Related to number of life changes we have
    experienced.
  • Based on assumption that any and all change 
    (both positive and negative) can be stressful and
    distressing.
  • People are asked to rate a list of change-related
    stressors in terms of life-change units (amount
    of change and demand for adjustment a stressor
    introduces).

71
4. What is the general adaptation syndrome?
  • G.A.S. a sequence of physical responses
    triggered in response to any stressor.
  • Has three stages
  • --?(a)alarm reaction - some version of the flight
    or fight syndrome.
  • Example - may be change in heart rate, blood
    pressure, respiration, or body temperature.

72
  • --?(b)resistance - body settles in to resist the
    stressor on a long-term basis.
  • Slower drain on body resources than alarm
    reaction.
  • Body still working very hard to produce emergency
    energy.
  • Uses up body's reserves of adaptive energy.

73
  • --?(c) Exhaustion - body no longer able to resist
    the stressor(s).
  • Associated with signs of physical wear and tear.
  • Can result in illness such as heart disease, high
    blood pressure, arthritis, colds, flu.
  • May end in death.

74
5A. What are 2 psychological stress responses?
  • (a) emotional - may be anxiety, anger,
    aggression
  • --?usually occurs in response to identifiable
    situations
  • --?usually subsides when stressors removed
  • --?may be associated with generalized anxiety if
    constant emotional arousal becomes routine.

75
  • (b) cognitive - decreased ability to concentrate,
    think clearly, remember accurately
  • --?For example, catastrophizing or dwelling on
    and overemphasizing the potential negative
    consequences of unpleasant events
  • --?interfering with thinking and may intensify
    emotional  and physical responses.

76
5B. What are 2 psychological stress responses?
  • Defense mechanisms
  • --?denial or saying to yourself that it's not
    happening
  • --?repression/forgetting
  • --?rationalization or finding a reason

77
Defense mechanisms
  • --?intellectualization or emotional detachment
  • --?displacement or finding a safe target to
    express emotion
  • --?projection or attributing one's own
    undesirable  qualities to another person.

78
6. What are behavioral stress responses?
  • changes in how people look, act, or talk in
    response to stressors
  • examples facial expressions, voice tone,
    trembling, jumpiness, posture
  • observable responses that allow us to express and
    communicate how we are feeling and thinking.

79
7. How do predictability and control influence
the experience of stress?
  • predictable stressors have lower impact,
    especially if they dont last very long.
  • Controlled stressors have lower impact than
    uncontrolled stressors
  • Believing you have little or no control may
    increase the unpleasant impact of stressors.

80
8A. How do social support and coping skills
influence the experience of stress?
  • (a)social support - resources provided by other
    people, friends, and social contacts
  • --?can take different forms, including giving
    assistance and buffering impact
  • --?helps us to feel less anxious and more in
    control
  • --?ability to cope sometimes influences quality
    of social support received too much support can
    be as bad as too little

81
8B. How do social support and coping skills
influence the experience of stress?
  • (b) coping skills represent ability to solve
    problems and deal with stressors
  • 3 categories 
  • --?(1)appraisal-focused in which we think about
    stressors as challenges rather than threats
  • ----?planning what to do

82
  • --?(2) problem-focused in which we change or
    eliminate the stressor by seeking help or using
    planning strategies
  • ----?use in situations you can change or have an
    effect

83
  • --?(3) emotion-focused in which we control
    negative emotions by using calm thoughts or
    emotional detachment
  • ----?does nothing to solve the problem(s) use in
    situations you can't change immediately.

84
9A. How is stress related to physical illness?
  • Early research has identified various diseases
    associated with excessive arousal of the
    sympathetic nervous system.
  • Examples include asthma, high blood pressure,
    ulcers, migraine headaches.

85
  • Recent research has established a connection
    between stress and any physical illness.
  • --?Example is Alzheimer's Disease, associated
    with severe memory loss
  • --?too much stress may result in premature death
    of brain cells in areas of brain responsible for
    memory.

86
9B. How is stress related to physical illness?
  • Stress also associated with coronary heart
    disease.
  • Type A behavior (intensely competitive,
    aggressive, impatient, hostile, nonstop worker
  • need to control events and the environment.)
  • Stress also associated with cancer risk.

87
10A. What are steps in developing a plan to cope
with stress?
  • (a)systematic assessment of the problem
  • --? identify the source of the stress
  • --?list events and situations containing conflict
    and change.
  • --?note physical and psychological effects of
    stress, including headache, lack of
    concentration, excessive substance use.

88
  • (b) select appropriate goals
  • --?decide whether to eliminate stressors or
    change your response to them

89
  • (c)planning
  • --?list specific steps of actions to take.

90
10B. What are steps in developing a plan to cope
with stress?
  • (d) action
  • --?put plans into action, using stress coping
    strategies.

91
  • (e) evaluation
  • --?determine changes resulting from stress-coping
    methods and decide what worked and what didn't-t.

92
  • (f) adjustment
  • --?change coping methods and strategies to
    improve results if necessary.

93
11A. What are 3 type of stress coping strategies
and examples of each type?
  • (a) cognitive strategies
  • --?changing how you interpret stressors
  • --?help people think more calmly, rationally and
    constructively under stress
  • --?cognitive restructuring or substituting more
    effective thought patterns for catastrophic
    thinking
  • --?results in lower threat and disruption
    potential of stressors.

94
11B. What are 3 type of stress coping strategies
and examples of each type?
  • (b) behavioral
  • --?rearranging the environment to minimize impact
    of stressors
  • --?one example is more effective time management
  • --?keep track of how you use your time for a
    week.
  • --?start a time management plan

95
  • --?shows you relative amounts of free time and
    planned time
  • --?can help control catastrophic thinking
  • --?gives visual reassurance
  • --?another example is paying attention to total
    stressor load and acting to restrict it by using
    a rational coping plan rather than impulsive
    decision making.

96
11C. What are 3 type of stress coping strategies
and examples of each type?
  • (c) physical strategies
  • --?directly change physiological responses
    before, during, or after encountering
    stressor(s)
  • --?Can be chemical or nonchemical.
  • ----?Chemical strategies may involve prescribed
    or nonprescribed substances
  • ----

97
  • ?appropriate in some cases
  • ----?may provide temporary relief
  • ----?long-term use can lead to other problems
    such as addiction, family or marital
    difficulties
  • ----?can result in attributing coping ability to
    the drug or substance and not your own skills and
    abilities.

98
D11. What are 3 type of stress coping strategies
and examples of each type?
  • Non-chemical coping includes
  • progressive muscles relaxation,
  • physical exercise,
  • and biofeedback.

99
CHAPTER 14
  • PERSONALITY

100
1A. WHAT IS PERSONALITY AND HOW CAN WE STUDY IT?
  • lasting pattern of psychological and behavioral
    characteristics used to compare and contrast one
    person with another.

101
  • three methods to study personality
  • --?a. observation - watching the behavior of
    individuals  

102
  • --? b. interview - series of questions about how
    you think, feel, and act
  • ----?may refer to past, present, or future can
    be changed to fit special needs of individuals.
  • ----?may use open-ended or closed-ended questions

103
1B. WHAT IS PERSONALITY AND HOW CAN WE STUDY IT?
  • --?c. tests - standardized and economical
  • ----?should meet standards of reliability and
    validity

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  • ----?objective/written and contains specific
    questions with predetermined response choices
  • examples MBTI, 16PF, MMPI

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  • ----?projective/more unstructured
  • ----?wide range of interpretations and responses
  • scoring may be more unreliable than for objective
    tests.
  • examples Rorschach, TAT

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2A. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • psychic determinism - personality depends more on
    emotional and cognitive factors than biological
    factors or external events
  • people usually aren't aware of why they think,
    act, or feel in certain ways
  • personality is mostly unconsciously controlled.

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2B. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • methods
  • free associationsaying whatever comes to your
    mind reveals unconscious material.
  • psychoanalysisgeneral name for Freud's theory
    of personality, research methods and therapy
    techniques.

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2C. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • structure of personality
  • 3 major components
  • IDall basic drives, needs, impulses, motives
    seeks
  • immediate satisfaction of needs and wants
  • operates on the pleasure principle

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  • EGOdevelops from id
  • as we learn to cope with reality
  • responsible for organizing strategies to get
    what we want
  • operates according to the reality principle
    (compromises between demands of id and
    restrictions of the outside world

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  • SUPEREGOdevelops as we learn and adopt rules  of
    the external world
  • ego ideal pressure to conform to standards of
    ideal behavior
  • includes conscience (shoulds and should nots
  • operates according to the morality principle
    (knowing the difference between right and
    wrong).

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2D. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • conflicts and defenses - conflict results from
    interaction among id, ego, and superego
  • most of what is unconscious is frightening or
    socially unacceptable so we try to avoid
    awareness of it
  • we experience anxiety or fear when unconscious
    material threatens to become conscious

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2E. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • anxiety may be unhealthy
  • feeling afraid when there is actually nothing to
    fear or
  • Anxiety may be moral
  • experienced when feel guilty about behavior
    forbidden by the superego

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2E. WHAT IS THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • ego resolves conflicts in several ways
  • including realistic actions
  • or defense mechanisms

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3. HOW DOES THE INTERPERSONAL CIRCLE RELATE TO
STUDYING AND DESCRIBING PERSONALITY?
  • consists of 2 main dimensions concerning how we
    act with other people
  • power dominance vs. submission
  • affiliation love vs. hate

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  • all behavior is a result of some combination of
    high or low power and high or low affiliation
  • predicts mild and extreme versions of different
    types of behavior

116
3B. HOW DOES THE INTERPERSONAL CIRCLE RELATE TO
STUDYING AND DESCRIBING PERSONALITY?
  • results in 8 styles of behavior
  • managerial/autocratic vs self-effacing/masochistic
    ,
  • responsible/hypernomal vs rebellious/distrustful,

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  • cooperative/overconventional vs
    aggressive/sadistic,
  • docile/dependent vs competitive/narcissistic

118
  • operates according to the rule of
    COMPLEMENTARITY people encourage behavior in
    others, compatible to the behavior offered
  • dominant behavior encourages submissive behavior
  • hate encourages hate, while love encourages love.

119
4. WHAT IS THE DISPOSITIONAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • based on descriptive categories or labels for
    personality
  • may refer to types, traits, factors or needs

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  • 3 assumptions
  • 1)everyone has stable disposition/tendency to
    think, act, feel in certain ways
  • 2) dispositions appear in different situations
    and explain why people act predictably in certain
    situations
  • 3) each person has a different set of
    dispositions of varying strengths.

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4. WHAT IS THE DISPOSITIONAL APPROACH TO STUDYING
PERSONALITY?
  • types - category or group
  • applies in all situations
  • for example shy vs outgoing, feeling vs thinking
  • traits - characteristics you possess in certain
    amounts or strengths

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4A. WHAT IS THE DISPOSITIONAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • factors - collections/groups of traits
  • psychoticism cruelty, coldness, hostility,
    oddness, rejects social customs
  • extraversion social, outgoing, likes parties,
    takes risks, likes excitement

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  • introversion quiet, thoughtful, reserved,
    prefers to be alone, avoids excitement
  • emotional stability calm, even-tempered,
    relaxed emotional instability moody, restless,
    easily worried or anxious

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4A. WHAT IS THE DISPOSITIONAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • openness
  • active imagination,
  • sensitive to sights and sounds,
  • intellectually curious,
  • receptive to different experiences

125
  • openness
  • contrasts with being conventional,
  • down to earth,
  • narrow interests,
  • non-artistic,
  • uncreative

126
  • conscientiousness
  • persistent in accomplishing valued tasks,
  • reliable,
  • dependable vs lax,
  • aimless,
  • unreliable.

127
5A. WHAT IS THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO STUDYING
PERSONALITY?
  • personality is made up of behavior patterns
  • specific behavior is a sample
  • personality is determined by learning
    experiences, especially in interpersonal
    interactions

128
  • consistent history results in stable behavior
    patterns
  • inconsistent behaviors explained by specific
    situational experiences

129
5B. WHAT IS THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO STUDYING
PERSONALITY?
  • 2 main versions of behavioral approach
  • operant emphasizes influences of reward and
    punishment from external environment

130
  • cognitive involves social learning
  • includes learned thoughts, emotions, and
    behaviors
  • related to self-efficacy
  • learned expectations of success (belief that
    person can perform behavior regardless of past
    failures and current obstacles.

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6A. WHAT IS THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • belief that the specific way each individual
    perceives and interprets the world influences
    personality and guides behavior 
  • focuses on mental qualities of humans
    (consciousness, creativity, self-awareness,
    planning, decision-making, responsibility)

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  • also called humanistic view
  • emphasizes how the individual actively constructs
    his own world rather than being a passive carrier
    of traits
  • main human motivation is toward
    self-actualization and personal growth

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6B. WHAT IS THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • also called humanistic view
  • emphasizes how the individual actively constructs
    his own world rather than being a passive carrier
    of traits
  • main human motivation is toward
    self-actualization and personal growth

134
6C. WHAT IS THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • CARL ROGERS - developed idea of self-concept
    (part of individual's experience identified as
    "i" or "me"
  • personality is expression of self-actualizing
    tendency
  • importance of unconditional positive regard for
    healthy development of personality.

135
6D. WHAT IS THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACH TO
STUDYING PERSONALITY?
  • ABRAHAM MASLOW
  • agreed with Carl Rogers about basic tendency 
    toward growth and self-actualization
  • believed self-actualization is a human need

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  • proposed a hierarchy of needs
  • highest need is self-actualization
  • lower needs (physiological survival, safety,
    love/belonging, recognition) distract us from
    self-actualization

137
7A. HOW ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING
STRESS-PRONE OR DISEASE-PRONE RELATED TO
PERSONALITY?
  • certain personality characteristics may protect a
    person from stress or illness

138
  • HARDY PERSONALITY
  • commitment strong involvement in personal values
    and goals
  • control belief in own ability to cope with
    problems
  • challenge perceive problems as opportunities
    rather than threats

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7B. HOW ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING
STRESS-PRONE OR DISEASE-PRONE RELATED TO
PERSONALITY?
  • related to self-efficacy (dispositional optimism
    and persistent long term belief that most events
    will turn out well
  • health and adjustment related to whether person
    is positive about self-efficacy
  • may experience better psychological and physical
    health if slightly exaggerate  personal power,
    blame outcomes on external events, and deny own
    faults

140
7C. HOW ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEING
STRESS-PRONE OR DISEASE-PRONE RELATED TO
PERSONALITY?
  • some characteristics seem related to being
    vulnerable to illness
  • negative feelings cynicism, perceived
    helplessness, frustration, lack of control
  • depression/anxiety/hostility related to asthma,
    headaches, arthritis, ulcers
  • toxic type-a behavior related to coronary heart
    disease, negative emotions, difficulty expressing
    negative feelings

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  • contrast with charismatic type-a
  • fast-moving,
  • involved with work,
  • internal locus of control,
  • emotionally expressive,
  • high-achieving outcomes,
  • focused and motivated for success.

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IN CONCLUSION
  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT ANYTHING WE HAVE
    DISCUSSED ?
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